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SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC
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SKOS - 2007 Open Forum on Metadata Registries - NYC

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An brief introduction to SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization Systems) and its usage in the NSDL Metadata Registry, with some discussion of current challenges.

An brief introduction to SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization Systems) and its usage in the NSDL Metadata Registry, with some discussion of current challenges.

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  • 1. “ Integrating Standards in Practice” 10th Open Forum on Metadata Registries July 9-11, 2007 New York City, NY USA An international conference to share and advance knowledge and experience about standards; the technologies that build upon them, and implementation experiences.  SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organization System Jon Phipps Alistair Miles
  • 2. What is it?
    • S imple K nowledge O rganisation S ystem(s)
    • SKOS is …
    • for declaring and publishing taxonomies , thesauri or classification schemes , for use in a distributed, decentralised information system (I.e. a semantic web).
    • for describing Concepts and creating relationships between Concepts and Terms
    • A practical application of RDF
    • the application of library science to the semantic web.
      • SKOS provides a formal language for representing controlled, structured vocabularies
  • 3. SKOS Since Open Forum 2005 …
    • Quick Guide to Publishing a Thesaurus on the Semantic Web
      • First Working Draft May 2005 http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-thesaurus-pubguide/
    • SKOS Core Guide & SKOS Core Vocabulary Specification
      • Second Working Draft published November 2005 http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-skos-core-guide/ http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-skos-core-spec/
    • SKOS Core is now just plain old SKOS
    • W3C Semantic Web Deployment Working Group Kicks Off
      • W3C Recommendation Track http://www.w3.org/2006/07/SWD/
    • SKOS Use Cases and Requirements
      • First Working Draft Published (2007-05-16) http://www.w3.org/TR/skos-ucr/
    • New SKOS Web Site
      • http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/
  • 4. Features
    • Identifying concepts
      • URIs for unambiguous global identity and reference
    • Labelling concepts
      • e.g. lexical labels, symbolic labels, preferred, alternative, hidden …
    • Describing & documenting concepts
      • e.g. definition, example, scope note, change note, editorial note …
    • Relating concepts
      • e.g. broader, narrower, related …
    • Grouping concepts
      • e.g. concept schemes, support for ‘node labels’ …
    • Subject Indexing
      • e.g. subject of a document, primary subject …
    • Multilingual
    • Extensible
  • 5. Concept
    • Defined as: An abstract idea or notion; a unit of thought.
    • I.e. A unit of meaning.
    • The fundamental unit of a concept scheme.
  • 6. Concepts
  • 7. Concept Scheme
    • Defined as: A set of concepts, optionally including statements about semantic relationships between those concepts.
    • A …
      • thesaurus
      • classification scheme
      • taxonomy
      • terminology
      • subject heading system
      • [other type of controlled vocabulary]
    • … is a concept scheme.
  • 8. Lexical Labelling
    • SKOS lexical labelling properties
      • A set of properties for associating concepts with lexical representations (i.e. terms)
        • prefLabel
        • altLabel
        • hiddenLabel
  • 9. Lexical Labelling
  • 10. Symbolic Labelling
    • SKOS symbolic labelling properties
      • A set of properties for associating concepts with symbolic representations (i.e. symbolic ‘names’)
        • prefSymbol
        • altSymbol
  • 11. Symbolic Labelling
  • 12. Semantic Relations
    • SKOS semantic relation properties
      • A basic set of properties for asserting relationships of meaning between concepts.
        • broader
        • narrower
        • related
  • 13. Semantic Relations
  • 14. Semantic Relations
  • 15. Documentation Properties
    • SKOS documentation properties
      • A set of properties for associating concepts with human-readable documentation.
        • changeNote
        • definition
        • editorialNote
        • example
        • historyNote
        • privateNote
        • publicNote
        • scopeNote
  • 16. Documentation Properties
  • 17. Documentation Properties
  • 18. Subject Indexing
    • SKOS subject indexing properties
      • Set of property extensions to the dc:subject property for asserting relationships between information resources and concepts.
        • isPrimarySubjectOf
        • primarySubject
        • isSubjectOf
        • subject
        • subjectIndicator
  • 19. Subject Indexing
  • 20. Grouping
    • SKOS Grouping Properties
      • A set of classes and properties for organizing Concepts
      • Classes:
        • Collection
        • orderedCollection
      • Concept Properties:
        • member
        • memberList
  • 21. Thesaurus Example
    • Term: Economic cooperation
    • Used For: Economic co-operation
    • Broader terms: Economic policy
    • Narrower terms: Economic integration, European economic cooperation, European industrial cooperation, Industrial cooperation
    • Related terms: Interdependence
    • Scope Note: Includes cooperative measures in banking, trade, industry etc., between and among countries.
