Consulting Excellence          Dr. Jon Warner
Workshop aims• By participating in this workshop you will be able to:    Appreciate and apply the Diagnosis Based Consult...
A Theoretical           consulting framework• Although the broad process of organisational  ‘work’ can be characterised in...
Total Quality Foundations• The original author of four step cyclic  improvement was Edwards Deming• He laid the foundation...
Diagnosis Based Consulting                             5
Good instruments help with           3 of these 4 Steps• When this four step model is applied to  questionnaires and asses...
Diagnosis (Step 1) is the key• The temptation to omit any diagnosis or  targeting effort can be high and an enterprise  ca...
Effective diagnosis builds      long-term team benchstrength• Proper diagnosis and focus or targeting is  fundamental to o...
Diagnostics help  organisations to take aim• Whether assessments are used individually  (in particular team situations) ap...
3 levels of workshop focus• The individual• The Team• The organisation as a whole(Behaviour, competency and processes)    ...
A definition of PersonalityPersonality is:  “the consistent patterns within  an individual that affect the way  they inter...
The Nature/Nurture debate (An individual’s temperament)…“is given, not acquired”.. “it is the  inborn form of the living b...
Personality-from the ancient  Greeks to the Modern day                           13
Johari’s window              KNOWN TO           UNKNOWN TO                SELF                SELF KNOWN TO      PUBLIC  O...
Jung’s psychological types theory• According to Jung, there are 4 functions of  consciousness These are (a) Sensation, (b)...
Human Temperament                16
Cattell’s 16 Personality factors•   Reserved               •   Warm•   Low intelligence       •   High intelligence•   Aff...
Trait theory-The “Big Five”           personality factorsThe “Big Five”• Extroversion• Agreeableness• Conscientiousness• E...
Big Five personality        dimensions                   19
Myers Briggs assessment                  dimensionsMyers Briggs dimensions•   Extraversion/introversion•   Sensing/Intuiti...
MBTI-16 types                             Sensing types                                Intuitive types             ISTJ   ...
Temperament theory                 22
Personality models -framework not pigeon hole• Although a style, temperament or personality  type framework is useful it s...
Personality assessment in a       diagnostic situation• To be effective in our diagnosis based  consulting efforts, we nee...
Structure of abilities                     25
A definition of motivation“The process that accounts for   an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort ...
Maslow’s hierarchy                 27
Herzberg’s modelTraditional viewDissatisfaction                                                      SatisfactionHerzbergs...
Expectancy Theory of Motivation                                       Outcomes           E-to-P          P-to-O      & Val...
Expectancy theory and                 Goal Setting              Specific Results-orientedChallenging               Task   ...
Attitudes and Values• Attitudes and values are comprised  of 3 components  – Cognition (beliefs)  – Affect (feelings)  – B...
Competency-definitions• The traits, skills, knowledge and  experience that are possessed by an  individual or required for...
Management Charter Initiative-senior manager competencies                   S tr a te g ic               A c h ie v e m e ...
The ‘Janus’competency framework                   34
5 stage life cycle model of groups  Bruce Tuckman’s model is still relevant today  •   forming  •   storming  •   norming ...
Team model implications• The particular stage of group  development influences other processes  (e.g., cohesiveness, confo...
Individual and group                  learning models• There are several models that have been developed  to reflect the p...
Kolb’s learning model                    38
Hermann’s braindominance model               39
The Effective Learning Cycle                           40
Belbin Team Roles–   Co-ordinator.–   Driver/Shaper.–   Finisher.–   Implementer.–   Monitor-Evaluator.–   Originator/Inno...
Margerison and McCann            Team wheel                     42
Margerison and McCann     work preferencesCreator-InnovatorsExplorer-PromotersAssessor-DevelopersThruster-OrganizersC...
MTRi type categories•   Coach       ESFJ/ENFJ•   Crusader    ISFP/INFP•   Explorer    ENTP/ENFP•   Innovator   INTJ/INFJ• ...
Types of team• problem solving team• Self-managed work  teams• Cross-functional  teams• virtual team                      ...
Leadership v management   High leadership/    High leadership/   Low management      High managementDirection   Low leader...
A definition of leadership“leadership is the ability toinfluence and developindividuals and teams to achievegoals that con...
The role of Power in the       leadership equation•   Expert power•   Informational power•   Referent power•   Legitimate ...
Leadership traits• Honesty and integrity• Intelligence• Self-confidence• Emotional maturity• Stress tolerance• Task-releva...
