Trials for crimes; just compensation for private property taken for public use.
Speedy Trial, Double Jeopardy
Civil Rights – Civil Suits
Cruel and Unusual Punishment, Excessive Bail, Fines
THE U.S. CONSTITUTION And the Bill of Rights
Most Americans Are Clueless• How Much Do You Know?
The Original 13 Colonies Colony Year Founded By Royal Colony Virginia 1607 London Company 1624Massachusetts 1620 Puritans 1691New Hampshire 1623 John Wheelwright 1679 Maryland 1634 Lord Baltimore N/A Connecticut c. 1635 Thomas Hooker N/A Rhode Island 1636 Roger Williams N/A Delaware 1638 Peter Minuit & New Sweden Company N/ANorth Carolina 1653 Virginians 1729South Carolina 1663 Eight Nobles -Royal Charter from Charles II 1729 New Jersey 1664 Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret 1702 New York 1664 Duke of York 1685 Pennsylvania 1682 William Penn N/A Georgia 1732 James Edward Oglethorpe 1752 Virginia 1607 London Company 1624
The Articles of 1779-17811. Preamble – Union 8. Common War Costs2. States Rights 9. State Disputes,3. Common Defense Common Currency,4. Free Citizens Post Offices, Forbids5. Congressional Congressional Action Delegates (2-7) without majority6. Congress – War vote.7. States Appoint 10. Committees (11) Military Officers 12. $ & 13. Ratification
Weaknesses of the Articles?Could only request revenues from states; no power to raise funds for militiaAmendments required unanimous consent and ratification by all states.No judicial system
Why did They Need A Constitution?• After the Revolution
Constitutional Convention- 1877• Madison and Mason No Rhode Island 40 /55 Active Members Wealthy
Opposite Sides of the Fence– Nationalists • Strong central government– Democratic Nationalists supported strong central based on popular support.– Small sector of group wanted narrowly defined republican central government.– Small sector of group was concerned with claims western lands.
Two Plans - Virginia New Jersey Two Bodies (House & One State One Vote Senate) Lower body chosen Congress would by the people. regulate trade/taxes Upper congress Supreme Doctrine chosen by state legislatures Executives chosen by Legislature chooses Congress President Supreme Court Big Land States Favored chosen by Executives Judges Chosen by Favored Smaller Legislature States
Compromise The Connecticut PlanHouse – State Populations Slaves count as 3/5’s of a free citizen.Senate – Two Per StateSchool House Rock
Is it the Constitution of the People?– In 1913, Charles Beard sparked debate questioning if Americans supported the Constitution. Beard’s Thesis: the Constitution was written by wealthy property owners to ensure their self-interest. Based on the elite theory.• Overall, Americans (poor and rich) supported the need for a strong national government to protect public welfare.
Amendments 11-27 (1794- 1992) The longest was sent to the states in 1794 and ratified in 1992. Rick Perry’s Constitutional Amendments 1. End life time judicial appointments 2. Congress can over ride the Supreme Court (2/3) 3. No Federal Income Tax 4. Stop the people from voting for Senators 5. Balanced Budget Amendment 6. Marriage is one man/one woman only 7. Abortion illegal.