MA8 Digitaalinen markkinointi (luento 4)


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Aiheesta "Kuinka muuttaa kävijät rahaksi? Konversio-optimointi" .

Turun kauppakorkeakoulu, 29.3.2012.

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MA8 Digitaalinen markkinointi (luento 4)

  1. 1. Kuinka muuttaa kävijät rahaksi? KONVERSIO-OPTIMOINTI1
  2. 2. Mitä tarkoittaa konversio? ―When a user completes a desired action on your site, such as a purchase or request for ―In internet marketing, information. A conversion is the desired end conversion rate is the ratio of result from a user visiting your site.‖ visitors who convert casual (Google) content views or website visits into desired actions based on subtle or direct requests from marketers, advertisers, and content creators. If the prospect has visited a marketer‘s web site, vain pieni examples of conversion actions osa tekee might include making an online mitä haluat! purchase or submitting a form to request additional information.‖ (Wikipedia 2012) vrt. AIDA2
  3. 3. Optimoinnin monet kasvot • konversio-optimointi – hakukoneoptimointi (PageRank) – mainonnan optimointi erit. A/B-testit – laskeutumissivun optimointi – Facebook-optimointi (newsfeed optimization) – jne. kaikki missä on algoritmi! • konversioalttiuteen vaikuttaa esim. – kellonaika (aamu vs. ilta) just wanted to – kuukausi (esim. joulukuu) say hi! – demografia, intentio – tuotteet, tarve, halu, ostovalmius – web design, käytettävyys, ostamisen houkuttelevuus – kommunikaatiotyyli, selkeys, informatiivisuus – jne.3
  4. 4. Not all optimization is equal… ―Yes, we would love to live in a world in which everything could be fully optimized all at once, but unfortunately we live in a world of tradeoffs. These tradeoffs could be something as simple as time and/or resources. You may only have the resources to optimize a single step in a conversion process. Where will you start? Or as in the case of SEO and LPO (landing page optimization), you may be dealing with optimization strategies that contradict one another.‖  Jos täytyy valita, mitä sinä optimoisit?  Minkä optimoinnista saa parhaimman hyödyn?4
  5. 5. Miksi konversio-optimointi? ―Frequently, when marketers target a pocket of customers that has shown spectacular lift in an ad campaign, they belatedly discover the behavior is not consistent. Online marketing response rates fluctuate widely from hour to hour, segment to segment and offer to offer. This phenomenon can be traced to the difficulty humans have separating chance events from real effects. Using the haystack process, at any given time marketers are limited to examining and drawing conclusions from small samples of data. However, psychologists (led by Kahneman and Tversky) have extensively documented tendencies which find spurious patterns in small samples, thereby explaining why poor decisions are made. Therefore, statistical methodologies can be leveraged to study large samples and mitigate the urge to see patterns where none exists. These methodologies, or ‗conversion optimization‘ methods, are then taken a step further to run in a real-time environment. The real-time data collection and subsequent messaging as a result, increases the scale and effectiveness of the online campaign.‖5
  6. 6. CAC:n puolittaminen (Salminen 2012) As the number of visitors, and marketing budget spent to it, grows, conversion optimization becomes the most important investment. Let me demonstrate by a very simple example of two cases. Advertising spend: 100 000 money Visitors*: 400 000 Cvr: 1% No. sales: 4000 Advertising spend: 50 000 money Visitors*: 200 000 Cvr: 2% No. sales: 4 000 * Avg. CPC 0.25 money6
