Grammar Concepts Pablo Packer
Conditional Tense <ul><li>Hablaría The endings are  hablarías ía hablaría ías hablaríamos  ía  hablaríais íamos hablarían ...
Irregular Conditionals <ul><li>caber yo  cabr ía </li></ul><ul><li>poner yo  pondr ía </li></ul><ul><li>decir yo  dir ía <...
Present Perfect <ul><li>Present perfect is a compound tense </li></ul><ul><li>It requires a main verb and an auxiliary ver...
Present Perfect Irregulars <ul><li>Sometimes a verb will change in the present perfect irregular. </li></ul><ul><li>Abrir ...
Past Perfect
Subjunctive Imperfect Tense Subjunctive is used as the set up: If this, then that.  Noun + past tense + correct ending = S...
Tan vs Tanto <ul><li>Tan and tanto are used to compare things in spanish.  </li></ul><ul><li>Tanto is used to say AS __ as...
Spanish has a slightly different format for expressing this Impersonal voice. Spanish adds the pronoun se in front of verb...
Sabér vs Conocer <ul><li>Saber and conocer are both used in spanish to say something is known. But they are used for diffe...
Tu Informal Commands <ul><li>Verbs in Spanish are often used to command somone to do something. It’s called the  IMPERITIV...
Mandatos Formal <ul><li>Verbs in Spanish are often used to command somone to do something. It’s called the  IMPERITIVE FOR...
Affirmative and Negative Commands <ul><li>In all affirmative commands, object pronouns are attached to the end of the verb...
Irregular Commands <ul><li>Some verbs in Spanish are irregular in the command tense: </li></ul><ul><li>decir – di </li></u...
DOP and IOP <ul><li>Direct object pronouns and indirect object pronouns are used in Spanish to identify who or what a sent...
Nosotros Commands <ul><li>Nosotros commands are used when the speaker is included, and are used to express the idea &quot;...
Trigger Words for subjunctive Certain words in Spanish relate that the subjunctive tense should be used. These words are l...
Impersonal expressions allow you to express many ideas while using just a few words. The English equivalent is the word “i...
Monos Verbs <ul><li>If object pronouns are used in nosotros commands, they must be placed at the end of the verb. </li></u...
Subjuctive Tense <ul><li>The subjuctive tense is used when the certainty of the thing being done isn’t known.  </li></ul><...
Irregular Subjunctives Verbs <ul><li>Some verbs are conjugated differently in the subjunctive than in the present.  </li><...
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Spanish grammar book 2

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Spanish grammar book 2

  1. 1. Grammar Concepts Pablo Packer
  2. 2. Conditional Tense <ul><li>Hablaría The endings are hablarías ía hablaría ías hablaríamos ía hablaríais íamos hablarían comería íais comerías ían comería comeríamos comeríais comerían viviría vivirías viviría viviríamos viviríais vivirían </li></ul><ul><li>Used to express wonder, probability, or conjecture. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Irregular Conditionals <ul><li>caber yo cabr ía </li></ul><ul><li>poner yo pondr ía </li></ul><ul><li>decir yo dir ía </li></ul><ul><li>haber yo habr ía </li></ul><ul><li>salir yo saldr ía </li></ul><ul><li>hacer yo har ía </li></ul><ul><li>poder yo podr ía </li></ul><ul><li>tener yo tendr ía </li></ul><ul><li>querer yo querr ía </li></ul><ul><li>valer yo valdr ía </li></ul><ul><li>saber yo sabr ía </li></ul><ul><li>venir yo vendr ía </li></ul>
  4. 4. Present Perfect <ul><li>Present perfect is a compound tense </li></ul><ul><li>It requires a main verb and an auxiliary verb </li></ul><ul><li>*I HAVE ___ He DID___ WE HAVE DONE____ </li></ul><ul><li>Use the following endings for present perfect. </li></ul><ul><li>he has ha hemos habéis han </li></ul>
  5. 5. Present Perfect Irregulars <ul><li>Sometimes a verb will change in the present perfect irregular. </li></ul><ul><li>Abrir goes to Abierto </li></ul><ul><li>Decir goes to Dicho </li></ul><ul><li>Descubrir to Descubierto </li></ul><ul><li>Escribir to Escrito </li></ul><ul><li>Hacer to Hecho </li></ul><ul><li>Now remember, not all verbs are listed here. These are just examples. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Past Perfect
  7. 7. Subjunctive Imperfect Tense Subjunctive is used as the set up: If this, then that. Noun + past tense + correct ending = Subjunctive Imperfect Tense
  8. 8. Tan vs Tanto <ul><li>Tan and tanto are used to compare things in spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>Tanto is used to say AS __ as. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Diego es tan alto de Pablo. </li></ul><ul><li>Tan is used to say AS MUCH AS </li></ul><ul><li>Nadie había hecho tanto como mi padre. </li></ul><ul><li>( No one has done as much as my father has ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Spanish has a slightly different format for expressing this Impersonal voice. Spanish adds the pronoun se in front of verbs to make general statements. Impersonal voice using se will use a singular verb since the se can be replaced by uno . <ul><li>Examples: How does one say &quot;icecream&quot; in Italian? ¿Cómo se dice &quot;helado&quot; en italiano? </li></ul><ul><li>You say &quot;gelato&quot;. Se dice &quot;gelato&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>It could also be used to say he sees himself.. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pable se ve por el espejo.” </li></ul>Impersonal Se
  10. 10. Sabér vs Conocer <ul><li>Saber and conocer are both used in spanish to say something is known. But they are used for different things. </li></ul><ul><li>Saber is used to say “To express knowledge or ignorance of a fact or information about something, use saber.” </li></ul><ul><li>To say that one is or is not acquainted with a person, a place, or an object, use “conocer.” </li></ul>Yo sé donde el aeropueta. Yo conozco ella!
