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The Moving Image and Literacy in the Primary Classroom

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UKLA 2011, Chester …

UKLA 2011, Chester
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  • 1. The Moving Image and Literacy in the Primary Classroom: 12 Points to Consider
    UKLA 2011, Chester
    Mag. phil. Sigrid Jones, MA
    University of Vienna
    wordandimage.wordpress.com
  • 2. „Literary Learning“
    Kaspar H. Spinner (2000) Literarisches Lernen in der Grundschule. In: Kinder-/ Jugendliteratur und Medien in Forschung Schule und Bibliothek, kjl6m 07.3
  • 3. 1. Developing Imagination
  • 4. 1. Developing Imagination
    Through listening, watching, reading
    Importance of ability to form mental images
    Maintaining the intensity of childrens capacity for imagination
    Towards increasing sophistication and flexibility
  • 5. 1. Developing Imagination
    „Imagination is an aspect of the processes of sign making; of necessity it is always internal, for when its effects are expressed in ‚outward‘ signs it has again become part of a public social semiosis.“
    „In my view cognition and imagination are entirely and closely related.“
    „The different media make different kind of imagination possible and impose their limitations on imaginative activity!“
    „One question to ask therefore is to precisely about the limitations and possibilities of each medium“
    Kress, Gunther (1997) Before Writing: Rethinking the Paths to Literacy London: Routledge p.103-104
  • 6. 2. Filling the Gaps
  • 7. 2. Filling the Gaps
    Reader Response Theory: „Leerstellen“, gaps, blanks = „points at which the active participation of the reader determines the reading and comprehension of the work.“ see Wolfgang Iser (1978) The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response / Wolfgang Iser (1980) The Implied Reader
    Comic Book Theory: “Induction“ = cognitive capacity to connect small pieces of information in the viewers or readers mind, to make leaps in imagination in order to understand the whole. Scott McCloud (1990) Understanding Comics
  • 8. 2. Filling the Gaps
    Film Theory: Kuleshov Experiment, Kulseshov Effect:
    Film editing: assembly of film fragments,juxtaposition of one shot with another
    Kuleshov Experiment: famous editing exercise by Lev Kulsehov - juxtaposition of shots of an actor showing the same expression with various meaningful images (a casket, a bowl of soup) in order to show how editing changes viewers' interpretations of images.
    Kulseshov Effect: the viewer inferring meaning from a montage of shots, assuming a causal relationsship
    see for example James Monaco (2000) How to Read a Film
  • 9. 2. Filling the Gaps
    Teaching Film:
    Using first impressions, associations, building assumptions about the characters and the plot
    Speculating about, twist and turns, future events, feelings and motives in the narrative
    Expectations, projections will be revised throughout the story, as narrative unfolds
    Developing and honing the capacity to fill gaps, in dealing with greater narrative complexities
  • 10. 3. Getting Children Involved
  • 11. 3. Getting Children Involved
    Subjective Involvement
    Adressing personal concern
    Drawing connections to personal experiences
    Using text as canvas to project ones own feelings
    Making personal connection explicit
    Subjective involvement cannot be observed > however, leads to intensive and lasting memories
  • 12. 3. Getting Children Involved
    2. Close Reading of a Film/Media Text
    Focussing attention and perception
    Increasing accuracy in observation
  • 13. 4. Drawing the Attention to Aesthetic Principles
  • 14. 4. Drawing the Attention to Aesthetic Principles
    Learning about Language and Design: the „grammar of film“, or „language of film“
    Perceiving aesthetic effects
    Discovering formal structures
    Experimenting with formal structures
  • 15. 4. Drawing the Attention to Aesthetic Principles
    Order, Proportion, Measure: eg. three act structure
    Rythm: eg. paying close attention to: pacing, movement,
    music, repetition of acoustic or visual elements
    Symmetry: mirroring of situations or characters, visual symmetry
    Contrast, Tension: eg. between protagonis and antagonist,
    visual - between light and dark,
    Colour: eg. color, colour of language, tone
    Structure: surface structures, narrative structures
    Space: representation of space
    Time: representation of time
    see Paul Rand (1965) Design and the Play Instinct. in Gyorgy Kopes (ed) Education of Vision, George Braziller Inc.
