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14 part 3

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  • 1. Chapter 14Part 3 of 3<br />Pushing Back the Axis<br />
  • 2. Strategic Bombing of Germany Begins<br />In 1942, Britain’s Royal Air Force (RAF) and the U.S. Air Force started dropping an average of 3,500 tons of explosives on Germany per month.<br />Roosevelt and Churchill meet in 1943 at the Casablanca Conference and agree to step up the strategic bombing of Germany<br />By May of 1945, they were averaging 53,000 tons of explosives per month.<br />This caused an oil shortage, destroyed the railroad system, and destroyed aircraft factories in Germany. <br />From this point forward the Allies dominated the air<br />
  • 3. Invasion of Italy<br />Begins July 10th,1943<br />July 25, 1943 – Mussolini is arrested by his King…the new gov negotiates peace with Allies<br />Germany takes over Northern Italy, puts Mussolini BACK in charge, and fights to defend Rome<br />January 1944 – America lands in Italy and attacks the town of Monte Cassino<br />May 1944 – Germany retreats and we take Rome<br />By 1945 Italy is completely under Allie control<br />
  • 4. Takes Americans 5 months to break through the German lines at the town of Cassino<br />
  • 5. Fighting at Cassino<br />
  • 6.
  • 7. 1945 – Mussolini executed and put on display in town square<br />
  • 8. Tehran Conference<br />Churchill and Roosevelt wanted to meet with Stalin before they made their next move…A FULL OUT INVASION OF EUROPE<br />Met in Tehran, Iran in late 1943<br />Agreed that Russia would all out attack Germany when the Allies invaded France in 1944<br />They would then divide Germany after the war<br />Russia was also to help the US defeat Japan<br />
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  • 11. Operation Overlord<br />This was the code name for the allied invasion of France.<br />General Dwight D. Eisenhower was chosen as the commander of this operation.<br />1.5 million soldiers, 12,000 airplanes, and 5 million tons of equipment were sent to England to be used.<br />This invasion was nicknamed D-Day.<br />The date for the allied invasion was June 6th 1944.<br />The landing was going to happen on the French beaches of Normandy.<br />
  • 12. Planning the Attack<br />Germany knew the Allies would invade along the English Channel so they had fortified their forces their<br />Allies needed to surprise Germany so they develop Operation Foritude – a deceptive plan to draw German forces away from Normandy<br />Operation Fortitude South -- Pas de Calais<br />Operation Fortitude North – Norway<br />Pictures, false intelligence through the use of double agents, treaties with Sweden, etc<br />Germany focused their defenses on these two areas<br />
  • 13. Inflatable Dummy Tank<br />
  • 14. Inflatable Dummy Airplane<br />
  • 15. Northern<br />Fortitude<br />Southern <br />Fortitude<br />Actual Plan<br />For Attack<br />
  • 16. Other Factors Needed For Invasion<br />1944 --1.5 million American troops were now in England ready to go<br />Still had to pick a date for the attack<br />Invasion Requirements:<br />Had to begin at night to hide ships crossing Eng Chan.<br />Had to arrive at low tide to see beach obstacles<br />Low tide had to be at dawn so that landing troops could see<br />Paratroopers landing behind enemy lines needed a moonlit night to see where to land<br />Most Important: Weather had to be good<br />
  • 17. D-Day<br />June 5 to 7 1944 fit these requirements<br />June 5th is the date…Men are suited up and ready to go…the clouds appear and the mission in cancelled<br />Weather improves a little the next day<br />Shortly after midnight on June 6th, 1944 Eisenhower gave the final order “OK, we’ll go.”<br />
  • 18. The Longest Day<br />7,000 ships carrying 100,000 soldiers <br />23,000 paratroopers heading east and west of Normandy behind enemy lines<br />Allied fighter bombers wage war on the coast destroying radars, bridges, bunkers, etc<br />5 main beaches attacked: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Sword, and Juno <br />The attack almost disintegrates at once due to the rocky seas and Germany artillery, but the Allies eventually secure the beach<br />
  • 19.
  • 20. RFA pilots synchronizing watches<br />
  • 21. Omaha Beach<br />
  • 22. American troops approaching the beaches<br />
  • 23.
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  • 26. Omaha Beach after the beach had been secured<br />
  • 27.
