GamifyinggreenJonFroehlichAssistantProfessor CS30th AnnualHCILSymposiumMay22 2013
slideshareprefaceBrief
The talk!Backto
GamifyinggreenJonFroehlichAssistantProfessor CS30th AnnualHCILSymposiumMay22 2013
What does gamifying green mean?
OK, that’s not it, how about…
GamifyinggreenJonFroehlichAssistantProfessor CS30th AnnualHCILSymposiumMay22 2013
GamifyinggreenSuper Mario BrosGreen edition
WhatisGamification
the how
the howthe why
Deterding et al., From game design elements to gamefulness: defining “gamification”, MindTrek 2011Gamification is:The use ...
Deterding et al., From game design elements to gamefulness: defining “gamification”, MindTrek 2011Gamification is:The use ...
Despite detractors, interest in gamification is growing
Despite detractors, interest in gamification is growing
gamification
gamification
gamificationmHealth
RunningRunkeeper
FitnessNike+ Fuelband
FinancesMint.com
EducationThe Khan Academy
Deterding et al., From game design elements to gamefulness: defining “gamification”, MindTrek 2011Gamification is:The use ...
Deterding et al., From game design elements to gamefulness: defining “gamification”, MindTrek 2011Gamification is:The use ...
Deterding et al., From game design elements to gamefulness: defining “gamification”, MindTrek 2011Gamification is:The use ...
Volkswagen, Bottle Bank Arcade – TheFunTheory.com, http://youtu.be/zSiHjMU-MUo
RecyclingRecyclebank
Public Transithttps://tracker.travelsmart.ca
Home HVACnest.com
Eco-DrivingNissan Carwings
Makower, J., State of Green Business. Green Biz Report, 2012GreenBiz Group listed gamification asone of the top sustainabl...
GamificationIngredients
pointsleaderboardsnarrativefeedbackcollectionsunpredictablereinforcementself-expressionlevelscustomizationplayfulnessgoals
pointsleaderboardsnarrativefeedbackcollectionsunpredictablereinforcementself-expressionlevelscustomizationplayfulnessgoals...
MARIO World TIME1312 163003412mini-goalmedium-goalpoints collections levelsscarcity /challengenarrativelong-term goal(save...
pointsleaderboardsnarrativefeedbackcollectionsunpredictablereinforcementself-expressionlevelscustomizationplayfulnessgoals
narrativefeedbackunpredictablereinforcementself-expressioncustomizationplayfulness
feedbackHas informational andmotivational properties:it provides a basis forassessment and action,and enables progresstowa...
eco-feedbacksensing and visualizing behavior to reduce environmental impactfeedbacksensingyou
Jon Froehlich, Sensing and Feedback of Everyday Activities to Promote Environmental Behaviors, PhD Dissertation 2011
pointsleaderboardsnarrativefeedbackcollectionsunpredictablereinforcementself-expressionlevelscustomizationplayfulnessgoals
levelgoalImmediatefeedback
levelgoalImmediatefeedbackprogresstrackinglevelsgoalsimmediatefeedback
Gartner Group, Press Release, 2012; http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2251015By 2014, 80% of currentgamified applications...
The difference is in the design and executionvs.
The difference is in the design and executionvs.ACHIEVEMENT UNLOCKED2nd successful cooking metaphorin talk. Double bonus.
GreenexamplesGamification
Traditional Bill: Opower Bill:
leaderboard iconic rewardsfeedbackA Gamification Lens3 levelsgoals(implicit)
descriptivesocial normfeedbackA Behavioral Science Lenslossaversion
Descriptive NormsA descriptive social norm describeswhat is typical or normal behavior in aparticular context:“If everyone...
standard environmental message descriptive norm message26% increaseGoldstein et al., Using Social Norms to Motivate Enviro...
But there’s a problem with social norms…
TheBoomerangEffectSchultz et al., The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms, Psychological S...
TheBoomerangEffectSchultz et al., The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms, Psychological S...
descriptivesocial norminjunctivemessagingfeedbackA Behavioral Science Lenslossaversion
Is Opower successful?
