Teaching Crowds

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Presentation used during a seminar given at the University of Brighton for the Centre for Learning and Teaching, December 2012

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  • Despite the desirability of "Making Open the Default" as the theme of this year’s open access week, there are many reasons that can and should influence a person and an organization to restrict access to content. In this session we explore these reasons from theoretical, practical and pedagogical positions, noting that these decisions all revolve around issues of control. From a practical perspective, we note the need for more nuanced ways to control information than a simple choice of open or closed. We look two examples, the differentiated sharing allowed through permissions of networking systems such as Elgg, and the capacity to research rights as delineated in the various Creative Commons licences. From a theoretical perspective we note that capacity to make control decisions requires skill and authority, but helps build responsibility and ownership. From a pedagogical perspective we note value and challenges of opening works in computer forums, e-portfolios and resource sharing within and beyond the course.
  • has anyone taught/learnt with a MOOC? used social media in teaching? or learning? mention Google, Wikipedia, Twitter, Facebook as well as community@brighton
  • Mackness, J., Mak, S. F. J., & Wiliams, R. (2010). The ideals and reality of participating in a MOOC . Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Networked Learning, Aalborg, Denmark. http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fss/organisations/netlc/past/nlc2010/abstracts/Mackness.html Kop, R. (2011). The challenges to connectivist learning on open online networks: Learning experiences during a massive open online course (Vol. 12).
  • Sfard (1998), Kop 2011
  • Udacity, Coursera, EDx
  • Note - PLENK was Moodle based with aggregation by gRSShopper and widespread use of social media like twitter Coursera ‘drop-out’ around 98% does it matter? not part of a broader system, no coercion. Is it better that more people have opportunity? what about motivation risks for those that ‘fail’?
  • Marla Robles - About I am a Middle School Science teacher.  I have been teaching for 7 years at a high priority school.  I teach E.C., AIG and regular education students.  I am currently a PLC leader, NEA AR, Model teacher, Discovery STAR educator and 21st Century tutor.
  • process, architecture, structure, hierarchy, design, inclusion/exclusion, method, duration, scheduling hierarchies technologies inclusion/exclusion
  • people you know, connections, emergence, discovery, serendipity
  • categories, intentional discovery, interests, topics
  • wisdom of crowds, emergent intelligence, cyborgs, stigmergy, collective intelligence not a social form but the result of interactions within social forms
  • practical Communications is a continuing challenge in our workplaces. Too many of our faculty and staff are disengaged from our community We lack any sort of knowledge management system- all knowledge explicit, little connected It ’ s hard to get to know people at Athabasca.
  • practical Communications is a continuing challenge in our workplaces. Too many of our faculty and staff are disengaged from our community We lack any sort of knowledge management system- all knowledge explicit, little connected It ’ s hard to get to know people at Athabasca.
  • practical Communications is a continuing challenge in our workplaces. Too many of our faculty and staff are disengaged from our community We lack any sort of knowledge management system- all knowledge explicit, little connected It ’ s hard to get to know people at Athabasca.
  • Theoretical Social Presence Cooperative work in self-paced programming Interaction results in increased social, institutional and academic integration, leading to increased completion rates (Tinto, 1987) Need to develop a virtual campus supporting community beyond course interactions Social Capital Building Potential for community and alumni contribution practical Communications is a continuing challenge in our workplaces. Too many of our faculty and staff are disengaged from our community We lack any sort of knowledge management system- all knowledge explicit, little connected It’s hard to get to know people at Athabasca.
  • Theoretical Social Presence Cooperative work in self-paced programming Interaction results in increased social, institutional and academic integration, leading to increased completion rates (Tinto, 1987) Need to develop a virtual campus supporting community beyond course interactions Social Capital Building Potential for community and alumni contribution practical Communications is a continuing challenge in our workplaces. Too many of our faculty and staff are disengaged from our community We lack any sort of knowledge management system- all knowledge explicit, little connected It’s hard to get to know people at Athabasca.
