History of the Learning
Management System
IP&T 692R
Fall 2013
Jon Mott
Chief Learning Officer, Learning Objects
Visiting I...
http://
1996
1997
cms=erp?
the cms in the
broader
infrastructure
a brief history
learners
learners
schools
educational institutions.
the end of learning as usual?
integrations,
customizations &
standards
Learning
Activity,
Lesson, or
Course
SCORM
Compliant
Package
LMS
common
cartridge
proprietary
integrations
TOOLS
TOOL
A
TOOL
B
TOOL
C
TOOL
XYZ
EVENT
NOTIFICATION
LAUNCH
• SESSION
• RESOURCE LINK
• MANAGEMENT
• TOOL SETTINGS
• OUTCOMES
...
qti
lis
epub
sif
tin can api
case study
Blackboard @ BYU
• Launched CourseInfo in 1999
• 1,683 Unique Courses Fall 2008
• ≈ 5,457 Course Sections Fall 2008
• 48,8...
the
“quiz crisis”
Feature Percentage
Course Materials / Documents 85.9%
Gradebook 78.0%
Announcements 68.9%
Email 68.1%
Assessments / Quizze...
EXTERNAL
APPLICATIONS
SIS CMS
GRADEBOOK
CONTENT
ASSESSMENT
COMMUNICATION
COLLABORATION
APIs
CUSTOM
INTEGRATION
REDUNDANT &...
50%
25%
14%
11%
25%
CMS Only
CMS+
Other Only
None
Online Technology Usage
BYU Faculty Survey, April 2009 (n=254)
cms usage
studies
“Faculty use the CMS primarily as an
administrative tool.” – Morgan
The CMS is “fundamentally a conservative
technology.” ...
limits of
the LMS model
“Teaching and learning are not
fundamentally transactional.”
- Lanny Arvan
The Web is “a
world of pure
connection, free
of the arbitrary
constraints of
matter, distance
and time.”
David Weinberger
TIME
CMS v. PLN
End of the Semester
LearningNetworkSize
TIME
LearningNetworkSize
SEMESTER 1 SEMESTER 2 SEMESTER 3 SEMESTER 4 SEMESTER 5 SEMESTER 6
CMS
PLN
CMS v. PLN
Data Funnels  Learning Webs
- Steve Wheeler
“Pointing students to data buckets and conduits
we’ve already made for them won’t do.”
- Gardner Campbell
The original design of the LMS was transactional
and largely administrative in nature, hence the “M”
in “LMS.” The functio...
: “School communities will need to
develop strategies for building
resilience into their systems and
for creating
lightwei...
Love / Hate
Users Who
Love Their
CMS
Users Who
Hate Their
CMS
Users Who
Want to Switch
plns
the new landscape
University
Support Services
Bookstore
IT Infrastructure
Libraries
Academic Departments
Faculty Students
University
Support Services
Bookstore
Libraries
IT Infrastructure
Academic Departments
Faculty Students
Web 2.0 Apps
Socia...
University
Portal
CONTENT
Gradebook
Assessment
Web PagesWeb PagesWeb PagesWeb Pages
Portfolios
NEW
TOOLS
the vle of the fu...
Open
Participatory
Learning
Ecosystem
Brown & Adler
2009
“and”
models
private
secure
reliability
integrated
teachers
efficiency
structured
OR public
OR open
OR flexibility
OR modular
OR learne...
olns
THE CLOUD
STUDENT
CONTEN
T
UNIVERSITY NETWORK
An Open (Institutional) Learning Network
OPEN
CONTENT
SIS SECURE
ONLINE
ASSE...
Blackboard is trying to keep up.
Michael L. Chasen, the company's chief executive, has
told The Chronicle that the latest ...
moocs
(& oocs)
=
the new lms?
http://www.slideshare.net/jonmott
thejonmott@gmail.com
http://jonmott.com
@jonmott
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS
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IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS

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  • The “Course Management System” – Roots in late 90s. Blackboard’s original name “Course Info” is a good indication of what these tools were originally intended to do.
