FDEP Multi Media Inspector Training
Goals for Training <ul><li>How to inspect an industrial facility </li></ul><ul><li>Separate process and pollution control ...
Learning Objectives <ul><li>For FDEP Inspectors to understand the operations of pulp and paper mills and become familiar w...
Pulp and Paper Mills in Florida <ul><ul><li>Member Facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buckeye, Perry </li></ul></ul...
Pulp and Paper Mills in Florida <ul><li>Buckeye - Perry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleached Kraft Process </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Pulp and Paper Mills in Florida <ul><li>Industry at a Glance </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Byproducts </li></ul><ul><li>Tall Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Turpentine </li></ul>Recovery Boiler Liquor Evaporator Cau...
Mill Tour <ul><li>Woodyard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Debarking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Woodyard Operations
What is wood? <ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consists of long, straight chains of glucose molecules. It forms the...
Wood Characteristics <ul><li>Trees can be divided into two general classes - softwoods and hardwoods.  </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Typical Woodyard Log Storage Receiving <ul><li>Heavy Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Truck Dump </li></ul><ul><li>Rail Car Dum...
Environmental Issues <ul><li>Fugitive Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM emissi...
Environmental Impacts Use of Bark as Fuel Control Runoff at Transfer Points Control of Particulate Matter (PM) and Visible...
Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Dust Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water trucks – wet spraying </li></ul>...
Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Is the woodyard housekeeping adequate?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Housekeeping plays an importa...
Log Flume Log Flume Chipping and Debarking Operations
Debarking Drum Outside of Debarking Drum
Debarking Drum Waste Pile Transfer Tube
Chip Storage Open Chip Bin Storage Central column feeds chips to screener and digester
Pulping Operations
Overview of Pulping <ul><li>Chemical Pulping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digesters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blow Tanks </li></...
Kraft Pulping Pulp Chips Digester White Liquor Weak Black Liquor Pulp Blow Tanks Brown Stock Washers Pulp Shower Water Bla...
Sulfite Pulping Pulp Chips Digesters Cooking Acid Pulp Blow Pits Red Stock Washers Pulp Shower Water Liquor Liquor Black L...
Typical Pulp Washing Hot Stock Refining Blow Tank 1 st  Stage Filtrate 2 nd  Stage Filtrate 3 rd  Stage Filtrate 3 rd  Sta...
Environmental Impacts Collection and  Control of Pulping Liquor (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater syste...
Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Sulfur and volatile organic emissions <...
Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper air control and management </l...
Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Are there any visible emissions in pulping areas? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are vents and filte...
Brown Stock Washer Washer Hood Washer Drum
Batch Digester Cap Chip Loading Capping Valve
Batch Digesters Digester Body
Continuous Digester Kaymr
Recycle Pulper Bales of post consumer waste paper on conveyer Ragger
Waste Paper Cleaners
Waste Paper Fines Separator
Bleaching Operations
Bleaching Stages Hypochlorite is a true bleaching agent by destroying certain chromophoric groups of lignin. Hypochlorite ...
Bleaching Stages (cont.) Ozone (O 3 ) is also an effective delignifying agent. It also brightens the pulp as well. Ozone h...
Modern Bleach Plant Design
Typical Bleach Plant 1 st  Stage Washer Tower 1 st  Stage Filtrate 2 nd  Stage Washer Tower 3 rd  Stage Washer Tower 4 th ...
Typical Bleaching Stage Washer Bleaching Tower (up flow) Filtrate Tank Chemical Mixer Steam Mixer Pulp Bleaching Chemical ...
Oxygen Delignification <ul><li>Reduces lignin content in pulp liquor. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps reduce the need for chlorine...
Chlorine Dioxide Washer Washer Hood Inlet Flow
Environmental Impacts Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormw...
Environmental Issues <ul><li>Chlorine containing compounds are extremely toxic and persistent. </li></ul><ul><li>Air Pollu...
Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper control and collection of emit...
Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Is all the ductwork, piping, and associated valves in an acceptable and working condition? ...
Paper Machine / Pulp Dryer
Fourdrinier Paper Machine Spreads Pulp Stock onto Wire Table 3% Solids 7% Solids 40% -50% of Pulp Stock is Solids 95% of P...
Environmental Impacts Rewinder Broke and Coating Residue Disposal Defective Paper Wastepaper Disposal Collection and Contr...
Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled TRS emissions from pulp stock, pre...
Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper control and collection of emit...
Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Is all the ductwork, piping, and associated valves in an acceptable and working condition? ...
High Density Pulp Storage Storage Tank Agitation Zone
Paper Machine Fourdrinier Headbox Dryline
Evaporator Operations
Evaporator Operations <ul><li>Entering weak black liquor from pulping fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 15% solids </li>...
Typical Evaporator Effect 5 Surface Condenser Steam Heavy Liquor <ul><li>Notes: </li></ul><ul><li>The segregation of conde...
Multiple Effect Evaporators Vapor Dome Tube Bundles Vapor Lines
Evaporator Hotwell NCG Collection Hotwell Condensate Collection
Environmental Impacts Prevention of organic gas leaks NCG System Prevention of leaks and spills of condensate Prevention o...
Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled emissions and failed collection of...
Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NCG Collection System  for multiple-e...
Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Are all the ductwork, piping, and associated vapor lines in an acceptable and working condi...
Recovery Boiler Operations
Recovery Boiler Operations <ul><li>Black liquor boiled to recover smelt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smelt contains chemicals ne...
Kraft Recovery Boiler NCDE Recovery Boiler ESP Saltcake Mix Tank Drying Reducing Oxidizing Flue Gas Black Liquor Feed Recy...
Environmental Impacts Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormw...
Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine and course particulate matter and HAP emis...
Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper use and upkeep of scrubbers in...
Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Is a distinct or strong gaseous odor present around boilers operations? </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Causticizing  Operations
Typical Causticizing Operation White Liquor Clarifier Green Liquor Clarifier Slaker Causticizer From Recovery Area Dregs W...
Environmental Impacts Not applicable unless the materials fail paint filter test and have a pH >12.5 Good housekeeping and...
Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate matter and HAP emissions </li></ul>...
Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venturi Scrubbers for lime ...
Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Is a distinct or strong gaseous odor present around causticizing operations? </li></ul><ul>...
Lime Kiln Lime Kiln Tube Washing and Causticizing Operations
Lime Kiln Lime Kiln Tube Motor and Drive Units Fire Hood
Power and Utility  Operations
Power and Steam Generation Boilers Steam Condensate from mill High Pressure Steam Turbines Electrical Power Low Pressure S...
Environmental Impacts Solids in steam water carried to turbines Potential release of oils to receiving waters Turbine Gene...
Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S...
Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Pollutant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO x  – Low NO x  burners, s...
Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Are proper housekeeping procedures being upheld? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power plants have a ...
Power Boilers Power Plant
Acid Tanker Unloading Acid Storage Tank
By-product Recovery
Typical Turpentine Recovery (Kraft) Decanter Cyclone Separator Digester Storage Condenser Relief To HVLC System Turpentine...
Turpentine Decanter Decanter Storage Containment
Environmental Impacts Spills are very toxic to WWT system Secondary containment required Collection and Control of Vent Ga...
Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled TRS emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Pollutant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous automated monitor...
Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Is a noticeable continuous alarm system installed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm systems shou...
Typical Tall Oil Recovery (Kraft) Reactor Sulfuric Acid Black Liquor Soap Tall Oil Brine Tall Oil Storage Decanter or Cent...
Tall Oil Plant
Environmental Impacts Spills are very toxic to WWT system Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) T...
Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Odor emissions from soap tank and reactor vent ...
Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Pollutant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caustic Scrubber for collect...
Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Are odor emissions strong and persistent? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Odors will exist in tall oi...
Environmental Control
Environmental Control <ul><li>Wastewater Treatment Facility </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Benefi...
Environmental Impacts Ash emissions into wastewater system Ash emissions into stormwater system Uncontrolled emissions of ...
Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulping condensates contain sulfur compounds an...
Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Pollutant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous monitoring of emi...
Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Are proper housekeeping procedures being upheld? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are all storage loca...
Primary Clarifier Clarifier Unit Wastewater Body
Stormwater Collection System Stormwater Collection Operations Good Vegetation Control
Stormwater Collection System Stormwater Collection Tunnel Good Vegetation Control
Inlet Pond Inlet Water for Mill Operations
Pond Outlet Standpipe Standpipe
Effluent Monitoring Station Effluent Monitoring Operations
Truck Product Loading
Rail Product Loading
Pollution Control Technology
Pollution Control Technology <ul><li>ESP </li></ul><ul><li>Venturi Scrubber </li></ul><ul><li>Packed Bed Scrubber </li></u...
Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) <ul><li>Remove particulate matter (PM) from flue gas </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the ESP wi...
Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) <ul><li>Theory Continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESP operation is governed by: </li></ul><...
Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) <ul><li>Particulate matter (PM) removal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The collectors are knocked ...
Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) Particulate Laden Flue Gas Positively Charge Collection Plates Discharge Electrodes (-) C...
Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) ESP Collection Plates Internals of ESP
Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) Dry Bottom ESP ESP Hopper
Venturi Scrubbers <ul><li>Primary use is the control of particulate matter (PM) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) </li><...
Venturi Scrubbers <ul><li>Theory Continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To achieve the high velocities (approaching 100,000 ft/m...
Venturi Scrubbers Cyclonic  Separator Contaminated Gas Inlet Scrubbing Liquid Clean Gas Outlet to Atmosphere Body Gas and ...
Venturi Scrubbers Back Body and Venturi Sections Cyclonic Separator Contaminated Gas Inlet
Packed Bed Scrubbers <ul><li>Primarily used for the control of Sulfur Dioxide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scrubber will also...
Packed Bed Scrubbers Packed  Bed Contaminated Gas Inlet Concentrated Liquid for Disposal or Recycle Scrubbing Liquid Clean...
Packed Bed Scrubbers Back Inlet Gas from Operations Packed Bed Column Exhaust to Atmosphere
Incinerators <ul><li>Incineration process is the rapid oxidation of organic substances by direct or indirect heat, reducin...
Incinerators <ul><li>Non-Condensable Gas (NCG) Incineration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ultimate goal of NCG incineration is...
Incinerators <ul><li>Quenching System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of the quenching system is to reduce combustion fl...
Incinerators Back Inlet Gas Flow Primary Burner Outlet Gas Flow
Steam Stripper <ul><li>Steam stripping or steam distillation is a multistage continuous distillation process where steam i...
Steam Stripper <ul><li>Steam Stripper Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The liquor condensate containing a volatile component ...
Steam Stripper <ul><li>Key Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of trays within stripping column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Steam Stripper Stage Trays Inlet Steam Cleaned Condensate Contaminated Condensate Steam containing condensate pollutants R...
Steam Stripper Back Stripping Column Reflux Condenser
Baghouse <ul><li>Alternate pollution control device for the control and reduction of particulate matter. </li></ul><ul><li...
Baghouse <ul><li>Important Design Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The major flue gases run through baghouses have dom...
Baghouse Back Dust Hopper Clean Air to Atmosphere Particulate Laden Gas Filter Bags Shaker Device
Baghouse Back
Non-Condensable Gas (NCG) Collection Systems <ul><li>What is NCG? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NCG is what remains after the gase...
LVHC (NCG) Collection Systems <ul><li>LVHC – low volume, high concentration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable gases at conce...
LVHC (NCG) Collection Systems Digester Wood White Liquor Turpentine Recovery System Washer System Part of HVLC System Pulp...
HVLC (NCG) Collection Systems <ul><li>HVLC – high volume, low concentration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable at concentrati...
HVLC (NCG) Collection Systems Pulp Washing System Knotter System Pulp Liquor from Blow Tanks Storage Tank Weak Black Liquo...
Condensate Collection Systems <ul><li>Condensate Collection and Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foul condensates contain org...
Condensate (NCG) Collection Systems <ul><li>Condensate Segregation System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensate segregation mi...
Condensate Collection Systems Back Turpentine Decanter Cyclone Separator Digester Turpentine Storage Condenser Relief Cond...
Non-Condensable Gas (NCG) Collection Systems <ul><li>NCG Collection System Safety Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary ...
Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) Control <ul><li>What is Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of so...
Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) Control <ul><li>Theory behind Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) control in lime kiln. </li></ul><ul><u...
Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) Control <ul><li>Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) control in recovery boiler. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re...
Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) Control <ul><li>TRS Reduction in Recovery Boiler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key operating variables ...
Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Woodyard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumatic>>C...
Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Pulping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum Drum>>...
Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Bleaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECF and TCF...
Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Paper Machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once t...
Paper Machine Whitewater
Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Evaporators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vent gas ...
Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Recovery Boiler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black...
Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Causticizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advancem...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Env 02

1,484

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,484
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Env 02

  1. 1. FDEP Multi Media Inspector Training
  2. 2. Goals for Training <ul><li>How to inspect an industrial facility </li></ul><ul><li>Separate process and pollution control technology </li></ul><ul><li>Understand pollution control devices </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the background of each technology </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>For FDEP Inspectors to understand the operations of pulp and paper mills and become familiar with the major compliance issues for air, water and waste media. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide FDEP Inspectors with a general understanding of the fundamentals of a pulp and paper mill. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pulp and Paper Mills in Florida <ul><ul><li>Member Facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buckeye, Perry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Georgia-Pacific, Palatka </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>International Paper, Cantonment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packaging Corporation of America, Valdosta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rayonier, Fernandina Beach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smurfit-Stone, Fernandina Beach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smurfit-Stone, Jacksonville </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smurfit-Stone, Panama City </li></ul></ul></ul>International Paper, Cantonment Smurfit-Stone, Fernandina Beach Rayonier, Fernandina Beach Buckeye, Perry Smurfit-Stone, Panama City Georgia-Pacific, Palatka Packaging Corp of America, Valdosta Smurfit-Stone, Jacksonville
  5. 5. Pulp and Paper Mills in Florida <ul><li>Buckeye - Perry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleached Kraft Process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Georgia-Pacific – Palatka </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleached Kraft Process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Paper – Cantonment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleached Kraft Process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rayonier – Fernandina Beach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleached Sulfite Process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smurfit-Stone – Fernandina Beach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unbleached Kraft Process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smurfit-Stone – Jacksonville </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unbleached Recycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smurfit-Stone – Panama City </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleached Kraft Process </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Pulp and Paper Mills in Florida <ul><li>Industry at a Glance </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>47% of Florida is forested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forest are critical to recharge and protection of Floridian Aquifer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regeneration/planting programs result in an annual growth of 17% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% of energy consumed by our industry is self-generated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employs 41,000 workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.5% of manufacturing workforce, 6.7% payroll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital spending of $236 million per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual payroll of $1.2 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources: Florida’s Renewable Forests Resources, University of Florida, 2002; AF&PA, statistics revised 2001 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Byproducts </li></ul><ul><li>Tall Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Turpentine </li></ul>Recovery Boiler Liquor Evaporator Causticizing Woodyard Bleaching Pulping Paper Machine Power and Steam Generation <ul><li>Environmental Control </li></ul><ul><li>WWT </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill </li></ul><ul><li>Stripper </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidizer </li></ul>Brown Pulp Chips Logs Pulp and Paper Products Bleach Pulp WBL HBL Green Liquor White Liquor Steam BL Soap Digester Relief Gases
  8. 8. Mill Tour <ul><li>Woodyard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Debarking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pulping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digesters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp Washing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bleaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paper Making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourdrinier Paper Machine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaporators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotwell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NCG System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smelt Dissolving Tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causticizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causticizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lime Kiln </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power House </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boilers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By-products Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turpentine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastewater Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landfill & Land Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensate Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NCG Incineration </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Woodyard Operations