  7. 7. …the whole story Now, the cases provide the same number of sales, although the other one is spending double the amount for ads. But the question, from economic perspective, is this: Does the improvement of cvr by one %-point cost more or less than 50 000 money? In every case it costs less than that, which is the difference of advertising spends, it should be opted prior to increasing advertising budget. This is an economic decision: there is scarcity of budget which leads to desire to optimize efficiency and, finally, trade-offs between allocating investments (here: between advertising and conversion optimization, both parts of the same marketing budget). What my point is: THERE IS NO POINT IN DOUBLING MARKETING SPEND BEFORE ABILITY TO CONVERT HAS BEEN OPTIMIZED, as it leads to a sub-optimal allocation. In fact, by inserting real figures into this simple equation we can see how much its worth to pay for conversion optimization service, should such a service be acquired. – There is A LOT that can be done improve conversion rate, and we are only in the beginning. All efforts regarding the layout, features, and presentation of the website should serve the purpose. We would do well by taking a step towards A/B testing, not necessarily on the product level, since its very cumbersome to execute, but by testing MAJOR things and their impact on conversion. For one, conventions are very necessary. Users have used to certain functions and positions (e.g. search box & shopping cart); we must adapt to these as well as possible, otherwise we create frustration and confusion. As the usability expert Jacob Nielsen says, users spend most of their time in sites other than yours. Key takeaways: 1. Need to find better ways to capture visitors and convert them FIRST to suspects and then sales. 2. Conversion optimization becomes more crucially when advertising is increased, and should be done BEFORE increasing such investments. 3. Conversion optimization can be done EITHER in-house (by applying A/B tests) OR by acquiring an expert service.7
  8. 8. ABC-argumentti konversiosuhteen tärkeydestä (Nielsen 2008) a) ―In a multiplication, if you want to increase the outcome by a certain percentage, you can increase any of the factors by that percentage. It doesn‘t matter which factor is increased — the result will be the same. b) Thus, to double a site‟s business, you can double the number of unique visitors. However, this would be very expensive, requiring that you more than double the advertising budget (assuming you‘re already advertising under the most-promising keywords, and thus need to buy traffic from less promising or more expensive sources). c) Alternatively, you can double the conversion rate and achieve the same business improvement. It‘s still fairly cheap to double conversion rates, though it‘s not as cheap as it was, say, in 2000. According to our survey, spending 10% of your development budget on usability should improve your conversion rate by 83%. You can probably double the conversion rate by spending less than 15% of your development budget. In most cases, it‘s far cheaper to use 15% of your development budget than to more8 than double your advertising budget.‖
  9. 9. Konversion käsite on suhteellinen ―…conversions are interpreted differently by individual marketers, advertisers, and content creators. To online retailers, for example, a successful conversion may constitute the [1] sale of a product to a consumer whose interest in the item was initially sparked by clicking a banner advertisement. To content creators, however, a successful conversion may refer to a [2] membership registration, [3] newsletter subscription, [4] software download, or other activity that occurs due to a subtle or direct request from the content creator for the visitor to take the action.‖ (Wikipedia 2012) Kaava: entä per asiakas?9
  10. 10. Konversiotyypit ja mikrotransaktiot (Cooper 2010) Asiakkaalta voi saada • aikaa, huomiota • klikkauksia • yhteystiedot • laskutustiedot • hiukan rahaa (transaktio) • lisää rahaa (bundlaus) • vielä lisää rahaa (suhde) • puhelinsoittoja ja tapaamisia • kausisopimuksia • suositteluja Kuitenkin lopullisena tavoitteena on tietysti €,$,£10
  11. 11. Internet-markkinoinnin ”toimintaputki” (funnel) (Salminen 2012) Level of behavior click Action :) Pre-click Post-click* No action :( älä ainoastaan keskity tähän… …vaan koko putkeen11