  • Hypertext Transfer ProtocolURIs, URLs, the WebXml + Web Services
  • The Course Management System is not the academic ERP / PeopleSoft.
  • The Course Management System is not the academic ERP / PeopleSoft.
  • The Course Management System is not the academic ERP / PeopleSoft.
  • http://cluetrain.com
  • SCORM diagram on left: (cc) Michael Richards, “SCORM 1.2 & 2004 Visual Guide to Runtime Environment Data Model”See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scorm
  • http://www.imsglobal.org/cc
  • SOURCE: Dr. Chuck’s slideshttp://www.imsglobal.org/developers/LTI/test/v1p1/docs/LTI_Overview_1_1.pdf
  • Image Sources:http://www.dr-chuck.com/sakai-bookhttp://blogs.it.ox.ac.uk/adamweblearn/2013/04/linking-to-external-tools-from-a-vlelms-ims-lti-oauth-or-webauth-or-any-other-web-based-single-sign-on
  • http://www.imsglobal.org/toolsinteroperability2.cfmLMS (or Portal!) launches external tool, securely passing userid, course info, role infoHTTP POST via browser (with security) manages data flow
  • The Course Management System is not the academic ERP / PeopleSoft.
  • The Course Management System is not the academic ERP / PeopleSoft.
  • How is Blackboard actually used?
  • Vertically integrated technology stack with uneven integration with other tools in the learning ecosystem.
  • 75% of faculty members us a CMS at BYU. 50% use a CMS as their only online teaching & learning technology25% use the CMS plus other online tools.25% don’t use a CMS14% have a course blog, wiki, or custom website11% use no online technology
  • The Course Management System is not the academic ERP / PeopleSoft.
  • University of Wisconsin System faculty members. In that study, Morgan found that "faculty use the CMS primarily as an administrative tool to facilitate quiz administration and other classroom tasks rather than as a tool anchored in pedagogy or cognitive science models” (2003, 11). As Milligan observes, the CMS is "fundamentally a conservative technology ... [for] managing groups, providing tools, and delivering content" (2006, 1)Evidence of the pervasiveness of such CMS usage tendencies can be found in a recent usage study of the Sakai at the University of North Carolina. Faculty survey data indicates that the top three uses of Sakai in the category "Improving Teaching and Learning" were "Accessing materials any time," "Saving me time," and "Managing my course activities" (UNC 2009, 15).Milligan, C. (2006). The Road to the Personal Learning Environment? CETIS. Retrieved from http://zope.cetis.ac.uk/members/ple/resources/colinmilligan.pdf.Morgan, G. (2003). Faculty Use of Course Management Systems. ECAR. Retrieved from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ers0302/rs/ers0302w.pdf. University of North Carolina. (2009). Sakai Pilot Evaluation Final Report. October 15, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.unc.edu/sakaipilot/evaluation/FinalRept-Oct15-09-sm.pdf.
  • The Course Management System is not the academic ERP / PeopleSoft.
  • LannyArvan: “Teaching an learning are not fundamentally transactional.”http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/DisIntegratingtheLMS/174588
  • The Web is “a world of pure connection, free of the arbitrary constraints of matter, distance and time.”- Small Pieces Loosely Joined by David WeinbergerImage Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ialla/4042996779/sizes/l
  • Gilmor: “The Former Audience” -- Students no longer passive consumers.IMAGE: Obama in Germany http://www.flickr.com/photos/barackobamadotcom/2699346313/sizes/o
  • This is Facebook
  • This is Facebook every 14 weeks if it was managed like an LMS.