  10. 10. What is wood? <ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consists of long, straight chains of glucose molecules. It forms the skeleton of the plant wall and has the most desired properties for making paper. These fibers are long, strong and translucent. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemicelluloses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are short, branched chains of glucose and other sugar molecules. They fill in space in the plant wall. Hemicelluloses are more soluble in water and are thus often removed during the pulping process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lignin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a three dimensional phenolic polymer network. This &quot;glue from hell&quot; holds the cellulose fibers together and makes them rigid. Chemical pulping and bleaching processes selectively remove the lignin without significantly degrading the cellulose fibers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extractives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>account for 3(+/-2)% of softwoods. These materials include plant hormones, resin and fatty acids along with other substances that help the tree grow and resist disease and pests. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Wood Characteristics <ul><li>Trees can be divided into two general classes - softwoods and hardwoods. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Softwood trees are conifers - e.g., southern pine, Douglas fir, spruce. Softwood fibers with their length and coarseness are generally used to provide strength to a sheet of paper. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardwood trees lose their leaves every year. Examples include birch, aspen, red gum. Hardwood fibers, being finer and more conformable, give a sheet of paper its smooth printing surface and opacity. Hardwood fibers are also easier to bleach to high brightness because they have less lignin. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paper generally consists of a blend of hardwood and softwood pulps to meet the strength and printing surface demands of the customer. </li></ul>5-10 mg/100 mm 15-35 mg/100 mm Coarseness 0.6 – 1.5 mm 2-6 mm Fiber length 5% +/- 3% 3% +/- 2% Extractives 20% +/- 4% 28% +/- 3% Lignin content 45% +/- 2% 42% +/- 2% Cellulose content Hardwoods Softwoods Parameter
  12. 12. Typical Woodyard Log Storage Receiving <ul><li>Heavy Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Truck Dump </li></ul><ul><li>Rail Car Dump </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Conveyers </li></ul><ul><li>Flumes </li></ul>Debarking Chipping Chip Screening Overs = oversized chips for further processing Unders = undersized chips sent to bark pile Accepts = correct chip size sent to chip pile Chip Pile Bark Pile Digesters
  13. 13. Environmental Issues <ul><li>Fugitive Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM emissions from bark handling and storage activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storm water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Log, chip, and bark storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicles, oils and lubricants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinery, oils and lubricants </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Environmental Impacts Use of Bark as Fuel Control Runoff at Transfer Points Control of Particulate Matter (PM) and Visible Emissions (VE) Debarking Housekeeping Monitor Emissions Heavy Equipment Control of runoff Control of Particulate Matter (PM) and Visible Emissions (VE) Bark Storage Control of runoff Control of Particulate Matter (PM) and Visible Emissions (VE) Chip Storage Disposal of Defective Chips as Fuel Control Runoff at Transfer Points Control of Particulate Matter (PM) and Visible Emissions (VE) Chipping Disposal of Defective Logs Control of runoff Dust Control Log Storage Hazardous Waste Disposal of Defective Logs Control of runoff Dust Control Log Handling Solid Waste Wastewater Stormwater Air Activity
  15. 15. Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Dust Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water trucks – wet spraying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Road construction, e.g. paving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chip pile management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air Pollution Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Device - Fabric filters on debarking and chipping equipment to reduce emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baghouse and cyclone control systems for PM and VE reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stormwater Pollution Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storm water segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle and machinery maintenance </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Is the woodyard housekeeping adequate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Housekeeping plays an important role to keeping stormwater from coming into contact with vehicle and machinery oils and lubricants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housekeeping can also minimize the contribution of debris and influent loading to the effluent treatment system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does the facility utilize a water capture and reuse process for chip pile management? </li></ul><ul><li>Observe stormwater output locations for signs of non-storm water discharges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is any discoloration, residues, floatables, or structural damage present? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Log Flume Log Flume Chipping and Debarking Operations
  18. 18. Debarking Drum Outside of Debarking Drum
  19. 19. Debarking Drum Waste Pile Transfer Tube
  20. 20. Chip Storage Open Chip Bin Storage Central column feeds chips to screener and digester
  21. 21. Pulping Operations
  22. 22. Overview of Pulping <ul><li>Chemical Pulping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digesters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blow Tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp Washing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Liquor Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recycle Pulping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening/Cleaners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Liquor Storage </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Kraft Pulping Pulp Chips Digester White Liquor Weak Black Liquor Pulp Blow Tanks Brown Stock Washers Pulp Shower Water Black Liquor Black Liquor Black Liquor Weak Black Liquor Storage To Evaporators
  24. 24. Sulfite Pulping Pulp Chips Digesters Cooking Acid Pulp Blow Pits Red Stock Washers Pulp Shower Water Liquor Liquor Black Liquor Liquor Storage To Evaporators
  25. 25. Typical Pulp Washing Hot Stock Refining Blow Tank 1 st Stage Filtrate 2 nd Stage Filtrate 3 rd Stage Filtrate 3 rd Stage Washer 2 nd Stage Washer 1 st Stage Washer Water Pulp Pulp Shower Water Shower Water Pulp w/ Black Liquor Filtrate 12-14% Filtrate xx% Filtrate xx%
  26. 26. Environmental Impacts Collection and Control of Pulping Liquor (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Collection and Control of Vent Gases (HVLC) Liquor Storage Collection and Control of Pulping Liquor (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Collection and Control of Vent Gases (HVLC) Brown Stock Washers Collection and Control of Pulping Liquor (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Collection and Control of Vent Gases (LVHC) Blow Tanks Hazardous Waste Collection and Control of Pulping Liquor (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Collection and Control of Vent Gases (LVHC) Digesters Solid Waste Wastewater Stormwater Air Activity
  27. 27. Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Sulfur and volatile organic emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NCG emissions from digesters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emissions from pulp stock, recycled whitewater, and chemical additives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastewater discharge from washers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastewater discharge from chemical and pulp storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaks from digesters, washers, and storage tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid/Hazardous Waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid waste residues: reject fibers, cleaners, and coatings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used oils and washing solvents </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper air control and management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stainless steel vent and filter system for brown stock washer to reduce TRS emissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NCG collection system for brown stock washer tank and digesters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packed bed scrubbers for sulfur compound collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incinerators for combustion of pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wastewater Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid/Hazardous Waste Disposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper collection and discharge of solid residuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle and machinery maintenance and upkeep </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Are there any visible emissions in pulping areas? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are vents and filter systems present in pulping areas? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the vents and filter systems in noticeable working condition? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are there wastewater collection and capture measures in place and easily accessible? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No leaks or standing liquid near pulping operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is wastewater storage and disposal isolated in one area? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastewater disposal should be separated from any stormwater collection processes </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Brown Stock Washer Washer Hood Washer Drum
  31. 31. Batch Digester Cap Chip Loading Capping Valve
  32. 32. Batch Digesters Digester Body
  33. 33. Continuous Digester Kaymr
  34. 34. Recycle Pulper Bales of post consumer waste paper on conveyer Ragger
  35. 35. Waste Paper Cleaners
  36. 36. Waste Paper Fines Separator
  37. 37. Bleaching Operations
  38. 38. Bleaching Stages Hypochlorite is a true bleaching agent by destroying certain chromophoric groups of lignin. Hypochlorite is used in limited bleaching applications where high pulp yield is critical. Since Hypochlorite attacks the lignin vigorously, some cellulose is also attacked in the process. Hypochlorite (H) Alkali or caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) is effective at solubilizing degraded lignin products. Oxygen, hydrogen peroxide or both are often added to the caustic solution to enhance the removal of organic waste. Extraction (E, E O , E P , E OP ) Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a highly selective chemical that can both de-lignify and brighten pulp. It oxidizes lignin, but does not add chlorine atoms onto lignin fragments; however, small amounts of elemental chlorine and other chlorine compounds formed during the chlorine dioxide bleaching process react with degraded lignin to form chlorinated organic compounds. Chlorine Dioxide (D) Elemental chlorine (Cl2) is an effective de-lignifying agent. As it breaks lignin bonds, it adds chlorine atoms to the lignin degradation products, thus producing significant amounts of chlorinated organic material. Elemental Chlorine (C) Description Stage (Symbol)
  39. 39. Bleaching Stages (cont.) Ozone (O 3 ) is also an effective delignifying agent. It also brightens the pulp as well. Ozone has not been used in the past because mills have not been able to improve its selectivity - ozone attacks the cellulose fiber as well as the lignin. Recent technological developments, however, have solved this problem and have allowed mills to take advantage of this cost-effective bleaching agent. Ozone (Z) Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is mainly used to brighten pulps in the final bleaching stages. Peroxide is often used at the end of a conventional bleaching sequence to prevent the pulp from losing brightness over time. Researchers have found operating conditions under which peroxide will delignify pulp, and are working on technologies that will consume less. Hydrogen Peroxide (P) Oxygen (O 2 ) is an inexpensive, highly effective delignifying agent that is usually used at the beginning of the bleaching process. It has intermediate selectivity. Oxygen (O) Description Stage (Symbol)