  • 16. 4. Drawing the Attention to Aesthetic Principles
    Order, Proportion, Measure: eg. three act structure
    Rythm: eg. paying close attention to: pacing, movement, music, repetition of acoustic or visual elements
    Symmetry: eg. mirroring of situations or characters, visual symmetry
    Contrast, Tension: eg. between protagonist and antagonist, visual - between light and dark,
    Colour: eg. color, colour of language, tone
    Structure: eg. surface structures, narrative structures
    Space: representation of space
    Time: representation of time
    see Paul Rand (1965) Design and the Play Instinct. in Gyorgy Kopes (ed) Education of Vision, George Braziller Inc.
  • 17. 5. Following the Point of View
    of Characters
  • 18. 5. Following the Point of View of Characters
    Identification with thoughts and feelings of fictional characters, their experiences, memories
    Dissociation, separation: distancing from characters and their actions, provides opportunity to be confronted with new, strange things, situations, characters the unknown, the „other“
    Understanding the relationships of characters within the narrative
    Understanding the relationship between story and plot - the plot vs. interior journey of the protagonist
    Understanding literary perspectives, point of view, change of perspective as narrative tool,
  • 19. 6. Understanding Narrative
  • 20. 6. Understanding Narrative
    Joining the dots: relating parts of the text, of sequences to each other, relating text and image
    Understanding causal connections
    Understanding the overall story arch of film plot, of a feature length film has to be learned(children remember fragments of a film, the „best bits“)
    Scaffolded learning process with narratives of increasing complexity
  • 21. 7. Telling Fact from Fiction
  • 22. 7. Telling Fact from Fiction
    • Representation and Ideology in Media Studies
    • 23. Relating the world of fiction to the world of experience outside the text, to the life world of children
    • 24. Tension between fiction and reality (eg. speaking animals)
    • 25. Fictional texts follow interior logic, often to do with genre conventions, not necessarily related to actual world
    • 26. Rules, laws, logic which which govern fictional worlds based on literary conventions, culturally specific aesthetic conventions
    • 27. > Fictional text & factual text, both are representations of reality, constructions of reality
  • 8. Understanding Symbols and Metaphors
  • 28. 8. Understanding Symbols and Metaphors
    Understanding symbols, metaphors, similes, on a verbal level, visual level, conceptual level
    Symbols, metaphors, codes, tropes, motives are reproduced, reinforced, developed across media
    Acquiring Cultural Capital: cultural knowledge, metatextual knowledge. understanding intertextual references
  • 29. 9. Allowing for Meaning Making as Open Ended Process
  • 30. 9. Allowing for Meaning Making as Open Ended Process
    Relates to concept of Audience in Media Studies: acknowledging the semiotic openness of a text
    Text will direct the reader or viewer along a certain path, but can never entirely determine, dominate the interpretation
    Relates to constructivist views in the sense that it validates the personal interpretation of reader, listener, viewer
    Allowing for diverse readings in the classroom, being prepared to live with ambivalences, double meanings
    Younger children seem to need clear structures and closure in a narrative, older children are more capable in dealing with ambivalences, open endings in film or literature
  • 31. 10. Learning to Talk about Text
  • 32. 10. Learning to Talk about Text
    Talking about literature, talking about film > acquiring cultural capital
    Taking part in a shared cultural space, ability to do that is influenced by education and class
    Practicing exchange of ideas about textual or mediated experiences
    Learning to accept, respect and appreciate the point of view of others
    Open ended conversation about media text, not to arrive to some predetermined conclustion
    Conversation as a joint journey in the search for meaning
  • 33. 11. Gaining an Understanding about Genre
  • 34. 11. Gaining an Understanding about Genre
    Genre: well known concept from English and Media Studies
    Understanding about genres is socially constructed and always subject to change
    Learning about structural similarities, the use of specific codes
    Assuming that children have a large body of experience with media text >this can be used as asset, funds of knowledge
    Making implicit knowledge about text explicit
  • 35. 12. Developing Historical Awareness
  • 36. 12. Developing Historical Awareness
    Learning about History and Cultural History
    through art, music, literature, film
    Particularly vivid experience through encounters with film eg. silent film, black and white film
    Introducing historical context
    Discussing technological developments
    Discussing cultural developments
    Discussing intertexual relationships
  • 37. Illustrations in this presentation are by Paul RandPicture books by Ann and Paul RandSparkle and Spin: A Book about WordsI Know a Lot of ThingsLittle 1Listen! Listen!
  • 38. Thank you!sigrid.jones@univie.ac.atsigrid.jones@bikum.atwordandimage.wordpress.com