  • The CMS is like a moated castle … IMAGE: “Japan: Osaka-jo outer moat, 1” http://www.flickr.com/photos/53537358@N00/3005861124
  • … or a walled garden.IMAGE: “The Secret Gardens at Tregwainton” http://www.flickr.com/photos/zawtowers/3758680364
  • Steve Wheeler: We need to create learning webs, not pour content through funnels into students heads.http://steve-wheeler.blogspot.com/2009/10/its-personal-learning-spaces-learning.html
  • Gardner Campbell: “Pointing students to data buckets and conduits we’ve already made for them won’t do.”http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Review/EDUCAUSEReviewMagazineVolume44/APersonalCyberinfrastructure/178431
  • Platforms for Resilience: “School communities will need to develop strategies for building resilience into their systems and for creating lightweight, modular infrastructures.”KnowledgeWorks Foundation, “2020 Forecast: Creating the Future for Learning” http://www.futureofed.org/driver/platforms-for-resilience.aspxImage Source: “Bracken Growing Through” http://www.flickr.com/photos/spursfan_ace/569104124/sizes/l/
  • Inspired by http://graphjam.com (via Dr. Chuck)
  • Martin Weller – PLE http://nogoodreason.typepad.co.uk/.shared/image.html?/photos/uncategorized/2007/12/06/pwe_3.jpg
  • Scott Leslie – PLE http://edtechpost.wikispaces.com/file/view/swl_ple2.gif
  • PLNs connect people in new, dynamic ways that were previously impossible.IMAGE: OpenEd Twitter Conversation – Courtesy Tony Bates http://www.tonybates.ca
  • PLNs connect people in new, dynamic ways that were previously impossible.IMAGE: OpenEd Twitter Conversation – Courtesy Tony Bates http://www.tonybates.ca
  • See Brown, J. S., and Adler, R. (2009). “Minds on Fire: Open Education, the Long Tail, and Learning 2.0.” Educause Review, January/February (16-32).
  • The tyranny of “or”False dichotomy between the institutional network and the PLN.
  • Is there a middle ground???IMAGES: Michael Chasen en Matthew Pittinskyhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/pklaassen/68271156 (left); Edupunk2 http://www.flickr.com/photos/bionicteaching/2533948716 (right)
  • Mott, J. and Wiley, D. (2009). “Open for Learning: The CMS and the Open Learning Network,” in education, 15:2.
  • Agilix, Moodle, etc.OpenFlexibleScalableLearning-Centered Tools
  • We need a secure tool for communicating with students about their work—a FERPA compliant “gradebook”http://chronicle.com/article/Blogs-Instead-of-Blackboard/44412/
  • “We don’t just think outside the box … We transform the box into a robot and then think outside the robot.”Image Source: http://gregd.com & Dr. Chuck’s presentation: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~csev/talks/2009/2009-11-10-pearson.pdf
  • IP&T 692R: Week 2-History of the LMS

    1. 1. History of the Learning Management System IP&T 692R Fall 2013 Jon Mott Chief Learning Officer, Learning Objects Visiting Instructor, Brigham Young University
    2. 2. http://
    3. 3. 1996
    4. 4. 1997
    5. 5. cms=erp?
    6. 6. the cms in the broader infrastructure
    7. 7. a brief history
    8. 8. learners learners schools educational institutions. the end of learning as usual?