  40. 40. Modern Bleach Plant Design
  41. 41. Typical Bleach Plant 1 st Stage Washer Tower 1 st Stage Filtrate 2 nd Stage Washer Tower 3 rd Stage Washer Tower 4 th Stage Washer Tower 2 nd Stage Filtrate 4 th Stage Filtrate 3 rd Stage Filtrate See Typical Bleaching Stage
  42. 42. Typical Bleaching Stage Washer Bleaching Tower (up flow) Filtrate Tank Chemical Mixer Steam Mixer Pulp Bleaching Chemical Next Bleaching Stage Steam To Bleach Plant Scrubber To Bleach Plant Scrubber To Bleach Plant Scrubber <ul><li>Notes: </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of vent gases is regulated for chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and hypochlorite. </li></ul>Filtrate
  43. 43. Oxygen Delignification <ul><li>Reduces lignin content in pulp liquor. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps reduce the need for chlorine based bleaching agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen effluent can be recycled and therefore reduces waste. </li></ul>Discharge Tank Oxygen Delignification Towers – Two Stage System
  44. 44. Chlorine Dioxide Washer Washer Hood Inlet Flow
  45. 45. Environmental Impacts Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Collection of vent gases for regulated stages (MACT) ClO 2 Production Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Collection of vent gases for regulated stages (MACT) Filtrate Tanks Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Collection of vent gases for regulated stages (MACT) Washers Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Collection of vent gases for regulated stages (MACT) Towers Hazardous Waste Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Collection of vent gases for regulated stages (MACT) Mixers Solid Waste Wastewater Stormwater Air Activity
  46. 46. Environmental Issues <ul><li>Chlorine containing compounds are extremely toxic and persistent. </li></ul><ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled chlorine compound emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed collection of vent and exhaust gases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled disposal of chlorinated compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastewater discharge mixers, washers, and tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaks from mixers, washers, and tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid/Hazardous Waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal solid waste in bleaching processes </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper control and collection of emitted gases through a stainless steel vent system on O 2 Delignification units to reduce TRS emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous monitoring of emission levels of VOCs, HAPs, Cl, ClO 2 , and PMs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packed bed scrubbers for removal of chlorinated compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate disposal procedures for chlorinated waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate stormwater system to ensure segregated stormwater and wastewater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upkeep of bleaching equipment and housings to prevent leaks and spills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employed Control Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-site chlorine dioxide production for washers eliminates need for risky elemental chlorine </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Is all the ductwork, piping, and associated valves in an acceptable and working condition? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any noticeable leaks from any bleaching equipment? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion equals leaks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill prevention and cleanup kits present and in working condition </li></ul>
  49. 49. Paper Machine / Pulp Dryer
  50. 50. Fourdrinier Paper Machine Spreads Pulp Stock onto Wire Table 3% Solids 7% Solids 40% -50% of Pulp Stock is Solids 95% of Pulp Stock is Solids Smoothes Surface of Paper Collects Paper Product
  51. 51. Environmental Impacts Rewinder Broke and Coating Residue Disposal Defective Paper Wastepaper Disposal Collection and Control of Vent Gases Drying Broke and Coating Residue Disposal Defective Paper Wastepaper Disposal Collection and Control of Vent Gases Pressing Broke and Coating Residue Disposal Prevention of Leaks and Spills Head box Hazardous Waste Disposal of Defective Stock Prevention of Leaks and Spills Collection of Volatile Gases Stock Preparation Solid Waste Wastewater Stormwater Air Activity
  52. 52. Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled TRS emissions from pulp stock, pressers, and dryers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed collection of vent and exhaust gases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BOD and TSS wastewater discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaks from flow spreader and headbox </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid/Hazardous Waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defective pulp stock wastepaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess or defective coatings and broke from paper machine </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper control and collection of emitted gases through a vent system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NCG Collection System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper housekeeping on storage tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper wastewater treatment for discharges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure segregation of wastewater from stormwater if any operations are outdoors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upkeep of paper machines and storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid/Hazardous Waste Disposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper discharge or reuse wastepaper and excess coatings or broke </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Is all the ductwork, piping, and associated valves in an acceptable and working condition? </li></ul><ul><li>Any unusual visible emissions from pressing and drying sections </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any noticeable leaks from any paper machines? </li></ul><ul><li>Spill prevention and cleanup kits present and in working condition </li></ul>
  55. 55. High Density Pulp Storage Storage Tank Agitation Zone
  56. 56. Paper Machine Fourdrinier Headbox Dryline
  57. 57. Evaporator Operations
  58. 58. Evaporator Operations <ul><li>Entering weak black liquor from pulping fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 15% solids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple effect evaporators reduce liquor content of black liquor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around 75% solids after evaporation operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Black liquor now concentrated enough for combustion in recovery boiler </li></ul>
  59. 59. Typical Evaporator Effect 5 Surface Condenser Steam Heavy Liquor <ul><li>Notes: </li></ul><ul><li>The segregation of condensates varies depending on evaporator type and configuration. </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of NCG gases </li></ul>Effect 2 Effect 1 Effect 3 Effect 4 Pulping Condensates NCG System Hotwell Clean Condensates
  60. 60. Multiple Effect Evaporators Vapor Dome Tube Bundles Vapor Lines
  61. 61. Evaporator Hotwell NCG Collection Hotwell Condensate Collection
  62. 62. Environmental Impacts Prevention of organic gas leaks NCG System Prevention of leaks and spills of condensate Prevention of leaks of Hotwell gases Hotwell Prevention of leaks and spills of condensate Prevention of air leaks Evaporator Effects Hazardous Waste Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Prevention of volatile organic compound leaks and spills Weak Liquor Storage Solid Waste Wastewater Stormwater Air Activity
  63. 63. Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled emissions and failed collection of vent and exhaust gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NCG emissions from evaporator seal tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release of Sulfur Dioxide from condensate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaks and spills from liquor storage tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled foaming and fouling of evaporators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaks and spills of insoluble soap from evaporation of black liquor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensate leaks from evaporator and hotwell </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NCG Collection System for multiple-effect evaporators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incinerator for combustion of NCG from evaporator emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensate Stream Stripper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper house keeping on black liquor storage tanks to ensure no emission of TRS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper wastewater treatment for condensate discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure segregation of wastewater from stormwater if leaks occur from liquor storage tank </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Housekeeping - Upkeep liquor storage tank </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Are all the ductwork, piping, and associated vapor lines in an acceptable and working condition? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No corrosion on any stream lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Any visible emissions from evaporators, hotwell, or NCG system? </li></ul><ul><li>The hotwell is the main emission point for the evaporator condensate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern if excessive emissions continue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill prevention and cleanup kits present and in working condition </li></ul>
  66. 66. Recovery Boiler Operations
  67. 67. Recovery Boiler Operations <ul><li>Black liquor boiled to recover smelt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smelt contains chemicals necessary for recovery. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boiling the black liquor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces steam necessary for mill operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposes of unwanted dissolved wood particles. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smelt tank acquires the Sodium Carbonate and Sulfate compounds from boiler. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smelt combines with water to produce green liquor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green liquor converts to Sodium Hydroxide for recovery. </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Kraft Recovery Boiler NCDE Recovery Boiler ESP Saltcake Mix Tank Drying Reducing Oxidizing Flue Gas Black Liquor Feed Recycle To Stack Chemical Make-up HB Liquor Smelt Bed To Smelt Dissolving Tank 3 o Air 2 o Air 1 o Air
  69. 69. Environmental Impacts Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Release of particulate matter Smelt Dissolving Tank Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Multiple regulations requiring ESP Recovery Boiler Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Prevention of leaks and spills of volatile components in black liquor Saltcake Mix Tank Hazardous Waste Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Prevention of leaks and spills of any volatile compounds Heavy Liquor Storage Solid Waste Wastewater Stormwater Air Activity
  70. 70. Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine and course particulate matter and HAP emissions from recovery boiler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRS emissions from recovery operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and control of Sulfur gas, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen gas, and other photochemical oxidant emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opacity emissions from recovery boilers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaks and spills of black liquor that contains organic materials and cooking chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaks and spills from mix tank, boiler, and dissolving tank </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixing of stormwater and wastewater disposal systems </li></ul>