Leaders as coaches                                C o a c h in g      In s t r u c tin g                                 M...
Situational leadership         The situational         leadership         model tries to         match         leadership ...
Dimensions of    organisational culture• Innovation and risk• Attention to detail• Outcome orientation• People orientation...
Examples of different        organisational cultures1 Apple Macintosh      A Individuality,                         pionee...
A Communication Model                    54
Assessment Reliability• Test -Retest Reliability - if I take the same  measure on two occasions will my scores be  the sam...
The Test/Re-Test Coefficient• To find the test/re-test coefficient, we  give the same instrument to a group of  people on ...
Assessment Validity• Face Validity - does it LOOK LIKE it  measures what we want it to?• Content Validity - does it measur...
Consulting Excellence                -issues summary•   Attitudes        • Team roles•   Behaviour        • Norms•   Perso...
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Consulting excellence

  1. 1. Consulting Excellence Dr. Jon Warner
  2. 2. Workshop aims• By participating in this workshop you will be able to:  Appreciate and apply the Diagnosis Based Consulting approach in organisational development and improvement consulting projects.  Recognise and use the key people related concepts and models that usefully apply to individual personality, behaviour and competency.  Recognise and use the key people related concepts and models that usefully apply to team behaviour and competency within an organisation.  Recognise and use the key people related concepts and models that usefully apply to organisational behaviour, competency and processes. 2
  3. 3. A Theoretical consulting framework• Although the broad process of organisational ‘work’ can be characterised in a range of different ways (and through a number of models) all organisations need to adopt a continual cycle whereby they plan what they should be doing, target their efforts appropriately, deliver or implement their plan and monitor or review the results that they achieve before re-planning again. 3
  4. 4. Total Quality Foundations• The original author of four step cyclic improvement was Edwards Deming• He laid the foundations for the total quality initiatives across much of the business world.• He characterised this cyclic journey with the words PLAN, DO, CHECK, ACT. We prefer to characterise this journey in ways that are more accurately descriptive of each phase of the improvement journey. 4
  5. 5. Diagnosis Based Consulting 5
  6. 6. Good instruments help with 3 of these 4 Steps• When this four step model is applied to questionnaires and assessments, it becomes clear that they are extremely useful tools to help or assist at stage 1 (diagnostic), stage 2 (target) and stage 4 (review).• Assessments an also provide structured processes and frameworks in areas where there has traditionally been little to help in the past. 6
  7. 7. Diagnosis (Step 1) is the key• The temptation to omit any diagnosis or targeting effort can be high and an enterprise can jump quickly into ‘deliver’ mode (with any activity being preferable to doing nothing).• Equally, pressures of time often precludes any post audit effort or project review, when important lessons for the future can be learned. 7
  8. 8. Effective diagnosis builds long-term team benchstrength• Proper diagnosis and focus or targeting is fundamental to organisational development effort in particular where the ‘bench-strength’ of people is the critical need.• Proper diagnosis and focus or targeting is also fundamental where strategic effort in this area is critical to medium to long term success. 8
  9. 9. Diagnostics help organisations to take aim• Whether assessments are used individually (in particular team situations) applied to a ‘vertical slice’ of employees or applied to people across the entire enterprise, their diagnostic capability allows the organisation to quickly plan and prioritise and target its effort.• This is proverbially to plan a ‘rifle shot’ rather than a ‘scatter gun’ approach. 9
  10. 10. 3 levels of workshop focus• The individual• The Team• The organisation as a whole(Behaviour, competency and processes) 10
  11. 11. A definition of PersonalityPersonality is: “the consistent patterns within an individual that affect the way they interact with people and situations” 11
  12. 12. The Nature/Nurture debate (An individual’s temperament)…“is given, not acquired”.. “it is the inborn form of the living being” Keirsey and Bates 12
  13. 13. Personality-from the ancient Greeks to the Modern day 13