  11. 11. Tu Informal Commands <ul><li>Verbs in Spanish are often used to command somone to do something. It’s called the IMPERITIVE FORM. </li></ul><ul><li>To use the informal command form in Spanish, use the noun “TU”. </li></ul><ul><li>Just conjugate the verb in UDS. form and drop the last letter. </li></ul>Comprar  Compran  Compra
  12. 12. Mandatos Formal <ul><li>Verbs in Spanish are often used to command somone to do something. It’s called the IMPERITIVE FORM. </li></ul><ul><li>To use the informal command form in Spanish use the rule </li></ul><ul><li>Conjugate the verb in present tense </li></ul><ul><li>Drop the O </li></ul><ul><li>Add the present tense opposite vowel. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Affirmative and Negative Commands <ul><li>In all affirmative commands, object pronouns are attached to the end of the verb; they are placed immediately before the verb in negative commands: </li></ul><ul><li>Damelo! - Affirmative </li></ul><ul><li>No lo des! - Negative </li></ul>
  14. 14. Irregular Commands <ul><li>Some verbs in Spanish are irregular in the command tense: </li></ul><ul><li>decir – di </li></ul><ul><li>salir – sal </li></ul><ul><li>hacer – haz </li></ul><ul><li>ser – sé </li></ul><ul><li>ir – ve </li></ul><ul><li>tener – ten </li></ul><ul><li>poner – pon </li></ul><ul><li>venir - ven </li></ul>
  15. 15. DOP and IOP <ul><li>Direct object pronouns and indirect object pronouns are used in Spanish to identify who or what a sentence is talking about. </li></ul><ul><li>Pablo no _____ espera en el centro. (Pablo) </li></ul><ul><li>In this sentence, we use the DOP “lo” </li></ul><ul><li>He gives María the book. In this sentence, MARIA is the IOP. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Nosotros Commands <ul><li>Nosotros commands are used when the speaker is included, and are used to express the idea &quot;let's + verb.&quot; To form these commands, use the nosotros form of the present subjunctive. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Comamos ati! </li></ul><ul><li>In order to form the no form, just put a no in front of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: No comamos ati! </li></ul>
  17. 17. Trigger Words for subjunctive Certain words in Spanish relate that the subjunctive tense should be used. These words are listed to the left. dudar que --  to doubt that es dudoso que --  it is doubtful that es improbable que -- it's unlikely that es incierto que -- it's uncertain that es posible que -- it's possible that no creer que -- not to believe that es increíble que --  it's incredible that no es cierto que -- it's not certain that no es verdad que --  it's not true that es incierto que --  it's untrue that es mentira que --  it's a lie that
  18. 18. Impersonal expressions allow you to express many ideas while using just a few words. The English equivalent is the word “it”. Below are a common list of impersonal expressions.
  19. 19. Monos Verbs <ul><li>If object pronouns are used in nosotros commands, they must be placed at the end of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Habla monos </li></ul><ul><li>However, the S before the M is lost so it’s monos not smonos. </li></ul><ul><li>Irregulars are v ámonos </li></ul>
  20. 20. Subjuctive Tense <ul><li>The subjuctive tense is used when the certainty of the thing being done isn’t known. </li></ul><ul><li>AR goes to E </li></ul><ul><li>ER goes to A </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Hable </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Coma </li></ul><ul><li>I want John to go to the store. (The clause &quot;I want&quot; tells us that the speaker feels that there is uncertainty as to whether John goes to the store.) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Irregular Subjunctives Verbs <ul><li>Some verbs are conjugated differently in the subjunctive than in the present. </li></ul><ul><li>These are known as irregulars </li></ul><ul><li>Sentir E>Ie </li></ul><ul><li>Pedir E>I </li></ul><ul><li>Dormie O>UE </li></ul>
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