~2.5%energy savings
20 milliontons of coal
yearly outputof 4 nuclearpower plants[Armel, BECC 2008]
GreenEco DrivingGamification
There is a well known link betweenDRIVER BEHAVIOR and FUEL ECONOMYGreene, 1986; Ford, 2008a; Gonder, Earleywine, & Sparks,...
Fuel economy can vary by up to25% due to driver behaviorGreene, 1986; Ford, 2008a; Gonder, Earleywine, & Sparks, 2012;
Economical DrivingECO-DRIVINGBEHAVIORSAccelerating moderatelyAnticipating traffic flow & signalsDriving at the speed limit...
SAVE33 million metric tons of CO2If 1/3rd US drivers adoptedeco-driving behaviorsBarkenbus, J.,Eco-driving: An overlooked ...
Feedback in the automobile
Early steam-powered carshad no speedometers!
gas gaugespeedometer!clockAustin Torpedo, 1932; http://goo.gl/43A67
gas gaugespeedometer clock
gas gaugespeedometertachometer
Then… a breakthrough
Real-time feedbackabout fuel economy!
Then… another breakthrough
Toyota PriusJapan Release 1997; Worldwide 2000
Harry Fuller, Raise your Prius gaming score, CNET News, 2006; http://goo.gl/FhRmrConstantly watching the mileagemeasuremen...
GAMEDrivers interpret the feedback as aKurani et al., 2010; Stillwater and Kurani, 2011
Prius Designed in Pre-Gamification Era
O’Dell, J., Eco-Driving Systems, Edmunds AutoObserver, 2009When we observed hybrid drivers, wefound they were going for hi...
feedback +narrativevisual reward+ collectionsfeedbackFord SmartGaugeDebuted in 2010
Honda Eco-Assistgamificationpanel
Nissan Carwings
Are these systems successful?
Analyzed 400,000 journeys by5,697 drivers across 5 countriesDrivers reduced consumptionby 6% with eco:Drive
gamificationcriticisms
GAMIFICATIONCRITICISMSOverhyped and superficialPlay should be voluntaryIntrinsic vs. extrinsic motivationCredibility and t...
Margaret Robertson, Can’t Play, Won’t Play, 2010; http://goo.gl/hu1lV; see also http://codingconduct.cc/Meaningful-PlayGam...
Melissa Parrish, Q&A with Seth Priebatsch, 2011; http://goo.gl/DafyP; see also http://codingconduct.cc/Meaningful-PlayAt S...
Business Model:Partner with utilities.Pay virtual currency forverified energy efficiency.http://zemagood.com
Eric Senunas, Gaming as an Energy Efficiency Behavior Tool, BECC 2012You will become [energy] efficientin spite of yoursel...
Slide based on Sebastian Deterding’s Meaningful Play talk, 2011: http://codingconduct.cc/Meaningful-Play
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic motivationSlide based on Amy Jo Kim’s Gamification 101: Design the Player Journey, http://goo.gl/7...
When sensors go wrong, gamification breaks.
When sensors go wrong, gamification breaks.!
When sensors go wrong, gamification breaks.
When sensors go wrong, gamification breaks.
When sensors go wrong, gamification breaks.
When sensors go wrong, gamification breaks.
talkconclusion
Some useful books
Some inspiring/useful talks
Some helpful design cards
GamifyinggreenJonFroehlichAssistantProfessor CS30th AnnualHCILSymposiumMay22 2013ACHIEVEMENT UNLOCKEDYou made it through m...
FontsSegoe UI SemiboldSegoe UI LightSegoe PrintHelveticaNeueLT Com 25 UltLt BoldHelveticaNeueLT Com 25 UltLtArcadeClassic
Firespotter Labs, Jotly Rate Everything, 2011; http://youtu.be/QIWpbfZHHzc
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Gamifying Green

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As usual, I suggest you download the full PowerPoint (PPTX) version of this talk to view the embedded animations and videos (which should enhance understandability). http://www.cs.umd.edu/~jonf/talks.html

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In their State of Green Business report, the GreenBiz Group listed gamification as one of the top sustainable business trends of 2012, noting that game mechanics are increasingly used by companies to provide “rewards for making good, green choices” (Makower, 2012). In the last few years, we have seen a surge of interest in green gamification, which is beginning to touch upon nearly all aspects of our everyday life from cars that rank and reward fuel-efficient driving performance (e.g., the Nissan Leaf) to sanitation services that monitor and reward home recycling behavior (e.g., Recyclebank). As Ashok Kamal, the CEO of the green social media marketing company Bennu notes, this movement represents a “tidal wave of green gamification that is capturing the attention of the green community and the business community as a whole” (Cousteau, Kamal, Freeman, & Pank, 2012).