  12. 12. …after click konsistenssi Question 1: Question 2: Question 3: Where am I? What can I Why should do here? I do it? • (landing page • kannustimet optimization) huom! linkit kilpailevat • call to action • tagline, header • navigation (or not) keskenään huomiosta -> “Think one vähemmän on goal, one parempi message, Problem of multiple ―Homepages that must speak one audiences? simultaneously to multiple audiences action.” are notoriously difficult to optimize.  break value This is the main reason why you are propositions into better off driving traffic to channel- different landing specific landing pages whenever pages (channel, possible.‖ (Grinkot 2009)12 customer group, intention…)
  13. 13. Bounce rate on korkea. Mitä se kertoo sinulle? Voi olla useita syitä: 1. designiin liittyvä yleinen ongelma (esim. navigaatio, layout) 2. landing page on huono (esim. CTA:n puute) 3. ihmisten luontainen tapa selata sivuja (switching behavior) 4. kohdennukseen liittyvä ongelma (kohderyhmän ja arvolupauksen yhteensopivuus)13
  14. 14. Konversiopolut (conversion funnel, ”path”) esim. liikenteen lähteen mukaan konversioiden määrät eri lähteiden tuomat tulot14
  15. 15. Konversion kustannus (cost of conversion) Bännerit Hakukone Facebook Kävijöiden 1000 1000 1000 määrä CPC (CTR) 1 (0,5 %) 0,25 (5 %) 0,50 (0,05 %) Total cost (€) 1000 250 500 CVR (ostot) 2 % (20) 2 % (20) 2 % (20) COC/CPS 50 12,50 25 Huom! • CTR:t viitteellisiä, mutta tyypillisiä • CTR ei suoraan vaikuta konversiokustannukseen, epäsuorasti kylläkin • mitä tapahtuu kun muutetaan CVR:ää 1 %- yks. verran?15
  16. 16. Konversion kustannus (cost of conversion) Bännerit Hakukone Facebook Kävijöiden 1000 1000 1000 määrä CPC (CTR) 1 (0,5 %) 0,25 (5 %) 0,50 (0,05 %) Cost (€) 1000 250 500 CVR (ostot) 3 % (30) 3 % (30 50%) 3 % (30) COC/CPS 33 8,30 ( 33 %) 17 Huom! “Compounding effect of micro-gains” Konversiokustannukseen vaikuttaa paitsi kävijöiden hankinnan hinta, myös kävijöiden Pienet parannukset laatu (ostovalmius) ja sivun yksittäisissä konversion konversiopotentiaali, jotka yhdessä vaiheissa voivat johtaa muodostavat konv.-%:n. suureen kokonaisvaikutukseen kertautumisen vuoksi.16
  17. 17. ”Kanavamotivaation” ongelma konversiossa (Marketing Experiments 2010) ―The PPC traffic was considerably more motivated than the external banner traffic, and though the new process significantly lowered Friction in the process, there was not much to address the specific motivations of incoming visitors. – Though cutting the amount of steps in a process increased the conversion rate for every channel tested, there was a significant difference in gains made from channel to channel. As we have taught, not all channels will convert at the same rate because they represent different demographics at different places in the conversation. The PPC traffic was considerably more motivated than the external banner traffic, and though the new process significantly lowered Friction in the process, there was not much to address the specific motivations of incoming visitors.‖  testaa eri kanavia, mieti tavoitteita  ongelma ilmenee selkeimmin, kun yrität skaalata (minä tahansa hetkenä on vain rajattu joukko ihmisiä, jotka ovat valmiita ostamaan; muiden kohdalla on päästävä valintajoukkoon tai luotava tarve)17
  18. 18. Kanavat konvertoivat eri teholla (cost of conversion) Bännerit Hakukone Facebook Kävijöiden 1000 1000 1000 määrä CPC (CTR) 1 (0,5 %) 0,25 (5 %) 0,50 (0,05 %) Cost (€) 1000 250 500 CVR (ostot) 1 % (10) 1 % (10) 3 % (30) COC/CPS 100 25 17 entä myöhäinen konversio?18
  19. 19. Muita haasteita (Mikä kampanja konvertoi parhaiten?) • ostamisen lykkääminen (deferred buying behavior) – kun cookien teho häviää, ‖kadotetaan‖ asiakas – voidaan ehkäistä rekisteröinneillä • attribuutio-ongelma (iSales-keissi) – sitä monimutkaisempi, mitä enemmän markkinointikanavia JA myyntikanavia – jos on sekä online- että offline-myyntipiste JA online- ja offline-markkinointia, on lähes mahdotonta diskreettisesti erottaa ratkaiseva kosketus – huom! ensikosketus ei ole aina ratkaiseva – kyseessä on siis jonkinlainen todennäköisyysmalli, jonka mukaan asiakkaat painottavat eri kanavista tulevia viestejä ostopäätöksen tekemisessä19
