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5.2 the development of the american railroads

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  • 1. 5.2 The Development of the American Railroads
    Linking the East
    and West
  • 2. Manifest Destiny
    Manifest Destiny -- 19th century belief that it was the US god-ordained destiny to rule North America from the east to the west coast
    The term “Manifest Destiny” would be used over and over again through out American history to justify stealing land from the Indians, stealing land from the Mexicans, and later, conquering islands such as the Philipines and Hawaii.
  • 3.
  • 4. US Railways
    in 1860
  • 5. So here is what we know…
    The heart of America is still in the East
    Lots of money in the West
    East and West are disconnected
    So…
  • 6. The Solution – Transcontinental Railroad
    Pacific Railway Act – signed by president Lincoln in 1862, it provided for the construction of a transcontinental railroad
    Two companies were in charge of building this rail line from opposite directions:
    1. Union Pacific
    2. Central Pacific
    To encourage speedy construction, the government granted:
    Money per mile of track
    All the land surrounding the tracks in the right of way
    HOW MIGHT THIS BECOME A PROBLEM?
  • 7. Utah,
    the meeting point
    Omaha, Nebraska
    Union Pacific RR
    Sacramento, CA
    Central Pacific
  • 8. The Race was On!
    Besides land grants along the right-of-way, each railroad was subsidized $16,000 per mile ($9.94/m) built over an easy grade, $32,000 mile ($19.88/m) in the high plains, and $48,000 per mile ($29.83/m) in the mountains.
    The race was on to see which railroad company could build the longest section of track.
    They would build crooked tracks (federal government had to send in men to keep them straight)
    Central Pacific build 10 miles in a day!
  • 9. The Union Pacific
    Engineer Grenville Dodgewas in charge of the UP
    Education in civil engineering
    Union military companion
    Found pass through Black Hills while escaping Indians
    Leaves military to help the construction of the transcontinental RR
  • 10. The Union Pacific hired Civil War soldiers, ex-criminals, and Irish immigrants.
  • 11.
  • 12. The Central Pacific
    The original man in charge was Theodore Judah
    People thought building through the Sierra Nevadaswas impossible
    Convinced four Sacramento based business men to back him financially
    Eventually forced him out
  • 13. The man who pushed Judah out
    Leland Standford– led a push to get Judah out
    Lawyer in the east, lost everything in a fire
    Moved west in the California Gold Rush
    Become a grocery story mogul in Sacramento
    Big 4 CP
    Stanford University
  • 14. Central Pacific Railroad Map
  • 15. Central Pacific – 1869 – notice the hats of the workers
  • 16. The Central Pacific mostly hired Chinese immigrants.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. Early Immigrants Came Looking for Gold
    Large scale Chinese immigration to California began after news of the discovery of gold reached China. In 1851, nearly 3,000 Chinese came to California; more than 20,000 came in 1852.
    For the next two decades almost 8,000 new immigrants arrived from China each year.
    Chinese miners established themselves throughout the gold fields, especially in Calaveras, El Dorado and Amador counties.
    Many were independent miners or worked for Chinese companies. Some worked for non-Chinese. Others contributed indirectly as suppliers of goods and services.
  • 20. The expendability of Chinese workers
    Generally paid one dollar per day
    Tunneling was a necessity through the Rockies
    Nitroglycerin had just been invented
    Tunnels became easier to blast
    But death rates of Chinese workers skyrocketed
  • 21. The Last Spike
    It only took 4 years to complete the biggest Industrial project in American history
    The “final spike” ceremony was held on May 10th 1869 in Promontory Point Utah.
    Leland Stanford hammered in the last spike
    Telegraphs on hand made it the first “live” media event in US history
    Cannons blasted in NY, parade in Chicago, Liberty Bell was rang in Philly
    East to west coast used to take 6 months, now
    1 week!
  • 22. Train bringing Leland Sanford and the rest of the Big 4 to Promontory Summit, UT
  • 23. “The Last Spike”
  • 24. “The Last Spike”
  • 25. “The Last Spike”
  • 26. 1887
  • 27. 1918
  • 28. Railroads Spur Growth and Change
    Railroads helped the economy by putting large amounts of money into steel, coal, timber, and by simply creating thousands and thousands of jobs
    In 1883, The American Railway Association divided the country into 4 time zones.
    WHY?
    Before, communities set their own times according to the sun
    Train wrecks kept occurring!
    This standardized US time
  • 29. The Original Railroad Gangsta
    Cornelius Vanderbiltmade millions by connecting Chicago to New York and creating the New York Central rail line.
    He bought several smaller rail companies and combined them together.
    In 1871 he began construction of New York’s Grand Central Terminal.
  • 30. Grand Central Station in NY
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33. Vanderbilt
    Poor family, quite school at age 11, used money from dad to buy a boat and started making money
    Notorious for being stingy with his money…never gave to poor until the very end of his life
    Drunk, adulterer, arrogant, and rude
    Honest, upfront, brave, and SUPER competitive
    His goal was to force competitors to be bought out…he once shut down all RR to Manhattan and cut off our biggest city…he won
    He gave away 1.5 million in his life to charity…then 107 million to his son when he died
    Donated 1 million to create Vanderbilt University
  • 34. The Biltmore House
  • 35. Biltmore House
    • still the largest home in the US with over 175,000 sq feet
    • 36. intercoms, elevators, fire alarms, and a two story library…big deals in the late 1800s
  • Rail Road Corruption
    Credit Mobilier was a construction company that was owned by the men who owned the Union Pacific
    The owners hired themselves to do the construction work for the UP, and charged whatever they wanted because the RR’s were backed by federal dollars
    Men made millions and almost bankrupted the Union Pacific
    It involved Oakes Ames who was a member of Congress and the Credit Mobilier.
    This scandal was revealed during the 1872 elections.
    No member of the company was charged due to Ames relationship with Congress.
  • 37.
  • 38. Consequences of Credit Mobilier
    The scandal created the impression amongst the public that all the railroad entrepreneurs were “robber barons”
    Jay Gould bowls on Wall Street with balls labeled “Trickery,” and “False Reports.” The pins are labeled “Banker,” “Inexperienced Investors,” “Small Operator,” and “Stock Broker.”