Given such vibrant enthusiasm surrounding “green gamification,” it is hard not to react with some degree of skepticism. Climate change, pollution, and other human-driven environmental ills are complex, multi-faceted problems—can gamification actually play a serious role in their solution? In this talk, I attempt to provide a partial answer by providing a teaser for my new chapter on gamifying green to come out this year in the book “The Gameful World” edited by Steffen P. Walz and Sebastian Deterding. To learn more, go here: www.gamefulworld.org.

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Gamifying Green

  1. 1. GamifyinggreenJonFroehlichAssistantProfessor CS30th AnnualHCILSymposiumMay22 2013
  2. 2. slideshareprefaceBrief
  3. 3. The talk!Backto
  4. 4. GamifyinggreenJonFroehlichAssistantProfessor CS30th AnnualHCILSymposiumMay22 2013
  5. 5. What does gamifying green mean?
  6. 6. OK, that’s not it, how about…
  7. 7. GamifyinggreenJonFroehlichAssistantProfessor CS30th AnnualHCILSymposiumMay22 2013
  8. 8. GamifyinggreenSuper Mario BrosGreen edition
  9. 9. WhatisGamification
  10. 10. the how
  11. 11. the howthe why
  12. 12. Deterding et al., From game design elements to gamefulness: defining “gamification”, MindTrek 2011Gamification is:The use of game designelements in non-game contextsSebastian DeterdingAcademic / Leading Gamification Thinker
  13. 13. Deterding et al., From game design elements to gamefulness: defining “gamification”, MindTrek 2011Gamification is:The use of game designelements in non-game contextsSebastian DeterdingAcademic / Leading Gamification Thinker
  14. 14. Despite detractors, interest in gamification is growing
  15. 15. Despite detractors, interest in gamification is growing
  16. 16. gamification
  17. 17. gamification
  18. 18. gamificationmHealth
  19. 19. RunningRunkeeper
  20. 20. FitnessNike+ Fuelband
  21. 21. FinancesMint.com
  22. 22. EducationThe Khan Academy
  23. 23. Deterding et al., From game design elements to gamefulness: defining “gamification”, MindTrek 2011Gamification is:The use of game designelements in non-game contextsSebastian DeterdingAcademic / Leading Gamification Thinker
  24. 24. Deterding et al., From game design elements to gamefulness: defining “gamification”, MindTrek 2011Gamification is:The use of game designelements in non-game contextsSebastian DeterdingAcademic / Leading Gamification Thinker
  25. 25. Deterding et al., From game design elements to gamefulness: defining “gamification”, MindTrek 2011Gamification is:The use of game designelements in non-game contextsSebastian DeterdingAcademic / Leading Gamification Thinker…to promote proenvironmentalbehavior
  26. 26. Volkswagen, Bottle Bank Arcade – TheFunTheory.com, http://youtu.be/zSiHjMU-MUo
  27. 27. RecyclingRecyclebank
  28. 28. Public Transithttps://tracker.travelsmart.ca
  29. 29. Home HVACnest.com
  30. 30. Eco-DrivingNissan Carwings
  31. 31. Makower, J., State of Green Business. Green Biz Report, 2012GreenBiz Group listed gamification asone of the top sustainable businesstrends of 2012, noting that gamemechanics are increasingly used bycompanies to provide “rewards formaking good, green choices”GreenBiz GroupCleantech Analysts / Consultancy
  32. 32. GamificationIngredients
  33. 33. pointsleaderboardsnarrativefeedbackcollectionsunpredictablereinforcementself-expressionlevelscustomizationplayfulnessgoals
  34. 34. pointsleaderboardsnarrativefeedbackcollectionsunpredictablereinforcementself-expressionlevelscustomizationplayfulnessgoalsACHIEVEMENT UNLOCKEDSuccessful cooking metaphor in talk