  20. 20. Kosketusten painottaminen (Burka 2011) ‖There are several ways to allocate success across different online marketing channels. The easiest method is to weight each channel equally, leaving yourself the option of taking the frequency of each channel‘s exposure into account, as well as the placement of each in the purchase path (first, last or middle touch point). – For example, if someone has been exposed to a display ad five times in a seven touch point path, then the credit given to display can be weighted higher. Or if display was the first touch point, you could make the case that this channel introduced someone to the brand and should be given more credit than the other channels. In addition, it would make sense to weight the data points based on whether they result in new customers or existing customers.‖20
  21. 21. Last touch bias (Salminen 2012) • käytössä olevalla analytiikkatyökalulla pystytään erottamaan vain viimeinen, konversion tuonut kosketus – ollaan siis sokeita kaikille aiemmille kosketuksille • tämän perusteella päätellään että kampanja B (last touch) sai aikaan konversion, vaikka ainakin osa konversion arvosta pitäisi sijoittaa aikaisemmille kosketuksille (esim. kampanja A, first touch) • tuloksena on attribuutiovirhe, ‖last touch bias‖ – seurauksena voidaan tehdä huonoja allokointipäätöksiä21
  22. 22. Konversio-optimoinnin osa-alueet (Salminen 2012) landing page landing page bounce optimization kannustimet esteet shopping ostoskori cart recovery kannustimet esteet lifecycle loyalty churn marketing22
  23. 23. Miksi asiakas hylkää ostoskorin? • tilausprosessin vaikeus • maksu- tai toimitustapojen puute • tuote ei heti saatavilla • tiedon puute (toimitusaika, tuote, yritys…) • pettymys esim. postituskuluihin • vertailu eri myyjien välillä – ―Online-savvy consumers are using shopping carts to browse more than to buy. Knowing that shipping costs, handling charges, sales tax, product availability, and delivery methods vary widely among online retailers, customers use shopping carts to compare vendors.‖23
  24. 24. Asiakas laittaa tuotteen ostoskoriin, mutta lähtee sivulta. Mitä teet? • Ensin täytyy TIETÄÄ asiasta (analytiikka). • Vaihtoehdot: 1. kysy heti miksi (event-trigger?) 2. lähetä sähköpostia (tunnistaminen, rekisteröinti?) 3. uudelleenkohdista mainontaa (retargeting)24
  25. 25. 5 vinkkiä ostoskorin pelastamiseen (Marketing Experiments 2005) 1. Collect email address (and possibly also the phone number) in the first step of your order process so you are able to contact customers if they do not complete their orders. This may seem obvious, but many site owners overlook this simple step that enables the whole cart-recovery process. 2. Many abandoned carts are caused by problems or frustrations with the order process. Your potential customers will be much more likely to respond if they sense that you are genuinely interested in helping them. Let them feel your authentic concern. 3. It is important that you respond as soon as possible after the carts are abandoned. The more time that passes, the more likely customers will forget about your offer. If possible, automate your first message so that it will be sent out within minutes of the abandoned order. 4. If possible, design your email messages so that a link will take the customer back to the abandoned cart with the item or items already added and as much information as possible pre-populated in the order form. 5. Utilize incentives to encourage potential customers to come back to your site and complete their orders.25