  • 28. Saving Private Ryan Videos<br />Ground Troops View<br />
  • 29. Band of Brothers – D Day<br />Paratroopers View<br />
  • 30. Taking Back the Pacific<br />Many famous battles took place between the U.S. and Japan between 1942-1945.<br /> 1. Midway 4. Marshall Islands<br /> 2. Coral Sea 5. Guam<br /> 3. Guadalcanal 6. Okinawa<br />General Douglas MacArthur was responsible for capturing Japanese strongholds in the Pacific.<br />
  • 31. Leyete Gulf<br />The battle of Leyte Gulf was the longest and largest naval battle in history.<br />1st time Japanese used kamikaze attacks<br />
  • 32. The Navajo Code Talkers<br />US would invade Japanese islands and have their radio communications intercepted and deciphered<br />Navajo Indians knew a language that had never before been written down and they became the communicators in the Pacific<br />Sworn to secrecy, their mission was not revealed until 1971<br />
  • 33. Battle of The Bulge<br />Hitler decided to have one more major attack<br />Hitler tried to cut off Allied supplies coming through Antwerp Belgium.<br />The attack began on December 16th 1944.<br />Weather during the battle was cold with six inches of snow and was in the dense Ardennes Forest.<br />This attack put a bulge in the allied defense lines.<br />Bastognewas the key city in the battle due to the roads that intersected there (11 mountain roads intersected at Bastogne)<br />An outnumbered American unit protected Bastogne for more than a month<br />Biggest single battle America has ever fought<br />Finally after heavy fighting the Germans began to withdraw on Jan. 8th 1945.<br />
  • 34. The German Plan<br />
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  • 38. Dead Belgium Citizens killed by Germans<br />
  • 39. Truman Becomes President<br />On April 12th 1945 while vacationing in Warm Springs Georgia, FDR died of a stroke only 3 months after beginning his historic 4th term<br />Vice President Harry S. Truman became the 33rd President of the U.S.<br />Truman was from the state of Missouri. <br />
  • 40. Harry S Truman on becoming President:<br />“Boys, if you ever pray, pray for me now…When they told me yesterday what had happened, I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me.”<br />
  • 41. Harry S Truman in WWI<br />
  • 42. V-E Day<br />Soviet forces raced toward Berlin from the east.<br />U.S. forces raced toward Berlin from the west.<br />April 30th 1945, Hitler committed suicide.<br />May 7th 1945 Germany surrendered.<br />May 8th 1945 was declared V-E day which stood for Victory in Europe Day.<br />
  • 43. Chattanooga Times Free Press<br />
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  • 46.
  • 47. Hitler with Eva Braun before they commit suicide together<br />
  • 48. Soviet soldiers in Berlin<br />
  • 49. The average German street after the war<br />
  • 50. German women washing clothes in a destroyed country<br />
  • 51. Churchill waving after peace declared<br />
  • 52. Crowds gather in London to celebrate<br />
  • 53. V E Celebration in Times Square NY<br />
  • 54. War in Europe Done…War is Asia is Not<br />US invades Iwo Jima…loses 6,800 marines<br />It was an island only 8 miles long, but was perfect as a strategic air base<br />Bloodiest battle in the Pacific but would be key for our success against Japan<br />
  • 55. 3 of these 5 marines will be dead before Iwo Jima is over<br />
  • 56.
  • 57. Fire bombing of Japan<br />Truman believes if we can end Japan’s industrial production then they will surrender<br />Napalm bombs– bombs are filled with napalm and dropped on Japan’s major industrial cities<br />Napalm is like jellied gasoline<br />The flames would grow so hot and big that it would pull the oxygen out of the air<br />If civilians didn’t burn to death, then they would asphyxiate<br />HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS DIED AND THEY STILL SHOWED NO SIGNS OF SURRENDER<br />
  • 58.
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  • 61.
  • 62. Our “Ace” in the Hole…<br />
  • 63. The Manhattan Project<br />The American program to build an atomic bomb was code named the Manhattan Project. It was headed by Leslie R. Groves.<br />The nuclear reactor was built at the University of Chicago.<br />The bomb was built in Los Alamos New Mexico.<br />J. Robert Oppenheimer led the team in the bombs construction.<br />Uranium for the bomb was purified at the Oak Ridge National Lab in TN.<br />The world’s first atomic bomb was tested on July 16th 1945.<br />
  • 64.
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  • 66.
  • 67. Oppenheimer and Groves after test<br />
  • 68. Dropping The Bomb<br />August 6th 1945 a B-29 bomber named the Enola Gay dropped the first atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima.<br />The bomb was code named Little Boy.<br />Estimated 120,000 or more killed<br />August 9th a second bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki.<br />September 2nd, 1945 Japan signed the official surrender papers on the American battleship Missouriin Tokyo Bay.<br />
  • 69. Little Boy before being loaded into the Enola Gay<br />
  • 70. Paul Tibbets in the cock pit.Enola Gay was his mom’s name.<br />
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  • 74.
  • 75.
  • 76.
  • 77. Hiroshima Video<br />
  • 78. Nagasaki bombing<br />
  • 79.
  • 80.
  • 81. VJ Day – Victory over Japan Day<br />

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