  • Hexagon of cooperative freedom (after Morten Paulsen) the early 90s - context of closed courses, lack of public engagement, boundaries of system clear, adjacent possible limited
  • added method, technology, relationship, delegation (choosing when to choose) and disclosure. Lost ‘access’ because that is a freedom for the institution/network/whatever, not the learner removed access - that’s not a learner freedom, it’s a prerequisite
  • added method, technology, relationship, delegation (choosing when to choose) and disclosure. Lost ‘access’ because that is a freedom for the institution/network/whatever, not the learner removed access - that’s not a learner freedom, it’s a prerequisite
  • added method, technology, relationship, delegation (choosing when to choose) and disclosure. Lost ‘access’ because that is a freedom for the institution/network/whatever, not the learner removed access - that’s not a learner freedom, it’s a prerequisite
  • added method, technology, relationship, delegation (choosing when to choose) and disclosure. Lost ‘access’ because that is a freedom for the institution/network/whatever, not the learner removed access - that’s not a learner freedom, it’s a prerequisite
  • added method, technology, relationship, delegation (choosing when to choose) and disclosure. Lost ‘access’ because that is a freedom for the institution/network/whatever, not the learner removed access - that’s not a learner freedom, it’s a prerequisite
  • but - poor algorithms, stupid mobs, group-think, low optima, lack of pedagogy, path dependencies, matthew effect, preferential attachment
  • all undergraduate courses are self-paced, without a weekly plan, no formal contact with other students, most communication with tutors via assessment feedback (plus phone, email)
  • correspondence model - print-based, publication learning designers, SMEs, tutors, graphic designers, editors, librarians etc much infrastructure centered around this model tutor blocks - multiple tutors - much coordination needed
  • inflexible for learners, inflexible for creators thanks to industrial course production process. With continuous enrolment, cannot change a course while people are taking it. Further issues with mutliple tutors
  • TME cheating very easy - essay mills, shared answers, etc Exam cheating possible very expensive arms war
  • we teach programming as if it were science or engineering it’s more like music - arcane notation, sequence, selection, iteration, need for performance and practice
  • learner control competence support relatedness See Ryan & Deci SDT work - instrinsic motivation needs
  • New version aiming for control, sociality, cheat-proofing, flexibility
  • using two systems - one for cooperative sharing, flexibility, peer help, discovery, social presence etc (Landing) and one for course process and content stuff (Moodle)
  • assuming an unpaced book or web-based course of course, in real life, people learn outside the course too, and courses vary considerably in internal didactic dialogue etc.
  • Teaching Crowds

    1. 1. How the crowdcan teach/howto teach thecrowd Jon Dron TEKRI Athabasca University
    2. 2. Formed 1970Distance-onlyIn the middle of nowhere -40ºC=-40ºFHighly distributed faculty
    3. 3. general plan• sharing what we know• context: online, open, massive, informal, formal,• a bit of theory• share concerns• plan futures
    4. 4. getting started• why are you here?• share experiences• share concerns
    5. 5. teaching crowds
    6. 6. MOOCs• cMOOCs - Wiley, CCK08, PLENK and beyond• xMOOCs - Coursera, Udacity, edX etc• kMOOCs - Khan Academy, How Stuff Works, Learni.st, etc
    7. 7. MOOCshttp://mfeldstein.com/four-barriers-that-moocs-must-overcome-to-become-sustainable-model/
    8. 8. cMOOCs• CCK08 - about 6000 ‘students’
    9. 9. cMOOC methods• participation• aggregation• relation• creation• sharing
    10. 10. xMOOCs• >100,000 ‘students’ self-paced -> paced
    11. 11. xMOOC methods• acquisition and replication• structure• self-paced (e.g. Udacity) or paced (e.g.Coursera, edX)• teacher control• assessment (for a price)
    12. 12. kMOOC methods• digestible chunks• ad hoc help• cognitivist methods• just in time
    13. 13. not so different...We built in the opportunity for students tointeract with each other in meaningful ways andhave one student help another through the hard bitsso they could work together to achieve a betteroutcome for everyone. There was a real communitybuilt up where students felt incredibly motivatedto help each other and answer each other’squestions to the point that in the Fall quarter of 2011,the median response time for a question posted onthe forum was 22 minutes. Because there was sucha broad worldwide community of students allworking together, even if someone was working at3:00 a.m., chances are that somewhere around theworld, there would be somebody else who wasawake and thinking about the same problem. Severance, C. (2012). Teaching the World: Daphne Koller and Coursera. Computer, 45(8), 8-9.