  26. 26. Shopping cart recovery Second Email: Hello: (Marketing Ex. 2005) We are not sure if you received our previous email, but this is our last attempt to contact you. ____ days ago, you started to place an order at First Email: __________. Somehow, you were unable to Hello: complete the form. Thank you for visiting ________. Was the problem on our end or on yours? Is there We noticed that you did not complete your order, any way we can help? and we wanted to do everything we can to help. INCENTIVE To complete your order in two minutes or less, (Example: We apologize for any difficulty you may have had with our ordering system. Our customer just visit our one-page, simple order form: service manager has approved a special price of LINK $19.95 if you would like to give us one more Product or service benefits should go here. chance.) If you have any questions about our There are two ways to complete your order in two products/services, please contact us using one of minutes or less: the following methods: Use this link to visit our one-page, simple order form: PHONE NUMBER LINK EMAIL ADDRESS Call (toll-free) 800-555-5555. We are standing by to WEBSITE ADDRESS answer your questions. Please let us know if there is any other way we If you are not satisfied with your purchase, we will can help. give you a complete refund, no questions asked. Thanks, Please let us know if there is any other way we can help. Personal Signature Thanks, P.S. Use the postscript to provide an additional Personal Signature incentive or notice of a money-back guarantee. P.S. If you do not respond to this email, we will If you want your name removed from our records, remove your information from our servers. There is please click here: no need to unsubscribe. SIMPLE UNSUBSCRIBE INSTRUCTIONS If you want your name removed from our records26 immediately, please click here: SIMPLE UNSUBSCRIBE INSTRUCTIONS
  27. 27. Checkout-kannustus (”Olet melkein siellä!”) ―Many marketers assume that the customer has enough momentum once clicking ‗add to cart‘ to make it through the entire checkout process,‖ he stated, ―That‘s a lot like expecting a fish to reel itself in once it‘s been hooked.‖ The lack of value communication in the checkout process is one of the biggest impediments to conversion in the checkout process that our researchers come across when optimizing the funnel process. McGlaughlin stated that the value proposition must be expressed continuously for every step/action you require of the visitor. Marketers must never assume your customer is completely sold in the cart.‖27
  28. 28. Konversiosuunnittelun KoRKo-malli (Salminen 2012, wp.) Konversio- design Rakenne Sisältö A/B 1. käytettävyys 1. luotettavuus • referenssit 2. design (layout) (trust indicators) • suositukset 3. linkkiarkkitehtuuri 2. informatiivisuus • brand (clutter, navigation) 3. helppous spillovers • konventiot • autenttisuus • aktiviteetti Konsistenssi, • samat kuvat, Relevanssi, sama ilme oikea • sama arvolupaus Kongruenssi kohderyhmä • jatkuva friction reduction vakuuttaminen28
  29. 29. Trust indicators (social proof) call-to- action Facebook- suositukset/ tykkäykset asiakaspalaute kuvat Sertifikaatit/ copyteksti brändikytkökset29
  30. 30. konventio = elementti ja Pyri konventioon sijainti, johon asiakas on tottunut muissa verkkokaupoissa (ts. vallitseva käytäntö) ostoskori yläoikealla logo ylävasemmalla kategoriat vasen laita tuotteet keskellä kampanjabänneri tuotteiden yläpuolella haku yläoikealla? yhteystiedot horis. valikossa? Älä poikkea konventioista ilman hyvää syytä! (herättää hämmennystä)30
  31. 31. ”Friction overload” (Sutton 2011, suom. ‟kitka‟) “Friction is the psychological resistance to elements in the email – Friction is caused by forcing subscribers to think or act. Longer copy takes longer to read and therefore increases friction. Using several calls-to-action (instead of one) increases friction by forcing subscribers to weigh several options. Every email has friction (subscribers have to read and click on something), but it must be minimized. Common causes of ―friction overload‖ in emails include: – Multiple images that compete for attention – Non-linear eye path in the layout – Multiple calls-to-action from which to choose – Long or confusing copy Excessive friction is also generated by emails that do not follow the typical subscriber‘s thought process. For example, the call-to-action should not be presented until the subscriber understands why they‘ve received the message and why they should respond. Otherwise, the email is calling them to act before they see a clear benefit.‖31
