2.
Index
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The Graph Abstract Data Type
Elementary Graph Operations
Minimum Cost Spanning Trees
Shortest Paths and Transitive Closure
Activity Networks
3.
Curriculum Model
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CS
Here I am
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CS
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Java Language Base
CS : Computer
Science
A : Application
4.
The Graph Abstract Data Type
• Introduction
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Analysis of electrical circuits
finding shortest routes
project planning
identification of chemical compounds
all mathematical structures
5.
The Graph Abstract Data
Type(Cont’d)
• Definitions
– A graph consists of
• nonempty set of vertices
• empty set of edges
– G = (V, E)
– undirected graph
• (v0, v1) and (v1, v0) represent the same edge
– directed graph
• <v0, v1> represents an edge in which v0 is the tail and v1 is the head
6.
The Graph Abstract Data
Type(Cont’d)
• Definitions(Cont’d)
– Restriction on Graphs
• A graph may not have self loops
• A graph may not have multiple occurrences of the same edge
– A complete graph
• having the maximum number of edges
• undirected graph = n(n-1)/2
• directed graph = n(n-1)
– Adjacent
• Ex) in Graph G2 – vertices 3, 4 and 0 are adjacent to vertex 1
– incident on
• Ex) in Graph G2 – edges (0, 2), (2, 5) and (2, 6) are incident on vertex 2
– directed edge<v0, v1>
• Adjacent – v0 is adjacent to v1, v1 is adjacent from v0
• incident on - <v0, v1> in incident on v0 and v1
• Ex) in Graph G3 – edges<0, 1>, <1, 0> and <1, 2> are incident on vertex 1
7.
The Graph Abstract Data
Type(Cont’d)
• Definitions(Cont’d)
– Subgraphs
• A subgraph of G is a graph G` such that V(G`) ⊆ V(G)
• Ex) Subgraphs of G1
– the length of path
• the number of edges on a path
– simple path
• a path in which all vertices, except the first and the last, are distinct
• Ex) (0, 1), (1, 3), (3, 2) can be written as 0, 1, 3, 2 in graph G1
0, 1, 3, 2 is a simple path, while 0, 1, 3, 1 is not.
– Cycle
• a simple path in which the first and the last vertices are the same
• Ex) in Graph G1 0, 1, 2, 0 is a cycle
8.
The Graph Abstract Data
Type(Cont’d)
• Definitions(Cont’d)
– Connected
• in an undirected graph G, two vertices, v0 and v1, are connected
• in the case of v0 and v1 has a path
• Ex) graph G1 and G2 are connected, while graph G4 is not
– Connected component
• Graph G4 has two components, H1, H2
– Strongly connected
• for a directed graph
12.
The Graph Abstract Data
Type(Cont’d)
• Graph Representation(Cont’d)
– Adjacent Lists
• node structure
Class Node{
int vertex;
Node link;
}
• the starting point of the list for vertex i
– node[i]
• the number of nodes in its adjacency list
– the degree of any vertex in an undirected graph
– the number of edges incident on the vertex
– the out-degree of any vertex in an directed graph
• inverse adjacency list
– the in-degree of a vertex
– all vertices adjacent to a vertex
13.
The Graph Abstract Data
Type(Cont’d)
• Graph Representation(Cont’d)
– Adjacent Lists(Cont’d)
• Changing node structure
– The problem of finding in-degree
Class Node{
int tail;
int head
Node columnLinkForHead;
Node rowLinkForTail;
}
14.
The Graph Abstract Data
Type(Cont’d)
• Graph Representation(Cont’d)
– Adjacent Multilists
15.
The Graph Abstract Data
Type(Cont’d)
• Graph Representation(Cont’d)
– Weighted Edges
• weights may represent
– the distance or the cost
• network
– a graph with weighted edges
16.
Elementary Graph Operations
•
Depth First Search
– similar to a preorder tree traversal
– using a stack
– Process
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visit the start vertex v
select an unvisited vertex, w, from v’s adjacency list
v is placed on a stack
reaches a vertex, u, that has no visited vertices on v’s adjacency list
remove a vertex from the stack
processing its adjacency list
previously visited vertices are discarded
unvisited vertices are visited and placed on the stack
terminates the stack is empty
v0v1v3v7v4v5v2v6
void dfs(int v){
visited[v] = true;
System.out.println(v);
for(Node w = graph[v] ; w != null ; w = w.link){
if(!visited[w.vertex])
dfs(w.vertex);
time complexity
}
adjacency list = O(e)
}
adjacency matrix = O(n2)
17.