  14. 14. Johari’s window KNOWN TO UNKNOWN TO SELF SELF KNOWN TO PUBLIC OTHERS KNOWLEDGE FEEDBACK What I show you Your gift to meUNKNOWN TO PRIVATE UNCONSCIOUS OTHERS Mine to share Not to probe but I can become more aware and choose to share 14
  15. 15. Jung’s psychological types theory• According to Jung, there are 4 functions of consciousness These are (a) Sensation, (b) Intuition, (c) Thinking and (d) Feeling.• Jung arranges these four functions into two pairs of opposites. There are the two perceiving (or, non- rational) functions of Sensation and Intuition and two judging (or, rational) functions of Thinking and Feeling.• Jung believed that whichever function dominates consciousness (e.g., Thinking), its opposite (e.g., Feeling) will be repressed and therefore will tend to characterise unconscious functioning. 15
  16. 16. Human Temperament 16
  17. 17. Cattell’s 16 Personality factors• Reserved • Warm• Low intelligence • High intelligence• Affected by feelings • Emotionally stable• Accommodating • Dominant• Serious • Impulsive• Expedient • Conscientious• Shy • Bold• Tough minded • Sensitive• Trusting • Suspicious• Practical • Imaginative• Forthright • Shrewd• Self-assured • Apprehensive• Conservative • Radical• Group dependent • Self-sufficient• Uncontrolled • Controlled• Relaxed • Tense 17
  18. 18. Trait theory-The “Big Five” personality factorsThe “Big Five”• Extroversion• Agreeableness• Conscientiousness• Emotional Stability• Openness to experience 18
  19. 19. Big Five personality dimensions 19
  20. 20. Myers Briggs assessment dimensionsMyers Briggs dimensions• Extraversion/introversion• Sensing/Intuition• Thinking/Feeling.• Judging/Perceiving 20
  21. 21. MBTI-16 types Sensing types Intuitive types ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ Serious quiet Quiet, friendly, Quietly forceful, Original minds organised conscientious, meet original, concerned and ideas, responsible obligations, patient, for others, firm organise andintroverts practical loyal principles carry through, sceptical ISTP ISFP INFP INTP Cool-onlookers, Retiring, friendly, Care about Reserved, observing and sensitive, dislike learning, ideas and impersonal, enjoy analysing disagreements, language. Friendly theoretical things, curious loyal followers but absorbed logical ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP Matter-of-fact, Outgoing, Warmly Quick, good at adaptable, tolerant, easygoing, friendly, enthusiastic, many things, blunt, don’t worry or sound common ingenious, high resourceful,extraverts hurry sense spirited, improvise problem solving ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ Realistic, good with Warm-hearted, Responsive and Hearty, frank, mechanical things, talkative, need responsible. decisive, public like to organise, harmony, like Concern for what speakers, administrators encouragement others think confident well informed 21
  22. 22. Temperament theory 22
  23. 23. Personality models -framework not pigeon hole• Although a style, temperament or personality type framework is useful it should always be remembered that it is merely a framework, not a pigeonhole.• This is not about typecasting or “putting people in a box”. Rather, it means you are looking at different organising principles of human nature, and identifying differences and similarities. 23
  24. 24. Personality assessment in a diagnostic situation• To be effective in our diagnosis based consulting efforts, we need to have an understanding of the range of different diagnostic models available and which is most appropriate for our particular needs. 24
  25. 25. Structure of abilities 25
  26. 26. A definition of motivation“The process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal” 26
  27. 27. Maslow’s hierarchy 27
  28. 28. Herzberg’s modelTraditional viewDissatisfaction SatisfactionHerzbergs view Motivators Eg achievement, responsibility, growthNo satisfaction Satisfaction Hygiene Factors Eg salary, supervisions, status, relationshipsDissatisfaction No dissatisfaction 28
  29. 29. Expectancy Theory of Motivation Outcomes E-to-P P-to-O & Valences Expectancy Expectancy Outcome 1 + or - Outcome 2Effort Performance + or - Outcome 3 + or - 29
  30. 30. Expectancy theory and Goal Setting Specific Results-orientedChallenging Task Task Effort Performance Commitment Participation 30
  31. 31. Attitudes and Values• Attitudes and values are comprised of 3 components – Cognition (beliefs) – Affect (feelings) – Behaviour 31
  32. 32. Competency-definitions• The traits, skills, knowledge and experience that are possessed by an individual or required for performance of a particular task• A blend of characteristics which have been developed over time and which enable an individual to perform in a certain way and to a certain standard 32
