Industrial Growth Between 1865 and 1900, the u.s. experienced unprecedented economic growth 1860 manufacturers had about $2 billion in value by 1900 they had over $11 billion Iron ore production nearly quadrupled from 7 million long-tons to 27 million long-tons Steel output rose from less than 1 million tons to over 11 million tons Gross National Product tripled during that time Railroad mileage increased from 30,000 to 250,000 miles
After the Civil War The industrial revolution was in full force in the northern US Before the Civil War 90% of population were farmers By 1900 the United States was the world’s leading industrial nation. This growth in factories became known as “Industrialization”. The US had the two most important things to help the process of industrialization along: Natural Resources A large workforce
Natural Resources The United States had a vast amount of natural resources such as: 1. Coal 2. Timber 3. Iron 4. Copper Where do you think these items were coming from? The WEST! No importing from other countries meant cheaper production in the US.
A Large Workforce Between 1860 and 1910 the population of the United States tripled. This was largely due to immigration. These “new Americans” provided for a growing work force in factories. It also created a demand for products. Many people chose to come to America to seek a better life.
New Inventions Resources and workforce are important, but the nation also need one more thing— Technology and Inventions
Bell and The Telephone Alexander Graham Bell immigrated from Scotland Mother and wife were both deaf In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Thomas Watson invented the telephone. The first message ever sent was by Bell to Watson. Bell’s company became the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (AT&T) Telephones forever changed they way life was lived
Thomas Edison Thomas Alva Edison invented many things in his laboratory at Menlo Park, NJ. Menlo Park was nicknamed the invention factory 5 years, one invention per month at Menlo 1,093 patents in his name Edison invented the phonograph, light bulb, generator, battery, and motion picture. Edison would start the Edison General Electric Company which today is called GE. By 1889, his company was changing the world by supply electric power to New York City
Edison’s Story Dad fled from Canada after a rebellion against the government…moved to New Jersey Went to school for 3 months before mom decided to home school him Developed serious hearing issues after scarlet fever Debated deaf stories Night shift telegrapher…fired Sold telegraph idea to Western Union for $10,000 and opened Menlo Park Direct current war with Westinghouse
"If I find 10,000 ways something won't work, I haven't failed. I am not discouraged, because every wrong attempt discarded is another step forward". —Thomas Edison
E.I. Dupont Developed a new way of making gunpowder Was also a chemist and worked on making new substances like nylon The Dupont family has been one of the richest in the US over the past 200 years
Gorge Westinghouse Invented the airbrake for trains & allowed for trains to travel safely at much high speeds
Gustavus Swift Developed the first refrigerated rail car which helped to keep meat fresher for longer periods of time.
More Inventions Thaddeus Lowe invented the ice machine. Northrop Automatic Loom allowed cloth to be made much faster.
More InventionsCyrus Field laid the first telegraph line across the Atlantic connecting Europe to the United States.
Changes to Daily Life Electricity Indoor Plumbing Communication Transportation
Government Help in Industrialization America was setup as a country with very few governmental regulations…business too Laissez-faire – French word means “let be”, and was a policy that meant government should not interfere with the economy. Instead prices were set by supply and demand The lack of rules attracted many smart people to become Entrepreneurs- People who run a business
Tariffs Tariff – a tax on an imported good A protective action… WHY WOULD A COUNTRY TAX IMPORTED GOODS?
Morrill Tariff Morrill Tariff – placed huge taxes on all imported goods and sold open range land in the Mid-West to railroad companies for less than half of the market value Why would the government sell the land to railroad companies?