The Rise of Dictators after WWI The Treaty of Versailles wasn’t fair… The world-wide Great Depression made matters far worse When people get desperate they are more willing to believe that a single person can solve their problems After WWI…this process began to emerge in Europe and Asia
Mussolini in Italy In 1919 Benito Mussolini started the Fascist Party in Italy. Fascism believes that the country is more important than the person. Mussolini pledged to take Italy back to the glory days of the Roman Empire. His nickname wasil Duce which means “the leader.” The fascist militia (soldiers) were known as Blackshirts.
Mussolini arrested in Switzerland in 1903 for leading a violent worker’s protest
Mussolini leading his Blackshirts into Rome as the Fascists take over
An Italian at the time wrote: “Mussolini may have done many brutal and tyrannical things; he may have destroyed human freedom in Italy; he may have murdered and tortured citizens whose only crime was to oppose Mussolini; but “one had to admit” one thing about the Dictator: he “made the trains run on time.”’ “He made the trains run on time.” Why is this important?
Stalin in Russia By 1917 when the Russian Revolution happened, the country was being called the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics (USSR). Joseph Stalin became the leader of the USSR in 1926. He imposed communism ruthlessly and forcefully killing 8-10 million Russians. He is responsible for more deaths than any other person in human history.
Stalin in his mid-20sAround this time he adopted the name “Stalin” which is the Russian word for “steel”
Stalin’s mug shot after being arrested as a Communist in his early years
Vladamir Lenin on his death bed wrote about Stalin: "Comrade Stalin, having become General Secretary, has concentrated enormous power in his hands: and I am not sure that he always knows how to use that power with sufficient caution. I therefore propose to our comrades to consider a means of removing Stalin from this post and appointing someone else who differs from Stalin in one weighty respect: being more tolerant, more loyal, more polite, more considerate of his comrades."
Stalin was the most ruthless of all the dictators towards his own people. If he didn’t trust you…he killed you…and then photo shopped you.
Stalin’s Siberian Labor Camps
Born to two very poor parents in Austria (he wasn’t even German) Very good in school, very serious, very religious and considered becoming a monk Wanted to be top of class, didn’t make it…and completely stopped trying Only class he liked – History…and he loved German military history Dropped out of high school WWI occurred and he was happy…but refused to fight for Austria and instead moved to German and volunteered to fight for them
Hitler with fellow German troops in WWI (far left)
WWI (far right)
Hitler in Germany Adolf Hitler admired Mussolini and how he came to power. Hitler began to associate with the National Socialists German Workers Party. Better known as the Nazi Party. The symbol of the Nazi Party was a swastika. Hitler was arrested in 1923 for trying to start a revolution called the Beer Hall Putsch. He was copying Mussolini’s March on Rome While in jail, he wrote his autobiography titled Mein Kampf(my struggle). After prison, he became Chancellor in 1933 and President in 1934.
1928 Nazi Rally after Hitler is out of jail
1930 Nazi Meeting – by this time the Nazi party had become incredibly popular
1933-Hitler in window receiving standing ovation after being named Chancellor
1935 – Presidential ParadeThe title was the Fuhrer
The “Master” Race In Mein Kampf, Hitler describes what he considers to be the master race. Blonde hair and blue eyes were considered superior over everyone else. This master race was called Aryans. He believed that Aryans needed more living space. That is one of his many reasons for invading Europe.
Militarists Control Japan Being an island, Japan lacks many resources In the Depression other countries raised tariffs and it crushed Japan because they rely on many imports The military and the people blamed the political system and corrupt politicians The military took over the government and believed the only way Japan could prosper is if they controlled more of Asia 1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria, China for its resources
Japanese occupied Manchuria
Very Soon Hitler, Mussolini, and the Japanese all entered into relationships.Eurasia was becoming very volatile.
U.S. wanting to stay Neutral The United States was still in the Great Depression. They did not want to get involved in a costly war with Europe. Congress would pass two Acts to remain neutral: 1. Neutrality Act of 1935 2. Neutrality Act of 1937 The U.S. sold materials to other countries based on the cash and carry policy.