Elementary Graph
Operations(Cont’d)
• Breath First Search
– resembles a level order traversal
– using a queue
– Process
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visit the vertex v and marks it
visit all of the first vertex on v’s adjacency list
each vertex is placed to queue
all of vertices on v’s adjacency list are visited
remove a vertex from the queue
examine the vertex again that is removed from the queue
visited vertices are ignored
the search is finished when the queue is empty
18.
Elementary Graph
Operations(Cont’d)
• Breath First Search(Cont’d)
class Queue{
int vertex;
Queue link;
}
void bfs(int v){
Queue front = null, rear=null;
System.out.println(v);
visited[v] = true;
addq(front, rear, v);
while(front != null){
v = deleteq(front);
v0v1v2v3v4v5v6v7
for(Node w = graph[v] ; w != null ; w = w.link){
if(!visited[w.vertex]){
System.out.println(w.vertex);
addq(front, rear, w.vertex);
visited[w] = true;
}
}
Time complexity
}
adjacency list = O(e)
}
adjacency matrix = O(n2)
19.
Elementary Graph
Operations(Cont’d)
• Connected Component
– determining whether or not an undirected graph is connected
– calling either dfs(0) or bfs(0)
– it determined as an unconnected graph
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we can list up the connected components of a graph
repeated calls to either dfs(v) or bfs(v) whee v is unvisited vertex
void connected(){
for(int i = 0 ; i < n ; i ++){
if(!visited[i]){
dfs(i);
System.out.println();
}
}
}
Time complexity
adjacency list = O(n+e), (dfs takes O(e), for loop takes O(n))
adjacency matrix = O(n2)
20.
Elementary Graph
Operations(Cont’d)
• Spanning Tree
– The search implicitly partitions the edges in G into two sets
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tree edges
nontree edges
– tree edges
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set of traversed edges
– nontree edges
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set of remaining edges
– forming a tree
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if clause of either dfs or bfs
it inserts the edge(v, w)
– a spanning tree is any tree
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consists solely of edges in G
includes all the vertices in G
– a dfs and bfs spanning tree
21.
Elementary Graph
Operations(Cont’d)
• Spanning Tree(Cont’d)
– add a nontree edge(v, w)
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generating a cycle
used for obtaining an independent set of circuit equations for an electrical network
Ex) adding the nontree edge (7, 6) 7, 6, 2, 5, 7
– minimal subgraph
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a spanning tree is a minimal subgraph of graph G
any connected graph with n vertices must have at least n-1 edges
all connected graph with n-1 edges are trees
a spanning tree has n-1 edges
– assign weights to the edges
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the cost of constructing the communication links or the length of the links
minimum cost spanning trees
22.
Elementary Graph
Operations(Cont’d)
• Biconnected Components and Articulation Points
– Articulation Point
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a vertex to produce two connected components
the articulation points 1, 3, 4, and 7 on the right images
– Biconnected Graph
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a connected graph that has no articulation points
– loss of communication
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an articulation point fails results a loss of communication
– biconnected components
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having no more than one vertex in common
23.
Elementary Graph
Operations(Cont’d)
• Biconnected Components and Articulation Points(Cont’d)
– finding the biconnected components
•
use any depth first spanning tree
– depth first number
•
the sequence of visiting the vertices
– back edge
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a nontree edge (u, v)
either u is an ancestor of v or v is an ancestor of u
all nontree edges are back edges
dfs
redrawn
24.
Elementary Graph
Operations(Cont’d)
• Biconnected Components and Articulation Points(Cont’d)
– finding an articulation point
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the root of the spanning tree and has two or more children
not the root and u has a child w such that low(w) ≥ dfn(u)
low(u) = min{ dfn(u), min{low(w) | w is a child of u}, min{ dfn(w), (u, w) is a back edge} }
void dfnlow(int u, int v){
dfn[u] = low[u] = num++;
for( Node ptr = graph[u] ; ptr != null ; ptr = ptr.link ){
w = ptr.vertex;
if(dfn[w] < 0){
dfnlow(w, u);
low[u] = min(low[w], low[u]);
} else if(w != v){
low[u] = min(low[u], dfn[w]);
}
}
}
28.
Minimum Cost Spanning Trees
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the cost of a spanning tree
– the sum of the costs(weights)
• greedy method
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an optimal solution
for a wide variety of programming problems
based on either a least cost or a highest profit criterion
the constraints specified by the problem
• constraints of MCST
– must use only edges within the graph
– must use exactly n-1 edges
– may not use edges that would produce a cycle
29.
