Chapter 18 Civil Rights MovementThe Beginnings<br />The Civil Rights Movement really began on December 1st 1955in Montgomery Alabama.<br />Rosa Parks would not give up her bus seat to a white man and thus started the Montgomery bus boycott.<br />A local pastor in Montgomery namedDr. Martin Luther King Jr. was selected to lead this bus boycott. <br />
Civil Rights Issues<br />In Topeka Kansas, Linda Brownsued to attend the white school. Her case went to the Supreme Court.<br />In May of 1954 Brown v. Boardof Education was heard.<br />Decision: “separate but equal is not equal” and officially overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)<br />The Supreme Court ruled in favor of her. This allowed blacks and whites to attend school together.<br />The first integrated school was Central High School in Little Rock Arkansas in 1957.<br />
Little Rock 9<br />When Brown v. Board of Education ruled that segregation was unconstitutional, this would very slowly start the de-segregation of schools in America.<br />When Central High School was integrated, this started many race riots across the country.<br />Army and National Guard troops had to be called to maintain peace and order.<br />Nine black students enrolled and attended classes that fall.<br />
Sit-ins<br />If a black person was refused service somewhere, they would organize a “sit-in”.<br />They would sit there until they were served. Sit-ins were held at restaurants, gas stations, barber shops, and hotels.<br />One of the most famous organizers of “sit ins” was Jesse Jackson.<br />The first “sit-in” was at the Woolworth’s Department Store in Greensboro N.C.<br />
Non-violence Resistance<br />MLK had read the non-violent words of Gandhi and Henry David Thoreau<br />Protesters were not allowed to use violence….if you are hit you simply take it<br />Nice dress to set them apart from those committing the abuses<br />
Freedom Riders<br />These were college students (both black and white) who went into the south to protest segregated bus terminals.<br />When the Freedom Riders stopped in Alabama, they were harassed and beat.<br />Birmingham police chief Bull Conner ordered police dogs and KKK members to attack the riders.<br />
James MeredithSlide 6 of 7<br />He was a veteran of the U.S. military.<br />He wanted to enroll to take classes at the University of Mississippi.<br />He was not allowed admission due to his race.<br />President Kennedy sent 500 federal marshals to escort him to class each day.<br />Protestors threw rocks at the marshals.<br />JFK then sent in the army to protect him.<br />James Meredith eventually graduated.<br />
Violence in BirminghamSlide 7 of 7<br />Dr. King had organized a peaceful protest in Birmingham in the spring of 1963.<br />Bull Conner ordered police dogs to once again attack the protestors.<br />Conner also ordered that high powered water hoses be used to the protestors.<br />This brutality will eventually lead to the Civil Rights Act of 1964.<br />
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