    14. 14. drop-out rates?PLENK MOOC (from Kop, 2011 - http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/882/1689) http://cogdogblog.com/2012/11/27/owning-massive/
    15. 15. accreditation?http://openbadges.org/en-US/
    16. 16. revenue?£
    17. 17. crowds that teach
    18. 18. My network has drastically changed the way I learn. I used to learn byreading as many scholarly sources as I could find about a particular topic.Then I would form an opinion and move to the next topic. Sometimes Iwould connect topics and sometimes I would not. Since becoming a partof the digital world, I learn much differently. I actually read posts fromexperts and other educators and ask them directly for assistance. This haschanged the way I work tremendously. Now I utilize livebinder and blogsmore frequently than scholarly journals and books. When I read about anew topic, I ask questions directly of the experts in the field and solicitscholarly recommendations. Often I purchase materials recommended byexperts rather than navigate the bookstore or library individually. I havenot visited the scholarly libraries in many years. The works housed in theLaw Library and Library of Congress can be found digitally. However, myscholarly interest is often superseded by the availability and diversity oftwitter. This is perhaps my favorite learning tool. I follow experts andeducational leaders to stay abreast of current research and trends. I havefound that following experts and conferences on twitter combined withweekly Diigo and DEN updates provides access more technology than Ican utilize in one school year. This connectivist approach to learninghas opened possibilities that were previously unknown. Marla Robles - Middle school science teacher http://echoconcerns.wordpress.com/2012/12/01/reflection-on-connectivism-my-mind-map-reflection/
    19. 19. typology of social forms• Dron & Anderson
    20. 20. Groups
    21. 21. Nets
    22. 22. Sets
    23. 23. collectives
    24. 24. Sustaining ties kMOOCs, SocialMaking ties interest sites,Ad hoc networks Wikipedia, GoogleKnowledge diffusion Search, Twitter,Social capitalSocial presence Pinterest, etc CooperationEmergence SharingShifting SerendipityContextual net set Interest -orientationcMOOCs, grou Sense-makingblogs, p CollectiveLinkedIn, intelligence Intentionalsocial discoverynetworks, Collaborationetc Structure xMOOCs, classes, Roles tutorial groups, Membership learning Intention and purpose Hierarchies management The classical ‘class’ model systems, etc
    25. 25. Sustaining ties kMOOCs, SocialMaking ties interest sites,Ad hoc networks Wikipedia, GoogleKnowledge diffusion Search, Twitter,Social capitalSocial presence Pinterest, etc CooperationEmergence SharingShifting SerendipityContextual net set Interest -orientationcMOOCs, Sense-makingblogs, group CollectiveLinkedIn, intelligence Intentionalsocial discoverynetworks, Collaborationetc Structure xMOOCs, classes, Roles tutorial groups, Membership Intention and purpose learning Hierarchies management The classical ‘class’ model systems, etc
    26. 26. Sustaining ties kMOOCs, SocialMaking ties interest sites,Ad hoc networks Wikipedia, GoogleKnowledge diffusion Search, Twitter,Social capitalSocial presence Pinterest, etc CooperationEmergence SharingShifting SerendipityContextual net set Interest -orientationcMOOCs, Sense-makingblogs, group CollectiveLinkedIn, intelligence Intentionalsocial discoverynetworks, Collaborationetc Structure xMOOCs, classes, Roles tutorial groups, Membership learning Intention and purpose Hierarchies management The classical ‘class’ model systems, etc
    27. 27. examples Wikipedia editors Subject area mailing lists alumni networks Social networks - Subject areas friends, work, Geographically community collocated people net setad-hoc learning networks group Universitiesclubs & societies departments Communities of practice companies nations Classes Tribes Tutorial groups Seminars Project teams
    28. 28. classes seminars etc communitiesCommunities group of practice of interest sharing, communication, collective Tribes et intelligence n s Topics e t Social networks Circles