  71. 71. Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper use and upkeep of scrubbers in smelt dissolving tanks to reduce TRS and PM emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employ overfire air mixing in boiler to oxidize TRS gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stainless steel vent system on salt cake mix tank for TRS emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) on boiler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESP operation for PM reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper wastewater disposal system for spills and leaks from boiler systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure segregation of wastewater from stormwater if leaks occur from liquor storage tank </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upkeep liquor storage tank, mix tank, boiler, and dissolving tank </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Is a distinct or strong gaseous odor present around boilers operations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An excessive odor could suggest a gaseous leak. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check for any condensing plume at the ESP stack discharge. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A condensing plume is often indicated by a clear zone directly above the stack. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The condensing plume is normally bluish-white or yellow-white and does not disperse like steam. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are there any visible emissions (VEs) exiting the plume on the scrubbers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residual plume will normally be bluish-white, brownish-white, or gray. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal plume dominated by water droplets will be bright white. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are spill prevention and cleanup kits present and in working condition? </li></ul>
  73. 73. Causticizing Operations
  74. 74. Typical Causticizing Operation White Liquor Clarifier Green Liquor Clarifier Slaker Causticizer From Recovery Area Dregs Washer Weak Wash Storage Lime Mud Filter Lime Mud Washer Lime Kiln Lime Silo To Digester Make Up Water NCG Collection
  75. 75. Environmental Impacts Not applicable unless the materials fail paint filter test and have a pH >12.5 Good housekeeping and spill control practices Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Multiple regulations requiring ESP and/or scrubber Lime Kiln Not applicable unless the materials fail paint filter test and have a pH >12.5 Excess lime mud may be landfilled. Good housekeeping and spill control practices Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Typically no controls Mud Filter Not applicable unless the materials fail paint filter test and have a pH >12.5 Good housekeeping and spill control practices Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Typically no controls Causticizer Not applicable unless the materials fail paint filter test and have a pH >12.5 Grits are landfilled after washing and elementary neutralization Good housekeeping and spill control practices Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Typically controlled by scrubber or spray Slaker Not applicable unless the materials fail paint filter test and have a pH >12.5 Hazardous Waste Dregs are landfilled after elementary neutralization Good housekeeping and spill control practices Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Typically no controls GL/WL Clarifiers Dregs Washer Solid Waste Wastewater Stormwater Air Activity
  76. 76. Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate matter and HAP emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lime Kiln dust emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lime Kiln opacity emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of TRS and PM emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methanol, Sulfur Dioxide, and Nitrogen gases emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leak of scrubbing water with sulfur containing compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combustion potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor excess air and temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixing of stormwater and wastewater disposal systems </li></ul>
  77. 77. Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venturi Scrubbers for lime kiln for PM emission reduction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrubbers for Slaker/Causticizer for PM and VE emission reduction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate air in lime kiln to reduce TRS emissions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESPs for flue gases from lime kiln. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CEMS on lime kiln for total reduced sulfur and oxygen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baghouses for collection of PM on storage operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper wastewater disposal system for spills and leaks from boiler systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure segregation of wastewater from stormwater if leaks occur from liquor storage tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good housekeeping policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upkeep of slaker, causticizer, and all washers </li></ul></ul>
  78. 78. Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Is a distinct or strong gaseous odor present around causticizing operations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An excessive odor could suggest a gaseous leak. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check for any condensing plume at the ESP stack discharge. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A condensing plume is often indicated by a clear zone directly above the stack. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The condensing plume is normally bluish-white or yellow-white and does not disperse like steam. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are there any visible emissions (VEs) exiting the plume on the scrubbers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residual plume will normally be bluish-white, brownish-white, or gray. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal plume dominated by water droplets will be bright white. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is the housekeeping around the causticizing operations organized? </li></ul><ul><li>Are spill prevention and cleanup kits present and in working condition? </li></ul>
  79. 79. Lime Kiln Lime Kiln Tube Washing and Causticizing Operations
  80. 80. Lime Kiln Lime Kiln Tube Motor and Drive Units Fire Hood
  81. 81. Power and Utility Operations
  82. 82. Power and Steam Generation Boilers Steam Condensate from mill High Pressure Steam Turbines Electrical Power Low Pressure Steam Kraft Mill Processes
  83. 83. Environmental Impacts Solids in steam water carried to turbines Potential release of oils to receiving waters Turbine Generators Solids in steam water carried to turbines Potential release of oils to receiving waters Control of Carbon Monoxide production Combustion Turbine Disposal of Boiler chemicals and fuels Disposal of bottom and fly ash – landfilled Control of non-contact cooling water, scrubber and boiler blowdown Potential release of oils to receiving waters Control of Particulate Matter Emissions Power Boiler Disposal of Boiler chemicals and fuels Hazardous Waste Disposal of bottom and fly ash – landfilled Control of non-contact cooling water, scrubber and boiler blowdown Potential release of oils to receiving waters Control of Particulate Matter Emissions Combination Boiler Solid Waste Wastewater Stormwater Air Activity
  84. 84. Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur Dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen containing compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal Dust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-use water containing chlorinated compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess boiler water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel oil, gas, and diesel leaks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid/Hazardous Wastes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solvents, asbestos, antifreeze, chlorinated compounds, mercury, EDTA, remaining gases and fuels, and acidic materials </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Pollutant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO x – Low NO x burners, staging, steam injection, Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction, and Selective Catalytic Reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM – Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) and Baghouses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SO 2 – Venturi Scrubber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal Dust and Fly Ash– good housekeeping measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollution Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring Scaling and Corrosion of Boilers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarifiers – Sludge removal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuels and Oils – proper housekeeping on storage locations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid/Hazardous Waste Pollution Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use personal protective equipment when handling hazardous materials and waste </li></ul></ul>
  86. 86. Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Are proper housekeeping procedures being upheld? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power plants have a multitude of potentially hazardous materials and compounds that require the utmost control and maintenance to ensure the safest working environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is personal protective equipment being employed when potentially hazardous materials and chemicals are being handled? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a distinct separation of the various chemicals is storage locations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are chemical storage locations separated from wastewater and stormwater systems? </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Power Boilers Power Plant
  88. 88. Acid Tanker Unloading Acid Storage Tank
  89. 89. By-product Recovery
  90. 90. Typical Turpentine Recovery (Kraft) Decanter Cyclone Separator Digester Storage Condenser Relief To HVLC System Turpentine To Condensate Collection To Condensate Collection Truck or Rail Car Loading Black Liquor Black Liquor Secondary Containment
  91. 91. Turpentine Decanter Decanter Storage Containment
  92. 92. Environmental Impacts Spills are very toxic to WWT system Secondary containment required Collection and Control of Vent Gases (LVLC) Turpentine Storage Spills are very toxic to WWT system Secondary containment required Collection and Control of Vent Gases (LVHC) Turpentine recovery Hazardous Waste Solid Waste Wastewater Stormwater Air Activity
  93. 93. Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled TRS emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled NCG emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turpentine contains volatile organic liquid (VOL), subject to NSPS requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turpentine spills and leaks are extremely harmful to WWT system </li></ul></ul>
  94. 94. Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Pollutant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous automated monitoring systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection and incineration of TRS emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper vent and NCG collection system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollution Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Return system for spilt turpentine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary containment system for stormwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curbing or diking system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equipment Upkeep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventative maintenance programs </li></ul></ul>
  95. 95. Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Is a noticeable continuous alarm system installed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm systems should be located on storage tanks, in process areas, in process sewers, wastewater facilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary containment structures are required for turpentine bulk storage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are such structures installed and visibly operating? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Curbing and diking systems are also required for turpentine recovery. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are these structures in place and in an operational condition? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Any obvious evidence of spill areas? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential areas are identified by discoloration, puddling, or dead vegetation around process areas. </li></ul></ul>