  32. 32. Suositukset (social proof) kohdennettu suositus perustuu asiakkaan toimiin arvostelut kertovat tuotteen laadusta ostofrekvenssi kertoo muiden asiakkaiden valinnoista32
  33. 33. Trust seals & brand solicits (reference proof) referenssi- asiakkaat, brand spill over effects33
  34. 34. Trust indicator: appearance of activity (Bustos 2010) live-päivitys sivun ‖Though someone may not buy an item tapahtumista just because someone else has just snapped it up, it does give the appearance of activity on the site. In traditional retail, the busier a store is, the more people it will attract. When I worked in a shoe store, we were told to ‗make a mess‘ when the store was ‗dead‘ to give the appearance that something was happening in the store. Otherwise, people will look in and walk right by. It works. Bubblelicious gives the sense that Backcountry is an active site that many other people are shopping right now – which may have the same effect.‖34
  35. 35. Relevanssi: autenttinen kuvamateriaali Kuvapankista Aitoja kuvankaappauksia35
  36. 36. Kuvien autenttisuus ―Marketers often use stock images that imply nothing about the value of the offer, settling for ‗pretty‘ images that make no clear connection to the offer‘s core value. Remember, images that say nothing are worth nothing. The force of an image increases with its authenticity. Images can bring a realism that reduces the „virtual distance‟ between an offer‟s value and the recipient‟s perception of that value. Therefore, marketers must attempt to find images that help the visitor see and experience the core value of the product.‖ (Marketing Experiments 2010)36
  37. 37. ”Marketese language” – vältä tätä! • Spesifisyys. ‖industry leader‖, ‖best data‖ – BS! • epäselviä kvalitatiivisia väitteitä • informaatioarvo nolla • Tyyli (tone). ‖Your hunt is over!‖ tunnetaanko me? • Valinnanvara konktoinnissa, pushy? WTF? ”MA8 tarjoaa laadukkaita ratkaisuja digitaalisten järjestelmien ymmärtämisen strategisessa markkinointikontekstissa.”37
  38. 38. Arvolupausten konkretisointi ‖To offer an example, commonly used PPC terms such as ‗biggest‘ mean nothing out of context. Instead of wasting ad space with unsubstantiated generalities, choose to tell the user, ‗106,000+ new users in 2010.‘ Don‘t tell the user that something offers ‗fastest downloads‘ when it is more effective to say, ‗Download time is X seconds.‘ Such superlatives offer the user no information that would encourage a clickthrough.‖ (Marketing Experiments 2011)  pidä huolta, että tarjoat informaatioarvoa!  “Asiakas ei ole tyhmä. Hän on vaimosi.” (Ogilvy)38
  39. 39. Mielestäsi landing page A on parempi, Joni sanoo B:n olevan parempi. Mitä tehdään? Testataan ja katsotaan kumpi voitti. kontrolliversio (A) testiversio (B) +3,6 % Testin rakenne: Muutetaan ainoastaan toimintakehoite (call-to- action), mitä opitaan?39
  40. 40. A/B testauksessa huomioitavaa • itsenäiset ja riippuvat muuttujat (minkä vaikutusta mihin testataan?) • peräkkäinen (sequential) vai rinnakkainen (split) testi • tarpeeksi dataa (merkitsevyys) • hyvä olla hypoteesi (joidenkin mielestä aina) • tuloksia käytetään hyödyksi jatkokampanjoissa Haasteet (muk. Arento 2010) – syklisuus (keston oltava riittävä) – trendisyys (testauksen on hyvä olla jatkuvaa) – harhaisuus (testi pitäisi toistaa) – muista kanavamotivaatio – analysis paralysis (koita aloittaa RADIKAALEISTA muutoksista)40