  35. 35. MARIO World TIME1312 163003412mini-goalmedium-goalpoints collections levelsscarcity /challengenarrativelong-term goal(save princess)
  36. 36. pointsleaderboardsnarrativefeedbackcollectionsunpredictablereinforcementself-expressionlevelscustomizationplayfulnessgoals
  37. 37. narrativefeedbackunpredictablereinforcementself-expressioncustomizationplayfulness
  38. 38. feedbackHas informational andmotivational properties:it provides a basis forassessment and action,and enables progresstowards a goal.Aitken et al., J. of Applied Social Psychology, 1994; Fischer, J. of Energy Efficiency, 2008
  39. 39. eco-feedbacksensing and visualizing behavior to reduce environmental impactfeedbacksensingyou
  40. 40. Jon Froehlich, Sensing and Feedback of Everyday Activities to Promote Environmental Behaviors, PhD Dissertation 2011
  41. 41. pointsleaderboardsnarrativefeedbackcollectionsunpredictablereinforcementself-expressionlevelscustomizationplayfulnessgoals
  42. 42. levelgoalImmediatefeedback
  43. 43. levelgoalImmediatefeedbackprogresstrackinglevelsgoalsimmediatefeedback
  44. 44. Gartner Group, Press Release, 2012; http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2251015By 2014, 80% of currentgamified applications will fail tomeet business objectivesprimarily due to poor design.Gartner GroupTechnology Analyst Company
  45. 45. The difference is in the design and executionvs.
  46. 46. The difference is in the design and executionvs.ACHIEVEMENT UNLOCKED2nd successful cooking metaphorin talk. Double bonus.
  47. 47. GreenexamplesGamification
  48. 48. Traditional Bill: Opower Bill:
  49. 49. leaderboard iconic rewardsfeedbackA Gamification Lens3 levelsgoals(implicit)
  50. 50. descriptivesocial normfeedbackA Behavioral Science Lenslossaversion
  51. 51. Descriptive NormsA descriptive social norm describeswhat is typical or normal behavior in aparticular context:“If everyone is doing it, it must bea sensible thing to do”Goldstein et al., Using Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation in Hotels, J. of Consumer Research 2008
  52. 52. standard environmental message descriptive norm message26% increaseGoldstein et al., Using Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation in Hotels, J. of Consumer Research 2008
  53. 53. But there’s a problem with social norms…
  54. 54. TheBoomerangEffectSchultz et al., The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms, Psychological Science 2007
  55. 55. TheBoomerangEffectSchultz et al., The Constructive, Destructive, and Reconstructive Power of Social Norms, Psychological Science 2007
  56. 56. descriptivesocial norminjunctivemessagingfeedbackA Behavioral Science Lenslossaversion
  57. 57. Is Opower successful?
  58. 58. ~2.5%energy savings
  59. 59. 20 milliontons of coal
  60. 60. yearly outputof 4 nuclearpower plants[Armel, BECC 2008]
  61. 61. GreenEco DrivingGamification
  62. 62. There is a well known link betweenDRIVER BEHAVIOR and FUEL ECONOMYGreene, 1986; Ford, 2008a; Gonder, Earleywine, & Sparks, 2012;
  63. 63. Fuel economy can vary by up to25% due to driver behaviorGreene, 1986; Ford, 2008a; Gonder, Earleywine, & Sparks, 2012;
  64. 64. Economical DrivingECO-DRIVINGBEHAVIORSAccelerating moderatelyAnticipating traffic flow & signalsDriving at the speed limitEliminating excessive idlingGood car maintenance
  65. 65. SAVE33 million metric tons of CO2If 1/3rd US drivers adoptedeco-driving behaviorsBarkenbus, J.,Eco-driving: An overlooked climate change initiative. Energy Policy, 2010
  66. 66. Feedback in the automobile
  67. 67. Early steam-powered carshad no speedometers!