  96. 96. Typical Tall Oil Recovery (Kraft) Reactor Sulfuric Acid Black Liquor Soap Tall Oil Brine Tall Oil Storage Decanter or Centrifuge Secondary Containment To Recovery Boiler Truck or Rail Car Loading
  97. 97. Tall Oil Plant
  98. 98. Environmental Impacts Spills are very toxic to WWT system Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Tall Oil Storage Spills are very toxic to WWT system Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Collection and control in tall oil plant scrubber Acidulation Spills to process sewers cause release of TRS Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Acid Storage Hazardous Waste Spills are very toxic to WWT system Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Collection and Control of Vent Gases (HVLC) Soap Storage Solid Waste Wastewater Stormwater Air Activity
  99. 99. Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Odor emissions from soap tank and reactor vent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRS emissions from reactor vent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soap and acid toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaks and Spills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaks and spills will cause harm to wastewater treatment systems and sewer system </li></ul></ul>
  100. 100. Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Pollutant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caustic Scrubber for collection of TRS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incineration of TRS emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upkeep and continuous monitoring of equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollution Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregation of wastewater and stormwater systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spill and Leak Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventative maintenance programs </li></ul></ul>
  101. 101. Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Are odor emissions strong and persistent? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Odors will exist in tall oil recovery, but excessive odors could be sourced from a leak. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is personal protective equipment being employed when handling or transporting acid? </li></ul><ul><li>Any obvious evidence of spill areas? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential areas are identified by discoloration, puddling, or dead vegetation around process areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is proper housekeeping being employed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper housekeeping will aid in the prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system or wastewater system. </li></ul></ul>
  102. 102. Environmental Control
  103. 103. Environmental Control <ul><li>Wastewater Treatment Facility </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficial Reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Condensate Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Noncondensible Gas Incineration </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Waste Storage and Disposal </li></ul>
  104. 104. Environmental Impacts Ash emissions into wastewater system Ash emissions into stormwater system Uncontrolled emissions of ash NCG Incineration Untreated or untested sludge applied to land Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Contamination of stormwater system by run-off Uncontrolled hazardous sludge Land Application Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Collection and control of pulping condensate Condensate Treatment Untreated or untested sludge landfilled Excessive buildup of solid residuals Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Contamination of stormwater system by run-off Odorous emissions Landfill Operations Uncontrolled sludge spills and leaks Hazardous Waste Collection of entering solid residuals Prevention of leaks and spills into effluent system (BMP) Prevention of leaks and spills into stormwater system (SWP 3 ) Collection and control of emitted gases Wastewater Treatment Solid Waste Wastewater Stormwater Air Activity
  105. 105. Environmental Issues <ul><li>Air Pollutant Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulping condensates contain sulfur compounds and volatile organic compounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bleach plant effluents contain chloroform and methanol. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury emission from incineration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollutant Discharges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colored lignin and lignin derivatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid/Hazardous Wastes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous sludge wasted into land applications and landfills </li></ul></ul>
  106. 106. Pollution Prevention & Pollution Control <ul><li>Air Pollutant Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous monitoring of emissions and equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ash control through incineration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate pH levels and combustion temperatures on incinerator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Pollution Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentation, primary and secondary clarifiers, microorganisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage containers above group for easy maintenance and upkeep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment walls around contaminated ground water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid/Hazardous Waste Pollution Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sludge storage in isolated, covered, and level area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper sludge transfer operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper testing of sludge before disposal into land applications or landfills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leak detection system, liners, leachate in landfills </li></ul></ul>
  107. 107. Visual Assessment Tips <ul><li>Are proper housekeeping procedures being upheld? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are all storage locations and containers covered or indoors to prevent leakage to water bodies or stormwater system? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are different chemical and material storage isolated from one another? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are incineration operations isolated from water bodies? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This aids in preventing ash from entering surround water bodies and stormwater system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are the surrounding lands and grounds in suitable condition? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum vegetation cover should be employed to stabilize soil and reduce erosion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is personal protective equipment being employed when potentially hazardous materials and chemicals are being handled? </li></ul>
  108. 108. Primary Clarifier Clarifier Unit Wastewater Body
  109. 109. Stormwater Collection System Stormwater Collection Operations Good Vegetation Control
  110. 110. Stormwater Collection System Stormwater Collection Tunnel Good Vegetation Control
  111. 111. Inlet Pond Inlet Water for Mill Operations
  112. 112. Pond Outlet Standpipe Standpipe
  113. 113. Effluent Monitoring Station Effluent Monitoring Operations
  114. 114. Truck Product Loading
  115. 115. Rail Product Loading
  116. 116. Pollution Control Technology
  117. 117. Pollution Control Technology <ul><li>ESP </li></ul><ul><li>Venturi Scrubber </li></ul><ul><li>Packed Bed Scrubber </li></ul><ul><li>Incinerator </li></ul><ul><li>Stream Stripper </li></ul><ul><li>Baghouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LVHC Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HVLC Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensate Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TRS Reduction in Lime Kiln </li></ul><ul><li>TRS Reduction in Recovery Boiler </li></ul>
  118. 118. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) <ul><li>Remove particulate matter (PM) from flue gas </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the ESP will determine effectiveness of PM removal influencing the time a particle spends in the ESP and its likelihood of being captured. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory behind ESPs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ESP is a large box with large metal plates that hang from the top. Generally, ESP’s will have multiple zones, each consisting of one of these boxes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrodes that are highly charged hang down in between these plates creating an electrical field. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the PM enters the ESP, it becomes charged and is broken down electrically. This is known as a “corona”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The PM is now forced to collect on the “collector plates”. </li></ul></ul>
  119. 119. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) <ul><li>Theory Continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESP operation is governed by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>η – Collection Efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A – Electrode Surface Area </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V – Gas Flow Rate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>W – Migration Velocity of Particles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To account for nonideal factors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Varying PM collection through ESP zones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PM is non-monodisperse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>η – Collection Efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A – Electrode Surface Area </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>v – Gas Flow Rate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>w k –Modified Migration Velocity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>k – ESP dimensionless constant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  120. 120. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) <ul><li>Particulate matter (PM) removal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The collectors are knocked or “rapped” by various mechanical means. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry Bottom ESP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The PM slides downward into a hopper where it is collected and removed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet Bottom ESP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The PM slides downward and is collected in a black liquor or water pool. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust and other particles are removed in the appropriate manner . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ESP Negative Drawbacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be higher capital costs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrodes are high maintenance items. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion occurs near the top of the electrodes because of air leakage and acid condensation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrodes are long weighted wires and they tend to oscillate. They can approach the plates, causing increased sparking and wear. </li></ul></ul>
  121. 121. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) Particulate Laden Flue Gas Positively Charge Collection Plates Discharge Electrodes (-) Clean Gas Particulate Matter Zone 1 Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 4 Chamber 1 Chamber 2 Chamber 3
  122. 122. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) ESP Collection Plates Internals of ESP
  123. 123. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) Dry Bottom ESP ESP Hopper
  124. 124. Venturi Scrubbers <ul><li>Primary use is the control of particulate matter (PM) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Venturi scrubbers are the most economical way to get a high velocity for rapid liquid breakup into drops and high collection efficiency with minimum fan power. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory behind Venturi Scrubbers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sudden expansion from the inlet duct to a larger diameter convergent-divergent cone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throat unit where venturi action occurs and maximum pressure drop is desired and governed by throat diameter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the high velocities, the flue gas atomizes the liquid to small droplets, allowing the pollutant particles to in the gas stream to impact into the slower moving water droplets. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impingement of the high speed slurry into a flooded elbow tank. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of the slurry tangentially into a cyclonic separator where separation of the particulate solids and liquid slurry is achieved. </li></ul></ul>
