Intocontext final presentationPresentation Transcript
Appropriate technology for East Africa: Cale Thompson & Jon Rodriguez
People driven solutions for online microlending
The activity of providing financial services to clients who are
excluded from the traditional financial system on account of
their lower economic status.
Kiva: peer to peer microfinance
From Kiva.org news…
A Note from the Kiva.org Team
Monday, 6 November 2006
1:39AM It is the early hours of the morning at the Kiva.org office
but we are not sleeping…
…we never saw the increase in traffic we had been waiting for. At
precisely 6:30pm our server completely froze…
…the phones have been ringing off the hook and the emails are still
coming. People want to loan and they want to be connected to micro-
We will be launching the site in approximately 30 minutes. We have
350 business profiles waiting for funding and 4,000 email addresses
waiting to be notified of our re-launch.
More lenders than entrepreneurs, money can’t be absorbed
To research which technology interaction forms are most
appropriate for integration into the operational context of
microfinance institutions (MFI) to facilitate entrepreneurs
accessing micro credit through Kiva.
1. Kiva Fund Uganda
2. Kiva Office Kenya
3. Women’s Economic Empowerment Consort
4. Life in Africa
Benchmark existing practices
Prepare context research materials
Understand the operational context of the MFI’s working with Kiva
Develop improved technology interaction forms based on the insights gained
Test the appropriateness of the developed prototypes
Communicate and disseminate the results of the research through academic
Context research tools
Focus Group Generative Session
A group of people together for the purpose The generative session was chosen as a
of gathering information about their format to uncover attitudes and values of the
behaviours, thoughts, routines, likes, dislikes, MFI members through a series of active
and other individual characteristics question response exercises designed
determined to be relevant for the eventual specifically to relate to the context of each
creation of a solution. organization.
In order to detect the problems that Although sometimes difficult to discern from
organizations face when performing their just being present, observation is an active
activities a thorough observation of all the process that is done in order to capture
processes was necessary. Members of the details relevant to a particular question or
organization where followed along their set of questions. Digital pictures and video
tasks and video-taped. Those materials media was captured along the whole
where used later on in order to detect research phase.
action points together with the
organization as well as discuss those
activities with the development team.
A tool intended to be completed by the user on
Role-playing was used as a tool to discover
their own time in their own environment
and understand processes of the
without the presence of any member of the
organization that would not be naturally
context research group. Although it may take
observed such as appraisal or registration
several formats involving different media to
which were not scheduled to occur during
capture a response it is designed to provide
the period we spent within the
further details about people that contribute to a
organization. We also used role-play in
greater understanding of how to respond to
order to ask people from lower tiers of the
their needs. It typically requires some
organization opinions about higher
explanation regarding its method of completion
hierarchical issues: “Imagine you were the
however it encourages an open response.
director, what if…?”
– Plan for a flexible use of research tools, they may need to be transformed,
modified and used in the most unpredictable ways
– Communicate the schedule of activities clearly and insist on the research
plan, if not the time required to complete research may be prolonged or goals
may not be achieved
– Be aware of the hierarchy of the organization. Hearing everybody’s opinion
in an open environment may be difficult
– Some of the most interesting insights come during unexpected times during
the research process. Be prepared to capture them.
– The presence of outsiders, particularly white people or ‘muzungus’, can be
disruptive to day to day activities. The addition of recording equipment can
exaggerate this. Communicate consistently the value of seeing activities as they
To see video click on: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hpMGNUt5iA
To see video click on: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X5HTY4jM-Io
People: credit officer
To see video click on: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qjka87oAjOA
To see video click on: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TaIbgxPPnwU
Click on: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9i33qpdhUHA
Cellphone service infrastructure
The page cannot
If the internet connection
is unreliable and weak
seek options that limit
content delivery and are
Power went off
Electricity supply is
unreliable so consider
solutions that don’t rely
on grid power
Idle capacity is expensive
Products are often used beyond intended capacity.
Solutions should be designed to be maximized.
Free is a very
Donations tend to
encourage the purchase
powerful or multi-
feature equipment .
Purchases made by the
more sensible buying.
Because hardware is costly technology solutions should
support a multi-user scenario.
Because technology is highly coveted and organizational
structures are very hierarchical the solution may need to
be unappealing to the unintended user.
Single serving software & click here hardware
A limited number of operations demands a limited number
Where the interest in learning is incredible training should
be unnecessary. Encourage autodidactic solutions.
Solution need to take
technologies that are
If Kiva operations require travel to various remote
locations then facilitate online processes to occur in situ.
Kiva offline 2.0
Mobile Miracle Solution
1 Take picture 2 Write journal 3 Send
To see video click on: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7-hG12WEaaM
THE PAGE CAN BE DISPLAYED
The inconsistency of the internet was replaced by
the consistency of cellular coverage.
POWER WENT ON
Routing journal posting through the mobile phone
does not entirely eliminate the issue of unreliable
grid power. The phone will continue to be charged
at the office, however the phone grants credit
officers the freedom to control the inconsistency
of the electricity grid.
The phone itself was easily shared amongst the credit officers. The flexible prepaid
airtime service system in Uganda allows the purchase of small amounts of airtime which
would facilitate this shared use scenario.
The phone was received and actively explored, individually and in groups, without any
resistance by the credit officers of both organizations.
During testing the phone never sat alone unless it was charging, otherwise one of the
credit officers held onto it.
SINGLE SERVING SOFTWARE
& CLICK HERE HARDWARE
The MiMoSo was revealed to be a single serving software application bound inside of a
‘click here’ piece of hardware. Beginning with media capture, in this case a photo, the
navigation automatically sizes the image for sending while opening up a box for the
addition of text.
Testing demonstrated definitively that the MiMoSo functioned to send content even in
the most remote areas.