Integrative Negotiation


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Siena Heights University graduate class on Negotiation as Process based on text (2011) from Lewicki, Saunders and Barry (McGraw-Hill).

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  • We Focus on commonalties over differencesWe choose needs and interests over positionsCommit to meeting the needs of all involved partiesExchange information and ideasInvent options for mutual gainUse objective criteria to set standards
  • Create a free flow of informationAttempt to understand the other negotiator’s real needs and objectivesEmphasize the commonalties between the parties and minimize the differencesSearch for solutions that meet the goals and objectives of both sides
  • Identify and define the problemUnderstand the problem fully: identify interests and needs on both sidesGenerate alternative solutionsEvaluate and select among alternatives
  • Define the problem in a way that is mutually acceptable to both sidesState the problem with an eye toward practicality and comprehensivenessState the problem as a goal and identify the obstacles in attaining this goalDepersonalize the problemSeparate the problem definition from the search for solutions
  • Interests: the underlying concerns, needs, desires, or fears that motivate a negotiator Substantive interests relate to key issues in the negotiationProcess interests are related to the way the dispute is settledRelationship interests indicate that one or both parties value their relationshipInterests in principle: doing what is fair, right, acceptable, ethical may be shared by the parties
  • There is almost always more than oneParties can have different interests at stakeOften stem from deeply rooted human needs or valuesCan changeNumerous ways to surface interestsSurfacing interests is not always easy or to one’s best advantage
  • Compromises (position accommodation) are not considered good integrative strategy except in entrenched circumstances.Successful logrolling (accommodation) requires the parties to find more than one issue in conflict and have different priorities for those issues which allow trade offs. Mostly done by trial and error.Modifying the Pie (position achievement) may not be possible depending on the resources available.Expanding the Pie (position achievement) by adding resources if possible.Find a Bridge Solution (interest achievement) is when we create new solutions.Cut Costs (interest achievement) allows one to achieve objectives while the other cuts costs.Nonspecific Compensation (interest substitution) provides incentives or resources to the accommodating side for the other to achieve their objectives.Superordination (interest substitution) occur when the differences in interest that cause conflict are superseded or replaced by other interests.In particular pay attention to Table 3.1 on page 77.
  • Narrow the range of solution optionsEvaluate solutions on: Quality Objective standardsAcceptabilityAgree to evaluation criteria in advance Be willing to justify personal preferencesBe alert to the influence of intangibles in selecting optionsUse subgroups to evaluate complex options
  • Take time to “cool off”Explore different ways to logrollExploit differences in expectations and risk/time preferencesKeep decisions tentative and conditional until a final proposal is completeMinimize formality, record keeping until final agreements are closed – don’t commit too early.
  • common objective or goalFaith in one’s own problem-solving abilityA belief in the validity of one’s own position and the other’s perspectiveThe motivation and commitment to work together
  • Integrative Negotiation

    1. 1. Integrative Negotiation Strategy and Tactics(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    2. 2. Integrative Difference? • Commonalties over differences • Needs & interests over positions • Commit to the needs of all involved parties • Exchange information & ideas • Invent options for mutual gain • Objective criteria sets standards(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    3. 3. Integrative Overview• Information free flow• Mutual understanding: needs/objectives• Commonalities & differences• Search for mutually satisfying solutions(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    4. 4. Integrative Key Steps • Problem definition • Understanding – on both sides • Generate alternative solutions • Evaluate and choose from created alternatives(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    5. 5. Claiming and Creating Value(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    6. 6. Identify and Define Problem • Mutually acceptable • Stated with comprehensive practicality • Stated as a goal with obstacle identification • Depersonalize • Separate the problem from exploring solutions(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    7. 7. Fully Understand: Interests & Needs • Concerns, needs, desires, or fears. – Substantive = key issues – Process = path to settlement – Relationship interests indicate values – Principles: Doing what is fair, right, acceptable, and ethical (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    8. 8. Interest Observations • Multiple, always • Diverse interests • Deeply held values • Change • Can be discovered • Difficult • Not necessarily to your best advantage to surface interests(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    9. 9. Generate Alternative Solutions • Create options by redefining the problem set: – Compromise – Logroll – Modify the pie – Expand the pie – Find a bridge solution – Cut the costs for compliance – Nonspecific compensation – Superordination(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    10. 10. Create Alternative Solutions • Option generation via: – Brainstorming – Surveys – Electronic brainstorming(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    11. 11. Evaluate and Select • Narrow the range • Evaluate by: – Quality – Objective standards – Acceptability • Advance criteria agreement • Justify personal preferences • Intangible awareness options • Complexity requires subgroup evaluation(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    12. 12. Evaluate and Select • Cool off • Logroll exploration, exploiting differences: – Risk – Expectation – Time • Tentative until final • Informal until final close(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    13. 13. Success Factors • Common objectives • Self-confidence (faith, not ego) • Position validity • Motivation and commitment to the outcome and collaboration over self interest(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    14. 14. Success Factors • Trust • Clear and accurate communication • Understanding the dynamics of integrative negotiation(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)