    9. 9. integrations, customizations & standards
    10. 10. Learning Activity, Lesson, or Course SCORM Compliant Package LMS
    11. 11. common cartridge
    12. 12. proprietary integrations TOOLS
    13. 13. TOOL A TOOL B TOOL C TOOL XYZ EVENT NOTIFICATION LAUNCH • SESSION • RESOURCE LINK • MANAGEMENT • TOOL SETTINGS • OUTCOMES TOOL PROVIDERS TOOL CONSUMERS PROFILE WEB SERVICES TOOL PROXY RUNTIME ADMINISTRATOR USER LTI SERVICES
    14. 14. qti lis epub sif tin can api
    15. 15. case study
    16. 16. Blackboard @ BYU • Launched CourseInfo in 1999 • 1,683 Unique Courses Fall 2008 • ≈ 5,457 Course Sections Fall 2008 • 48,878 Active Users (Provo, Hawaii & LDSBC Campuses) • 17,767 Avg Daily Unique User Logins Fall 2008 • ≈ 16 Mbps Bandwidth Usage • 2,137 GB Storage (1,369 GB Content, 768 GB Database) • 2,279,255 Completed Assessments Fall 2008 • 14,296 Avg Monthly Discussion Board Posts Fall 2008
    17. 17. the “quiz crisis”
    18. 18. Feature Percentage Course Materials / Documents 85.9% Gradebook 78.0% Announcements 68.9% Email 68.1% Assessments / Quizzes 30.7% Discussion Board 13.5% Other (e.g., Reserve, Dropbox) 12.2% Virtual Classroom 2.0% Lightweight Chat 0.4% Bb Feature Usage @ BYU
    19. 19. EXTERNAL APPLICATIONS SIS CMS GRADEBOOK CONTENT ASSESSMENT COMMUNICATION COLLABORATION APIs CUSTOM INTEGRATION REDUNDANT & NON-INTEGRATED APPLICATIONS
    20. 20. 50% 25% 14% 11% 25% CMS Only CMS+ Other Only None Online Technology Usage BYU Faculty Survey, April 2009 (n=254)
    21. 21. cms usage studies
    22. 22. “Faculty use the CMS primarily as an administrative tool.” – Morgan The CMS is “fundamentally a conservative technology.” – Milligan
    23. 23. limits of the LMS model
    24. 24. “Teaching and learning are not fundamentally transactional.” - Lanny Arvan
    25. 25. The Web is “a world of pure connection, free of the arbitrary constraints of matter, distance and time.” David Weinberger
    26. 26. TIME CMS v. PLN End of the Semester LearningNetworkSize
    27. 27. TIME LearningNetworkSize SEMESTER 1 SEMESTER 2 SEMESTER 3 SEMESTER 4 SEMESTER 5 SEMESTER 6 CMS PLN CMS v. PLN
    28. 28. Data Funnels  Learning Webs - Steve Wheeler
    29. 29. “Pointing students to data buckets and conduits we’ve already made for them won’t do.” - Gardner Campbell
    30. 30. The original design of the LMS was transactional and largely administrative in nature, hence the “M” in “LMS.” The function of the traditional LMS is to simplify how learning is scheduled, deployed, and tracked as a means to organize curricula and manage learning materials. - Lou Pugiese
    31. 31. : “School communities will need to develop strategies for building resilience into their systems and for creating lightweight, modular infrastructures.”
    32. 32. Love / Hate Users Who Love Their CMS Users Who Hate Their CMS Users Who Want to Switch
    33. 33. plns
    34. 34. the new landscape University Support Services Bookstore IT Infrastructure Libraries Academic Departments Faculty Students
    35. 35. University Support Services Bookstore Libraries IT Infrastructure Academic Departments Faculty Students Web 2.0 Apps Social Networks Open Content Mass Collaboration etc. the new landscape
    36. 36. University Portal CONTENT Gradebook Assessment Web PagesWeb PagesWeb PagesWeb Pages Portfolios NEW TOOLS the vle of the future
    37. 37. Open Participatory Learning Ecosystem Brown & Adler 2009
    38. 38. “and” models
    39. 39. private secure reliability integrated teachers efficiency structured OR public OR open OR flexibility OR modular OR learners OR creativity OR authentic
    40. 40. olns
    41. 41. THE CLOUD STUDENT CONTEN T UNIVERSITY NETWORK An Open (Institutional) Learning Network OPEN CONTENT SIS SECURE ONLINE ASSESSMENT GRADE BOOK LEARNING OUTCOMES WIKI PORTAL UI STUDENT LEARNING EPORTFOLIO PERSONAL PUBLISHING SPACE SOCIAL NETWORKING APPS COLLABORATIO N TOOLS UNIVERSITY CONTEN T
    42. 42. Blackboard is trying to keep up. Michael L. Chasen, the company's chief executive, has told The Chronicle that the latest version of the software integrates some Web 2.0 tools and still offers plenty of features that blogging packages can't match, like online gradebooks.
    43. 43. moocs (& oocs) = the new lms?
    44. 44. http://www.slideshare.net/jonmott thejonmott@gmail.com http://jonmott.com @jonmott
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