  33. 33. Management Charter Initiative-senior manager competencies S tr a te g ic A c h ie v e m e n t p e r s p e c t iv e s fo c u s Judgem ent B u ild in g I n flu e n c in g Team s o th e rs S e lf c o n f id e n c e In fo r m a tio n s e a rc h C o m m u n ic a tio n 33
  34. 34. The ‘Janus’competency framework 34
  35. 35. 5 stage life cycle model of groups Bruce Tuckman’s model is still relevant today • forming • storming • norming • performing • mourning 35
  36. 36. Team model implications• The particular stage of group development influences other processes (e.g., cohesiveness, conformity, production)• Interventions must take groups stage into account (e.g., leadership, conflict etc)• Diagnosing the right stage becomes critical for facilitators and group leaders 36
  37. 37. Individual and group learning models• There are several models that have been developed to reflect the progressive phases or stages that are thought to be experienced when new data is experienced or an external catalyst arises. • Lewin • Kolb • Honey and Mumford • Hermann • Warner 37
  38. 38. Kolb’s learning model 38
  39. 39. Hermann’s braindominance model 39
  40. 40. The Effective Learning Cycle 40
  41. 41. Belbin Team Roles– Co-ordinator.– Driver/Shaper.– Finisher.– Implementer.– Monitor-Evaluator.– Originator/Innovator.– Resource Investigator.– Supporter. 41
  42. 42. Margerison and McCann Team wheel 42
  43. 43. Margerison and McCann work preferencesCreator-InnovatorsExplorer-PromotersAssessor-DevelopersThruster-OrganizersConcluder-ProducersController-InspectorsUpholder-MaintainersReporter-Advisers 43
  44. 44. MTRi type categories• Coach ESFJ/ENFJ• Crusader ISFP/INFP• Explorer ENTP/ENFP• Innovator INTJ/INFJ• Sculptor ESFP/ESTP• Curator ISFJ/ISTJ• Conductor ESTJ/ENTJ• Scientist ISTP/INTP 44
  45. 45. Types of team• problem solving team• Self-managed work teams• Cross-functional teams• virtual team 45
  46. 46. Leadership v management High leadership/ High leadership/ Low management High managementDirection Low leadership/ Low leadership/ Low management High management Control 46
  47. 47. A definition of leadership“leadership is the ability toinfluence and developindividuals and teams to achievegoals that contribute to aworthwhile purpose” 47
  48. 48. The role of Power in the leadership equation• Expert power• Informational power• Referent power• Legitimate power• Reward power• Connection power• Coercive power 48
  49. 49. Leadership traits• Honesty and integrity• Intelligence• Self-confidence• Emotional maturity• Stress tolerance• Task-relevant knowledge• Ambition and high energy• The desire to lead• High levels of self monitoring• Emotional intelligence 49
  50. 50. Leaders as coaches C o a c h in g In s t r u c tin g M e n to r in g“ P u m p ” o r p u s h it in “ D r a g ” o r p u ll it o u t-A d e fin e d , fo c u s e d -F o c u s is o n th eo u t p u t is n e e d e d p e r s o n n o t th e ta s k-T im e is s h o r t -T im e is n o t a p r o b le mT e c h n ic a l -O fte n c o m p le x-S im p le o r -D e e p le a r n in g a t tim e ss t r a ig h tf o r w a r d 50
  51. 51. Situational leadership The situational leadership model tries to match leadership style with follower readiness 51
  52. 52. Dimensions of organisational culture• Innovation and risk• Attention to detail• Outcome orientation• People orientation• Team orientation• Aggressiveness and• Stability 52
  53. 53. Examples of different organisational cultures1 Apple Macintosh A Individuality, pioneering, creativity, style conscious2 Disney Corporation B Creativity and imagination, no cynicism, nurturing3 Philip Morris wholesome values (tobacco company) C Freedom of choice, initiative, hard work 53
  54. 54. A Communication Model 54
  55. 55. Assessment Reliability• Test -Retest Reliability - if I take the same measure on two occasions will my scores be the same?• This can be contaminated by many things such as mood, motivation, test instructions, alertness, emotional disturbances, illness etc• A good measure will give close results on different occasions 55
  56. 56. The Test/Re-Test Coefficient• To find the test/re-test coefficient, we give the same instrument to a group of people on two separate occasions and see how close their scores are.• The numerical method of comparing these is to calculate the degree of correlation between the two sets of scores. 56
  57. 57. Assessment Validity• Face Validity - does it LOOK LIKE it measures what we want it to?• Content Validity - does it measure what we want it to?• Predictive Validity- does the test predict performance on a task? 57
  58. 58. Consulting Excellence -issues summary• Attitudes • Team roles• Behaviour • Norms• Personality • Power• Motivation and • Leadership performance • Change• Competencies • Culture• Influence and • Coaching Communication performance• Learning • Organisational• Values systems 58

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