  68. 68. gas gaugespeedometer!clockAustin Torpedo, 1932; http://goo.gl/43A67
  69. 69. gas gaugespeedometer clock
  70. 70. gas gaugespeedometertachometer
  71. 71. Then… a breakthrough
  72. 72. Real-time feedbackabout fuel economy!
  73. 73. Then… another breakthrough
  74. 74. Toyota PriusJapan Release 1997; Worldwide 2000
  75. 75. Harry Fuller, Raise your Prius gaming score, CNET News, 2006; http://goo.gl/FhRmrConstantly watching the mileagemeasurements on the Priuss little videoscreen is really a mobilized videogame. Its NOT simply driving a car.Harry FullerFormer executive editor at CNET
  76. 76. GAMEDrivers interpret the feedback as aKurani et al., 2010; Stillwater and Kurani, 2011
  77. 77. Prius Designed in Pre-Gamification Era
  78. 78. O’Dell, J., Eco-Driving Systems, Edmunds AutoObserver, 2009When we observed hybrid drivers, wefound they were going for highscores, a gaming behavior that hasnever existed in cars before. Wedesigned to accommodate it.Steve BishopDesigner at IDEO
  79. 79. feedback +narrativevisual reward+ collectionsfeedbackFord SmartGaugeDebuted in 2010
  80. 80. Honda Eco-Assistgamificationpanel
  81. 81. Nissan Carwings
  82. 82. Are these systems successful?
  83. 83. Analyzed 400,000 journeys by5,697 drivers across 5 countriesDrivers reduced consumptionby 6% with eco:Drive
  84. 84. gamificationcriticisms
  85. 85. GAMIFICATIONCRITICISMSOverhyped and superficialPlay should be voluntaryIntrinsic vs. extrinsic motivationCredibility and trustPoint inflationEthical issuesUndermines user agency…
  86. 86. Margaret Robertson, Can’t Play, Won’t Play, 2010; http://goo.gl/hu1lV; see also http://codingconduct.cc/Meaningful-PlayGamification is an inadvertent con. Ittricks people into believing that there’s asimple way to imbue their thing (bank,gym, job, government, health) with thepsychological, emotional and social powerof a great game.Margaret RobertsonGame Designer / Consultant
  87. 87. Melissa Parrish, Q&A with Seth Priebatsch, 2011; http://goo.gl/DafyP; see also http://codingconduct.cc/Meaningful-PlayAt SCVNGR we like to joke that withseven game dynamics you can prettymuch get anyone to do anything.Seth PriebatschCo-founder of SCVNGR & LevelUp
  88. 88. Business Model:Partner with utilities.Pay virtual currency forverified energy efficiency.http://zemagood.com
  89. 89. Eric Senunas, Gaming as an Energy Efficiency Behavior Tool, BECC 2012You will become [energy] efficientin spite of yourself because youwant that farm cash.Eric SenunasCo-Founder Zema Good, Inc
  90. 90. Slide based on Sebastian Deterding’s Meaningful Play talk, 2011: http://codingconduct.cc/Meaningful-Play
  91. 91. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic motivationSlide based on Amy Jo Kim’s Gamification 101: Design the Player Journey, http://goo.gl/714PI
  92. 92. When sensors go wrong, gamification breaks.
  93. 93. When sensors go wrong, gamification breaks.!
  94. 94. When sensors go wrong, gamification breaks.
  95. 95. When sensors go wrong, gamification breaks.
  96. 96. When sensors go wrong, gamification breaks.
  97. 97. When sensors go wrong, gamification breaks.
  98. 98. talkconclusion
  99. 99. Some useful books
  100. 100. Some inspiring/useful talks
  101. 101. Some helpful design cards
  102. 102. GamifyinggreenJonFroehlichAssistantProfessor CS30th AnnualHCILSymposiumMay22 2013ACHIEVEMENT UNLOCKEDYou made it through my talk!twitter: @jonfroehlich
  103. 103. FontsSegoe UI SemiboldSegoe UI LightSegoe PrintHelveticaNeueLT Com 25 UltLt BoldHelveticaNeueLT Com 25 UltLtArcadeClassic
  104. 104. Firespotter Labs, Jotly Rate Everything, 2011; http://youtu.be/QIWpbfZHHzc

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