  125. 125. Venturi Scrubbers <ul><li>Theory Continued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To achieve the high velocities (approaching 100,000 ft/min) necessary for maximum separation, the venturi throat must have a pressure drop governed by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P f – Pressure at bottom of venturi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P i – Pressure at start of venturi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ρ – average density of flows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>v f – Velocity at bottom of venturi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>v i – Velocity at top of venturi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The pressure drop (P f – P i ) across the venturi is commonly used at the measure of scrubbing efficiency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The high gas velocities require a high static I.D. fan pressure to produce a pressure drop around 20-30 inches of water across the venturi throat. </li></ul></ul>
  126. 126. Venturi Scrubbers Cyclonic Separator Contaminated Gas Inlet Scrubbing Liquid Clean Gas Outlet to Atmosphere Body Gas and Liquid start mixing Venturi Max Liquid and Gas Contact Concentrated Liquid for Disposal or Recycle To WWT Facility Elbow Tank
  127. 127. Venturi Scrubbers Back Body and Venturi Sections Cyclonic Separator Contaminated Gas Inlet
  128. 128. Packed Bed Scrubbers <ul><li>Primarily used for the control of Sulfur Dioxide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scrubber will also remove small PM (<10 um), and inorganic vapors and gases including NH 3 , chlorides, fluorides in addition to SO 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory behind Packed Bed Scrubbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flue gas is introduced in a cylindrical or rectangular packed chamber. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The packed chamber allows for a large area of intimate contact between the liquid and gas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The packing medium will vary in size, structure, and construction depending on the desired transfer criteria. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High void spaces of 65-95% are characteristics of good packings. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The flue gas flows upward through the packed bed as sulfur compounds in the gas diffuse or absorb into the liquid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The flooding velocity is the limit to the rate of gas flow. Any flow above this velocity, the tower will not operate because the liquid will no longer flow down the column. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The pressure drop in the tower is proportional to the gas flow rate to the 1.8 power and therefore directly related to separation efficiency. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The optimum gas velocity is approximately one-half the flooding velocity. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  129. 129. Packed Bed Scrubbers Packed Bed Contaminated Gas Inlet Concentrated Liquid for Disposal or Recycle Scrubbing Liquid Clean Gas Outlet to Atmosphere
  130. 130. Packed Bed Scrubbers Back Inlet Gas from Operations Packed Bed Column Exhaust to Atmosphere
  131. 131. Incinerators <ul><li>Incineration process is the rapid oxidation of organic substances by direct or indirect heat, reducing the volume and toxicity of the remaining residuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The combustion process involves complex interactions of heat and mass transfer and chemical kinetics in a two-phase system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic wastes enter the primary flame zone at temperatures between 1500-1800°F depending on the wood used in the pulping process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retention times need to be at a minimum of 0.5 sec. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excess oxygen levels need to be around 4%. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Addition of catalytic substances in flame zones can lower the thermal incineration temperature to 500-900°F. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining wastes enter the post-flame zone or retention chamber for further incineration. </li></ul></ul>
  132. 132. Incinerators <ul><li>Non-Condensable Gas (NCG) Incineration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ultimate goal of NCG incineration is the conversion of toxic, malodorous fumes into combustion products allowing for easy disposal via downstream control devices or direct release. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to CO 2 . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining inert gases can be directly released into the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The conversion of total reduced sulfur to SO 2 . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur Dioxide is easily removed by Packed Bed Scrubbers . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  133. 133. Incinerators <ul><li>Quenching System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of the quenching system is to reduce combustion flue gas temperature from 1800°F to around 185°F. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The reduction in temperature minimizes gas volume for downstream processing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The reduction in temperature provides the gases at a temperature acceptable for scrubbing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The super-heated combustion products are saturated with cooling water. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quenching process continues until the combustion products become saturated vapor at 185°F. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat recovery is widely utilized in the quenching process. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  134. 134. Incinerators Back Inlet Gas Flow Primary Burner Outlet Gas Flow
  135. 135. Steam Stripper <ul><li>Steam stripping or steam distillation is a multistage continuous distillation process where steam is used as a stripping gas to remove pollutants from discharged streams, especially the evaporator condensate and other condensate streams. </li></ul><ul><li>Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are easily removed by steam stripping. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VOCs have reduced boiling points compared to the stripping compound - water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VOCs also have limited solubility in water. </li></ul></ul>
  136. 136. Steam Stripper <ul><li>Steam Stripper Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The liquor condensate containing a volatile component is fed to the top of the stripper and allowed to cascade tray by tray down the column until it reaches the bottom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stripping vapor (steam) is introduced below the bottom tray rising upwards through the trays. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The vapor and the liquid phases are intimately mixed on each tray resulting in an approach to equilibrium during which the volatile component is preferentially transferred from the liquid to the vapor phase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By increasing the height of the column, the concentration of the of pollutant in the outlet liquid approaches the concentration that would be in equilibrium with the inlet gas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By thorough stripping practices and sufficient gas-liquid contact, the concentration of the outlet gas is minimized. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating Design Equation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>y s – Steam Comp. L – Condensate Flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>x c – Condensate Comp. V – Steam Flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>x i – Desired Outlet Comp. D – Outlet Steam Flow </li></ul></ul>
  137. 137. Steam Stripper <ul><li>Key Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of trays within stripping column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diameter of tray column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam to feed (SFR) ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As these factors increase the removal efficiency will generally increase until an optimum point is reached. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important issues that will nullify the separation efficiency achieved per tray. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid flooding is the ability of a column to cope with the liquid flowing down through it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jet flood is the limit of the vapor flowrate through the column at acceptable pressure drops without entrainment of liquor droplets from any tray to the tray above. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foaming has serious consequences on jet flooding, since it may result in the vapor entraining liquor to the tray above. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  138. 138. Steam Stripper Stage Trays Inlet Steam Cleaned Condensate Contaminated Condensate Steam containing condensate pollutants Reflux Condenser Heat Exchanger
  139. 139. Steam Stripper Back Stripping Column Reflux Condenser
  140. 140. Baghouse <ul><li>Alternate pollution control device for the control and reduction of particulate matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flue gas is passed through tightly woven cylindrical fabric filters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High removal efficiency for particles down to 0.1 μ m. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters are in the form of cartridges or bags. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartridges or bags are housed together in a group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups are placed in isolable compartments to allow for cleaning or replacement without taking the entire baghouse out of service. </li></ul></ul>
  141. 141. Baghouse <ul><li>Important Design Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The major flue gases run through baghouses have dominant moisture and corrosive characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature of flue gas must be below 300°C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collected material builds up on filter surface causing a increase in the pressure differential required for operation until collected materials are removed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baghouse Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital costs are relatively low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating and maintenance costs are less </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baghouse Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency generally less than that of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) </li></ul></ul>
  142. 142. Baghouse Back Dust Hopper Clean Air to Atmosphere Particulate Laden Gas Filter Bags Shaker Device
  143. 143. Baghouse Back
  144. 144. Non-Condensable Gas (NCG) Collection Systems <ul><li>What is NCG? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NCG is what remains after the gases, generated during the pulping process, have been cooled and the heavier components have condensed to liquid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Sulfide H 2 S </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methyl Mercaptan CH 3 SH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dimethyl Sulfide (CH 3 ) 2 S </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dimethyl Disulfide (CH 3 ) 2 S 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NCGs are collected to minimize odor and plant pollutant emissions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection sites are located throughout the kraft mill and attention must be paid to the overall NCG system and its interaction with kraft mill operations. </li></ul></ul>