    29. 29. usesSustaining ties collective CooperationMaking ties SharingAd hoc networks SerendipityKnowledge diffusion Interest -orientationSocial capital net set Sense-makingSocial presence Collective intelligence Intentional group discovery Courses Committees Research groups Study groups Centres and departments 15
    30. 30. Generations of distance learning pedagogies 1.Behaviourist/CognitiPrivate hard indiv- ve – Self Paced, idual Individual Study, 2.Social constructivist group – Groups, classes 3.Connectivist –Public Networks net soft 4.Holist - Sets and Collectives set Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. International Review of Research on Distance and Open Learning, 12(3), 80-97
    31. 31. choice <> control
    32. 32. ive r t a s e m p o o d o eC re f Pla ce e Tim Content Pace Ac ce ss iu m Med http://www.slideshare.net/moutta/cooperative-freedom-simple-approach
    33. 33. ive r t + a + e s p m o o o dC e Disc fr e Place lo sure De t l n eg te a n tio Co n Time Pace iu m M et ed ho d M Rela tions hip Tec hno logy 33
    34. 34. Control in social systems Collective control Individual Negotiated Teacher control control controlOwnership, collaboration, hierarchies, autonomy dialogue structure Cooperation, sharing
    35. 35. pacedgroup f2f Disc losu Place re De le tn ga te tio n Co nTime PaceM iu m et ho ed d Rela M tions logy hip hno Tec
    36. 36. pacedgrouponline Place Disc losu re De le g tn te at n io Co n Time PaceM iu m et ho ed d M Rela tions h i p ec hno logy T
    37. 37. network Disc losu Place re De le nt ga te n tio Co n Time Pace M iu m et ho ed d M Rela tions logy hip c hno Te
    38. 38. set Disc losu Pl ace re De le nt ga te tio n Co n Time Pace M iu m et ho ed d M Rela tions logy hip c hno Te
    39. 39. choice <> control
    40. 40. Collectiveoverviewcapture process display
    41. 41. Collective types e.g. ant nest tidying e.g. termites, ant trails, money markets Wikipedia editse.g. flocks, shoals, herds, direct stigmergic e.g. 2nd Life crowds mediated e.g., tag clouds, Google Search e.g.reputation systems, rating systems, collaborative filters
    42. 42. example
    43. 43. Self-paced• Any time, any place• No cohorts• No schedules• 6 months to finish from the start date
    44. 44. Production lines
    45. 45. Once upona time...text-book wraparound formal assignments, based on a book formative quizzesproblem-solving forum in-person proctored examinations
    46. 46. Problems• sociability vs control• inflexibility• cheating• teaching programming• motivation• authenticity
    47. 47. not well-loved
    48. 48. loneliness
    49. 49. inflexibility
    50. 50. cheats
    51. 51. programming
    52. 52. motivation Control Competence Connectedness(Ryan & Deci Self-determination Theory)
    53. 53. this had to change
    54. 54. Process present a solution• single artefact, always unique• incremental, iterative• OERs and brief intros• constructionist approach• plentiful practice• reflections• cooperation come up with an idea
    55. 55. Moodle + Elgg
    56. 56. assessment• portfolio assembly• reflective diaries• formative stop- points• self-test exercises• mapped outcomes
    57. 57. grades for outcomes• No assessed assignments• Grades for evidence each intended competence• any evidence will do - problem solving, bookmark sharing, hints shared, whatever
    58. 58. stopping cheating• Re ac ca rt o on ey es fac tb uild ing tiv la rte ing e n ta e increm orize co s py val -po int st op es ny ey ns ive m a ex pe at ing gc he m a kin trac man king iv e aut om y ey t a t at e es v e n s er ve r d to ols P re lo g s
    59. 59. ive r t a s e m p o o d o eC re f S p ac e C on t ent De leg ati e on Tim hip ns Pace Relatio Me tho um d e di Technology M 60
    60. 60. it works...“I find that this is a perfectway to teach a course onweb programming. Itmakes the course moreinteresting and engagingfor students.” but...
    61. 61. some problems usability scaffolding novelty tutor engagement scalability
    62. 62. concerns
    63. 63. futures
    64. 64. thank you http://jondron.orgjond@athabascau.cajond@athabascau.cajond@athabascau.ca

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