  41. 41. Esimerkki A/B-testauksesta uutiskirjeen testauksessa ―As a simple example, a company with a customer database of 2000 people decides to create an email campaign with a discount code in order to generate sales through its website. It creates an email and then modifies the Call To Action (the part of the copy which encourages customers to do something - in the case of a sales campaign, make a purchase). To 1000 people it sends the email with the Call To Action stating ‗Offer ends this Saturday! Use code A1‘, and to another 1000 people it sends the email with the Call To Action stating ‗Limited time offer! Use code B1‘. All other elements of the email‘s copy and layout are identical. The company then monitors which campaign has the highest success rate by analysing the use of the promotional codes. The email using the code A1 has a 5% response rate (50 of the 1000 people emailed used the code to buy a product), and the email using the code B1 has a 3% response rate (30 of the recipients used the code to buy a product). The company therefore determines that in this instance, the first Call To Action is more effective and will use it in future sales campaigns.‖41
  42. 42. Testaamisen tavoite on ymmärtää miksi! ―Marketers should not assume that a popular page design will be effective for every situation. The problem with ‗best practices‘ or ‗best designs‘ is that they rarely work across the board. It is more important to move beyond understanding the ‗what‘ of page layout, and use testing to attain the deeper understanding of „why‟.‖ (Marketing Experiments 2010) voit aina kyseenalaistaa ―lait‖ jotta ymmärtää, mikä asia toimii missä tilanteessa, on hyvä ymmärtää syy/mekanismi/logiikka; muuten saatat yllättyä42
  43. 43. Yhdenmukaisuuden periaate (principle of congruence) ―Essentially, this principle states that for a value proposition to be effectively expressed on a Web page, each element of that page must either state or support the value proposition. This means that not only do headlines and copy need to communicate value, but images, buttons, navigation, and even the site functionality must be saying something about the value of the offer.‖ (Marketing Experiments 2010)43
  44. 44. Designin ja konversion tradeoff? ―On the Web there is often a false dichotomy between aesthetics and optimization. Some marketers desire a site that ―looks nice‖ but is not necessarily optimized for conversion. Other marketers care less about design and just want a ―site that sells.‖ But, as is usually the case with such marketing tensions, the answer is not one of competition, but cooperation. Solving this tension is a matter of assigning priority, and as the following experiment clearly illustrates, strategy should take priority over style.‖ (Marketing Experiments 2010) (muista myös designin ja hakukoneoptimoinnin oletettu tradeoff)44
  45. 45. Tavoitteena kaunis sivu? (Designer’s fallacy) ―Marketers must understand that an aesthetically appealing page does not necessarily convert better than an aesthetically unappealing page. Optimization strategy will almost always trump style when it comes to visitor response.‖ – toisin sanoen, ruma sivu voi myydä paremmin kuin ―hieno‖; joskus esteettisyyden lisääminen ovi johtaa konversion alenemiseen – esim., fruugo ―This does not mean that aesthetic design has no place in optimization. Branding, images and the like can help conversion when used appropriately, but there is often a disproportionate emphasis placed on the style of design.‖ (Correll 2011)45
  46. 46. ”Lojaaliusmaksimi” (totta vai tarua?) ―The traditional arguments from non-Internet marketing continue to hold: it is almost always much cheaper to retain satisfied customers and turn them into repeat business than it is to attract a new, one-time customer. The first time you do business with somebody, the net result may well be a loss because of the huge cost of attracting new customers […]. Also, the first order is likely small because the customer wants to test the waters before committing to large deals on an ongoing basis. Keeping the customer in the fold is cheaper than advertising for new customers, and repeat orders are likely be progressively larger. Combine cheaper costs and larger orders and you find that repeat customers generate most of your profits. This has been proven again and again in the ‗real world‘ and is almost certainly true on the Internet as well.‖ (Nielsen 1997) konversio < retentio? (CVR:n46 ja CLV:n suhde?)
  47. 47. Stay tuned!47