    From UK Archival Thesaurus …
  • 22. Thesaurus Example
  • 23. Thesaurus Example <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot; xmlns:rdfs=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#&quot; xmlns:skos=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#&quot;> <skos:Concept rdf:about=&quot;http://www.ukat.org.uk/thesaurus/concept/1750&quot;> <skos:prefLabel>Economic cooperation</skos:prefLabel> <skos:altLabel>Economic co-operation</skos:altLabel> <skos:scopeNote>Includes cooperative measures in banking, trade, industry etc., between and among countries.</skos:scopeNote> <skos:broader rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.ukat.org.uk/thesaurus/concept/4382&quot;/> <skos:narrower rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.ukat.org.uk/thesaurus/concept/2108&quot;/> <skos:narrower rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.ukat.org.uk/thesaurus/concept/9505&quot;/> <skos:narrower rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.ukat.org.uk/thesaurus/concept/15053&quot;/> <skos:narrower rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.ukat.org.uk/thesaurus/concept/18987&quot;/> <skos:related rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.ukat.org.uk/thesaurus/concept/3250&quot;/> <skos:inScheme rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.ukat.org.uk/thesaurus&quot;/> </skos:Concept> </rdf:RDF> RDF/XML serialisation …
  • 24. Flexible
    • ‘ Pic’n’mix SKOS with other vocabs, e.g. Dublin Core, RSS, FOAF …
  • 25. Extensible
    • Extended labelling properties
      • e.g. common name, scientific name
    • Extended concept types
      • e.g. AAT’s fundamental facets
    • Extended documentation properties
      • e.g. MARC21, DDC
    • Extended semantic relation properties
      • e.g. broader instantive, broader generic, broader partitive
    • Can cope with specialised requirements without compromising interoperability
  • 26. NSDL Metadata Registry
    • The NSDL Registry is intended to provide a complete vocabulary development and management environment for development of vocabularies . Services are primarily directed at vocabulary owners and include provisions for:
    • managing access and editing rights for groups of vocabulary maintainers maintaining individual vocabularies
    • import and management of existing vocabularies , with and without existing URIs
    • namespace management and maintenance services providing permanent URIs
    • registered users to receive notifications of changes to vocabularies to which they have subscribed
    • content negotiation for retrieval of registered vocabularies in various formats, currently RDF/XML (rdf), XHTML (html), and XML Schema (xsd)
    • content negotiation and resolution services for registered vocabularies in non-registry namespaces (in alpha)
  • 27. NSDL Metadata Registry
    • controlled concept editing and maintenance using SKOS properties
    • controlled insertion of reciprocal relationships between concepts
    • controlled mapping of relationships between concepts in different vocabularies .
    • Concept property-level change history management
    • vocabulary- and concept-level version management (in alpha)
    • multilingual vocabulary maintenance
    • SKOS validation by user input constraint and validation of imported vocabularies
    • search and browse for concepts by label
  • 28.
    • Description of entire vocabulary as a collection of concepts
    • Links to Concepts, History, Versions
    • Default status and Language
    • URI for the vocabulary itself (includes token)
    • Links to Users
    • Links to XML schema and RDF encoding
    NSDL Metadata Registry: Example Concept Scheme registration
  • 29. NSDL Metadata Registry: Example Concept registration
    • Required Preferred Label
    • Multi-language support
    • Permanent URI for the Concept
    • Support for status
    • Links to other Concept properties
    • Link to RDF fragment
  • 30. NSDL Metadata Registry: Example Concept Property editing
    • Guided selection of Concept properties
  • 31. NSDL Metadata Registry: Example Concept Property editing
    • Guided selection of Concept properties
    • Guided selection of related concept when using a “relationship” property
  • 32. NSDL Metadata Registry: Example Concept Property editing
    • Guided selection of Concept properties
    • Guided selection of related concept when using a “relationship” property
    • Support for property-level status
    • Links to other Concept properties
  • 33. NSDL Metadata Registry: User Management
    • Users and rights can be associated with specific Vocabularies
    • Vocabulary admins can assign Users and editorial rights
    • Any user who creates a new Vocabulary is automatically the admin for it
  • 34. NSDL Metadata Registry: HTTP Publishing
    • Implements http content negotiation (W3C ‘Cookbook’) based on W3C TAG httpRange-14 for document retrieval
      • See the Recipes http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-vocab-pub/ and http://norman.walsh.name/2005/06/19/httpRange-14
    • We use ‘slash’ (/) URIs instead of ‘hash’ (#)
      • Hash URIs must return the entire document when any fragment (identified by #) is requested
      • We think this is impractical for information resources