Minimum Cost Spanning
Trees(Cont’d)
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Kruscal’s Algorithm
– Algorithm
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selecting the edges in nondecreasing order of their cost
a selected edge does not make a cycle
n-1 edges will be selected for inclusion in T
– forming a forest at each stage of algorithm
– a formal description of Kruscal’s algorithm
T = {};
while( T contains less than n-1 edges && E is not empty){
choose a least cost edge (v, w) from E;
delete (v, w) from E;
if((v, w) does not create a cycle in T){
add (v, w) to T;
} else {
discard(v, w);
}
}
if( T contains fewer than n-1 edges){
print(“No spanning tree”);
}
30.
Minimum Cost Spanning
Trees(Cont’d)
•
Kruscal’s Algorithm(Cont’d)
– a cycle problem
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using the union-find operations
adding an edge (v, w)
– using the find operation to see if they are in the same set
– Example) {0}, {1, 2, 3}, {5}, {6}
an edge (2, 3) make a cycle, while an edge (1, 5) does not.
adding an edge (v, w)
31.
Minimum Cost Spanning
Trees(Cont’d)
•
Prim’s Algorithm
– Algorithm
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beginning with a tree, T, that contains a single vertex
adding an edge (u, v) to T ( T U {(u, v)} is also a tree )
repeating this edge addition until T contains n-1 edges
– forming a tree at each stage
– a cycle problem
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choosing the edge (u, v) such that one of u or v is in T
– a formal description Prim’s algorithm
T = { }; /* T is the set of tree edges */
TV = { 0 }; /* TV is the set of tree vertices */
while( T contains fewer than n-1 edges ){
let (u, v) be a least cost edge such that u ∈ TV and v ∈ TV;
if( there is no such edge){
break;
add v to TV;
add (u, v) to T;
}
if( T contains fewer than n-1 edges ){
print(“No spanning tree”);
}
32.
Minimum Cost Spanning
Trees(Cont’d)
•
Prim’s Algorithm(Cont’d)
– a strategy for this algorithm
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assuming a vertex v that is not in TV
v has a companion vertex, near(v), such that near(v) ∈ TV
cost(near(v), v) is minimum
– faster implementations
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using Fibonacci heaps
33.
Minimum Cost Spanning
Trees(Cont’d)
•
Sollin’s Algorithm
– Algorithm
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selecting several edges
eliminating the duplicate edges
selected edges and all vertices in a graph form a spanning forest
selecting an edge from each tree that has the minimum cost in the forest
adding a selected edge
34.
Shortest Paths and Transitive
Closure
• Shortest Paths Problems
– Single Source All Destination
– All Pairs Shortest Paths
37.
Shortest Paths and Transitive
Closure(Cont’d)
• Transitive Closure
– Transitive Closure
•
A+[i][j] = 1 if there is a path of length > 0 from i to j
– Reflexive Transitive Closure
•
A*[i][j] = 1 if there is a path of length ≥ 0 from i to j
if(this.distanceTrans[i][j] || this.distanceTrans[i][k] && this.distanceTrans[k][j]){
this.distanceTrans[i][j] = true;
this.distanceReflexTrans[i][j] = this.distanceTrans[i][j];
}
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38.
Activity Networks
• AOV(Activity On Vertex)
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is a directed graph G
vertices represent tasks or activities
the edges represent precedence relations between activities
predecessor
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vertex i is a predecessor of vertex j
if there is a directed path from vertex i to vertex j
– immediate predecessor
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vertex i is an immediate predecessor of vertex j
if <i, j> is an edge
– successor
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j is a successor of i
if i is a predecessor of j
– immediate successor
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j is an immediate successor of i
if i is an immediate predecessor of j
39.
Activity Networks(Cont’d)
• AOV(Activity On Vertex)(Cont’d)
– feasible project
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the precedence relations must be both transitive and irreflexive
– transitive
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i∙j and j∙k i∙k for all triples i, j, k
– irreflexive
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i∙i is false for all elements
– a directed acyclic graph
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a directed graph with no cycles
a directed acyclic graph is proven that a precedence relation is irreflexive
40.
Activity Networks(Cont’d)
• AOV(Activity On Vertex)(Cont’d)
– a topological order
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a linear ordering of the vertices of a graph
Operations
a. determine if a vertex has any predecessors
(keeping a count of the number of immediate predecessors)
b. delete a vertex and all of its incident edges
(representing the network by adjacency lists)
for( i = 0 ; i < n ; i++){
if every vertex has a predecessor{
print(“Network has a cycle”);
}
pick a vertex v that has no predecessors;
output v;
delete v and all edges leading out of v from the network;
}
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