  145. 145. LVHC (NCG) Collection Systems <ul><li>LVHC – low volume, high concentration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable gases at concentrations above their upper explosion limit (UEL). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpleasant odor, acutely toxic, and present significant explosion and safety hazards if not properly handled. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LVHC Collection System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The LVHC are to be collected in a closed-vent system and routed to a thermal oxidation device for destruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collection System Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining a negative pressure at each opening. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring enclosure openings that were closed during the performance test be closed during normal operation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing and operating closed vent systems in such a way that there is no detectable leak. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installing flow indicators for bypass lines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Securing bypass line valves. </li></ul></ul>
  146. 146. LVHC (NCG) Collection Systems Digester Wood White Liquor Turpentine Recovery System Washer System Part of HVLC System Pulp Weak Black Liquor Blow Heat Accumulator Blow Tank Multiple Effect Evaporators Pulp Liquor Pulp Liquor Back LVHC Collection
  147. 147. HVLC (NCG) Collection Systems <ul><li>HVLC – high volume, low concentration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable at concentrations below their lower explosive limits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pose low process safety risks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swept with air to keep the concentration of explosive gases below 25% of the lower explosive limit. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HVLC Collection System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The HVLC are to be collected in a closed-vent system and routed to a thermal oxidation device for destruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collection System Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining a negative pressure at each opening. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring enclosure openings that were closed during the performance test be closed during normal operation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing and operating closed vent systems in such a way that there is no detectable leak. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installing flow indicators for bypass lines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Securing bypass line valves. </li></ul></ul>
  148. 148. HVLC (NCG) Collection Systems Pulp Washing System Knotter System Pulp Liquor from Blow Tanks Storage Tank Weak Black Liquor Screening System Decker To Multiple Effect Evaporators Oxygen Delignification System Washer Back HVLC Collection HVLC Collection HVLC Collection
  149. 149. Condensate Collection Systems <ul><li>Condensate Collection and Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foul condensates contain organic and sulfur compounds that are hazardous and cannot be released into the atmosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporator condensate represents the major condensate volume of kraft mills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In multiple effect evaporator (MME) systems, the condensate must be segregated from other outlet streams and routed to separate control devices or the wastewater treatment facility. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensate from the digester and turpentine recovery also contain high loadings of organic and sulfur compounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LVHC and HVLC collection system condensates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WWT biological treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steam Stripping – Percent Reduction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  150. 150. Condensate (NCG) Collection Systems <ul><li>Condensate Segregation System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensate segregation minimizes the condensate volume that must be treated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segregate condensate streams containing the greatest amount of concentration of HAP and thereby only treating these streams. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two Options: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treat the total volume of LVHC and HVLC and 65% of the digester, evaporator, and turpentine recovery condensates. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treat any condensate stream that has a minimum concentration of HAPs set by the EPA Cluster Rules. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed and segregated collection system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardpiping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Covers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water seals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drain System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Closed Vent System </li></ul></ul></ul>
  151. 151. Condensate Collection Systems Back Turpentine Decanter Cyclone Separator Digester Turpentine Storage Condenser Relief Condensate Collection Condensate Collection Loading Condensate Collection Effect 5 Surface Condenser Steam Effect 2 Effect 1 Effect 3 Effect 4 Condensate Collection Hotwell Clean Condensates Wood Liquor
  152. 152. Non-Condensable Gas (NCG) Collection Systems <ul><li>NCG Collection System Safety Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary lag units allow for re-routing NCGs until primary collection and transport systems are operational. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the event both the primary and secondary collection systems fail: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High point vents for HVLC gases are in place. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency flare burners for LVHC gases are in place. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control valves arranged in lead-lag arrangements for leaks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This main collection header is isolated from the individual source streams with flame or detonation arrestors, automatic isolation valves, safety relief valves, and burst discs. </li></ul></ul>
  153. 153. Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) Control <ul><li>What is Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of sodium sulfide and organic compounds for the formation of organosulfur compounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRS is predominantly sulfides and mercaptans, which have intense odors and health concerns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur compounds cause severe health and respiratory problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 S </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dimethyl Sulfide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dimethyl Disulfide </li></ul></ul></ul>
  154. 154. Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) Control <ul><li>Theory behind Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) control in lime kiln. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRS emissions from plant processes are captured and routed to the lime kiln. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of concentrated TRS gases directly by a separate burner tube run to the kiln burner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The TRS is immediately incinerated in the burner flame. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sulfur compounds in the TRS react with the kiln lime mud to form calcium sulfate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lime Kiln Design Equation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N – Rotational Speed S – Slope (Degrees) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O / - Repose Angle D – Inside Diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L – Kiln Length T – Retention Time </li></ul></ul>
  155. 155. Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) Control <ul><li>Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) control in recovery boiler. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery boilers generate approximately 40% of the on-site power needs for kraft pulp mills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery boilers can generate TRS gas amounts as high as 85% of total mill TRS generation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key concern for reduction of TRS in recovery boilers is proper process operation. </li></ul></ul>
  156. 156. Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) Control <ul><li>TRS Reduction in Recovery Boiler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key operating variables should be examined for TRS reduction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firing rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher than design firing rate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black liquor heat value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased black liquor heating versus solids content </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black liquor concentration (solids content) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total combustion air (primary and secondary air) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total combustion air greater than 125% of norm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased char bed temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: The reduction in TRS and SO 2 emissions by these parameters could increase uncontrolled particulate matter emissions. </li></ul></ul>
  157. 157. Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Woodyard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumatic>>Conveyers to control PM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stormwater reuse for log storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chip Pile Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VOC control? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Further PM 2.5 control? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  158. 158. Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Pulping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum Drum>>Belt Washers, Drum Diffusion, etc. for vent gases control and reduction of fiber and liquor losses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conductivity sumps for spill reclaim </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in vent gas control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Screen room closures for reduction of wastewater discharges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot stock refining and screening for greater pulp yield </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in water reuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 delignification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  159. 159. Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Bleaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECF and TCF technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bleach plant water reuse technology (chemistry, equipment metallurgy) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control of vent gases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wide spread use of O 2 delignification? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone bleaching? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  160. 160. Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Paper Machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once through systems>>water reuse (white water saveall) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in paper break management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VOC control? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  161. 161. Paper Machine Whitewater
  162. 162. Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Evaporators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vent gas collection and control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements in efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continued modernizations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  163. 163. Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Recovery Boiler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black liquor oxidation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Contact Boilers (DCE)>>NDCE Boilers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wet ESP>>Dry ESP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 o and 4 o air systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black liquor gasification? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Further PM 2.5 control? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  164. 164. Advances in Pollution Control <ul><li>Causticizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advancements in air pollution controls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advancements in lime mud washing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water reuse improvements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black liquor gasification? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Further PM 2.5 control? </li></ul></ul></ul>

×