  • 35. NSDL Metadata Registry: HTTP Publishing
    • Also implements ‘extension’-based document retrieval…
      • A request for a document of the type ‘application/rdf+xml’ located at… http:// metadataregistry.org/uri/NSDLEdLvl
      • redirects to… http://metadataregistry.org/uri/NSDLEdLvl.rdf
      • Which returns…
  • 36. NSDL Metadata Registry: Versioning
    • Time-slice versioning
      • Saves the state of the Scheme whenever a Concept property is added or changed
    • RESTful interface
      • Scheme or Concept state can be retrieved by appending an encoded UTC Timestamp to URI…
      • e.g. scheme current trunk http://metadataregistry.org/NSDLEdLvl
      • e.g. scheme as of “2007-01-26T01:15:38.000Z” http://metadataregistry.org/NSDLEdLvl/2007-01-26T01%3A15%3A38.000Z
    • Only Concept properties that have ‘Published’ state
    • Provides a permanent URI for Scheme/Concept at any given point in time -- helps minimize ‘version churn’
  • 37. NSDL Metadata Registry: Versioning
    • Named versions
      • Identifies an ‘official’ version by naming a time-slice
      • Vocabulary admin may apply a version name to any time-slice in the past
    • RESTful interface
      • Scheme or Concept state can be retrieved by appending a version to URI…
      • e.g. scheme as of “2007-01-26T01:15:38.000Z” http://metadataregistry.org/NSDLEdLvl/2007-01-26T01%3A15%3A38.000Z permanently named “Release Version 1.2” http://metadataregistry.org/NSDLEdLvl/release_version_1.2
    • Currently no support for editable branches
  • 38. SWDWG
    • Semantic Web Deployment Working Group
      • http://w3.org/2006/07/SWD/
    • Began: 10 October 2006
    • Lifetime: 20 months
    • Chairs:
      • Guus Schreiber
      • Thomas Baker
  • 39. SWDWG: SKOS
    • Deliverables and Schedule
      • http://www.w3.org/2006/07/SWD/wiki/Deliverables
      • SKOS Use Cases and Requirements
      • SKOS Test Cases
      • SKOS Semantics (Normative Specification)
      • SKOS Primer
      • SKOS Vocabulary Overview
    • March 2008: SKOS Proposed Recommendation
  • 40. SWDWG: SKOS
    • Use Cases & Requirements Analysis
      • Public Working Draft (May 2007) http://www.w3.org/TR/skos-ucr/
      • Do you have a use case or requirements/issues for SKOS?
      • We’d still like to know… mailto://public-swd-wg@w3.org/
  • 41. SWDWG: SKOS Current Use Cases
    • Dutch and French national libraries -- an integrated view to medieval illuminated manuscripts
    • Bio-zen ontology framework for representing scientific discourse in life science
    • The FAO AIMS project – a semantic search service across mapped multilingual thesauri in the agriculture domain
    • BAE Systems -- The Product Life Cycle Support (PLCS) application
    • CHOICE@CATCH ranking of candidate terms for description of radio and TV programs
    • BIRNLex: a lexicon for neurosciences
    • Radlex: a lexicon for radiology
    • NSDL Metadata Registry
  • 42. SWDWG: SKOS Selected Open Issues
    • Typed relationships between labels
      • SKOS allows the expression of semantic relationships (broader, related) between concepts.
      • It also allows relationships between concepts and labels (prefLabel, altLabel).
    • Issue:
      • There is nothing in SKOS to capture links between labels themselves.
  • 43. SWDWG: SKOS Selected Open Issues
    • Basic Label Semantics Issues
      • Can a resource have two “preferred labels”?
      • Can a label be both &quot;preferred&quot; and “alternative? for the same resource?
      • If a label is “hidden”, can it also be “preferred” or “alternative” for the same resource?
  • 44. SWDWG: SKOS Selected Open Issues
    • Grouping in Concept Hierarchies
      • Thesaurus standards describe the use of “node labels” for convenient grouping and display.
    • Issue:
      • The current grouping support in SKOS (called “Collections”) introduces logical inconsistencies into the SKOS spec.
      • this is bad
    • And more than a few others… http://www.w3.org/2006/07/SWD/track/issues
  • 45. SWDWG: SKOS
    • So we’ve definitely got issues!
      • http://www.w3.org/2006/07/SWD/track/issues
    • A final word from Alistair Miles…
    • “ Bring out the unsolved stuff, don't hide any of the difficulties.”
    • “ N.B. interoperability with ISO11179 is a requirement and a big issue for SKOS, so let everybody know we're going to need help there.”
    • “ Take home message: lots of interesting challenges and issues, really want to hear from registry community!”
  • 46. Links
    • SKOS Homepage
      • http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/
    • SKOS Guide
      • http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-skos-core-guide
    • SKOS Vocabulary Specification
      • http://www.w3.org/TR/swbp-skos-core-spec
    • SWD-WG Home Page
      • http://www.w3.org/2006/07/SWD/
    • SWD-WG Mailing list
      • mailto:public-swd-wg@w3.org
      • http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-swd-wg/
    • NSDL Metadata Registry
      • http://metadataregistry.org
      • Please play in our sandbox!
      • http://sandbox.metadataregistry.org
    • The Registry blog (gotta have one)
      • http://metadataregistry.org/blog
    • Jon Phipps
      • mailto:jphipps@madcreek.com
      • Thanks for listening 

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