THESIS Over six thousand years ago Chinese brush painting emerged as a special form of art which would certainly leave it evidence in world’s art incorporating odd and particular techniques and with its spontaneous and very original nature it would have a large influence on modern art.
OUTLINE Chinese brush painting history - Historical episodes of Chinese brush paintingevolution. 1. Origins at primitive times (Neolithic Age about sixthousand years ago) 2. Different dynasties reflecting different periods andsocieties 3. The beginnings of the Republic of China Techniques and styles - The difference in techniques 1. Comparison with western paintings 2. Three main divisions of traditional Chinese paintings Nature and influence in modern art - Special nature, symbolism in relation to modern art. 1. Nature as a tool of symbolic expression 2. Abstract images and words in Chinese calligraphy 3. Influences in modern art
HISTORY… Primitive times: first signs of this kind of art were found in pottery, where pots were designed with different figures representing animals, faces, battles, rites and actions of everyday life. Han dynasty: the Han invented paper and lead-glazed ceramics and also improved silk-weaving techniques. An emphasis on funerary art is evident in tombs artfully decorated with figures and geometric shapes; these images provide clues to Han costumes, architecture, and aristocratic pastimes. Evolution of the Tang Dynasty: the most important forms of art were image paintings which represented beauty and nobility. The emergence of the Imperial Art Academy, which consisted of the best painters in China, proves the new epoch in art that time. The painters of the academy used to draw aristocracy usually representing their everyday life. Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties: Yuan Dynasty influence affected the Ming and Qing Dynasty. Something very particular emerged during the last dynasty. By shaving their heads, the best painters of the time wanted to show how determined they were not to obey the dynasties. Their subjects consisted of calm landscapes and tradition in general.
HISTORY… Republic of China The birth of the Republic of China denotes a flourishing moment for art. At this specific time we see the transitions art went through, from tradition to modernism. The most important factor was the Western style and impact on traditional Chinese painting. It was oil painting which really made a difference in China.
HISTORY…(CONTD)NEOLITHIC AGE (6000 YEARS HAN DYNASTY (206 BC-220AD)AGO) TANG DYNASTY (618-907) YUAN, MING , QING DYNASTIES
TECHNIQUES AND STYLESAs a very prevalent style Chinese brush painting is based on water, more specifically on ink. The Chinese brush with its supple shape is a key element in providing varieties of effect Bamboo brush: a brush made out of bamboo, used to create Chinese brush paintings. Brush stroke: the mark of ink or color from a brush. A brush stroke can be long, short, thin, thick etc. Ink: Chinese black ink that is made from pine tree extract and traditional glue. Ink may come in the form of liquid or as a hard block that is softened by water. Paper: has a high absorption. While the water is being spread and absorbed in the paper, later on, the colors diffuse and create a nice intrigue and spontaneityThe philosophy is being very economic while using the ink with forms, tones and textures.
TECHNIQUES AND STYLES (CONTD...)Comparison with western paintings special pedagogy, the close relationship with the painter personal and unique Chinese philosophy. not only to convey the objects but also express the mood and the spirit of the subject. what the Chinese painters are trying to express is not what meets the eye, but their attitude to the Great Nature. all Chinese paintings whether they are landscapes or the human figure are painted with the same movement, rhythm, and harmony that is used when drawing the forms of calligraphy. The Chinese painter finds it offensive to ponder and draw the human figure by itself.
TECHNIQUES AND STYLES (CONTD...)Three main divisions of traditional Chinese paintings (These three important styles are based on the real particular characteristics that define Chinese painting, such as the freedom when the artist describes the object, the emphasis on his true feelings and the general way the painting is arranged.) Elaborate: is achieved by drawing and coloring in a systematic and meticulous way with the brushes. The brush must be held in such a way that is creates a sharp and very fine description of the object. Liberal: the brush is characterized by freedom and conciseness. This particular method describes better the exteriority and the soul of the object. In order to fully express the soul of the painting, each of the artist’s strokes has to be skillful and proficient. Elaborate-Liberal: combination of the elaborate and liberal painting.
NATURE AND INFLUENCE IN MODERN ARTContemporary Chinese brush painting. Chinese brush painting is considered one of the oldest artistic traditions in the world. This form of art is very appreciated and keeps affecting modern art. The styles vary from very detail oriented pieces to simplistic yet profound sets of works.New ideas A simple push of the brush would create a form that ones’ eye could easily identify. A simple stroke of the brush creates a defining line that brings out power of the painting. A slight wash over a small lake can bring out the glistening tones of a sun setting over the mountains.
NATURE AND INFLUENCE IN MODERN ART (CONTD…) Abstract images and words in Chinese calligraphy A finished Chinese brush painting does not only represent a graphic. It is filled with symbolism and expressionism. A Chinese artist would never paint an object without creating an abstractive area around it. They want to become a part of nature thus they make a translation of what is in their minds and hearts. Calligraphy (a means of communication, but also a means of expressing a persons inner world in an aesthetic sense) has a crucial role in Chinese painting. The symbolic figures painted on papers have to be associated with a word or phrase in the Chinese calligraphy, which is considered as the top of all styles of art. The calligraphy itself in most of the cases is an indicator of specific concepts, themes or titles. Combining a brush painting with calligraphy creates an uncommon frame of art which definitely has created an aspect of revolution.
CONCLUSION Starting thousands of years ago, Chinesebrush painting has made its way throughseveral periods, from primitive to modernones. Its abundant history, diversification oftechniques and styles, nature and impact inmodern art show the development of a highlyappreciated and popular form of art.
REFERENCES Cohn. W (January, 1942), A Study of Chinese Paintings, The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, Vol.80, No. 466, pp. 10-17. Fong. W (March, 1998), Reflections on Chinese Art History, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 142, No. 1, pp. 47-59. Wang. L (January, 2004), The Art of Chinese Brush Painting, Artist’s Library Series, pp 3-11. Sullivan. M (October 1999), “The Three Perfections: Chinese Painting, Poetry, and Calligraphy”