Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Day 6
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Day 6


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Immune System and ReproductiveSystemDay 6
  • 2. Different Ways Where PathogensCan Cause Disease Producing Poison (toxin) Use of body cells toreplicate Destroy body tissues byfeeding on or burrowing intotissues (parasites)
  • 3. Transmission of Diseases Direct Contact (Physical contact) Indirect Contact (Carrier or Vector) Food and Water (Salmonella, Botulinum)
  • 4. Immune System Responsible for defending the body from foreignmaterials that cause diseases, called pathogens Antigens – causes the production of theantibodies Antibodies – identifies and neutralizes foreignmaterials like bacteria or viruses
  • 5. Cells of the Immune System Leucocytes – main cellular components of theimmune system Phagocytes – are leucocytes that engulf anddigest unwanted cells and pathogens in anonspecific manner Macrophage – Largest phagocytes; each canengulf hundreds of bacteria cells Lymphocytes – leucocytes that is involved inthe body’s specific defense system
  • 6. Type ofDefenseLine CharacteristicsNonspecific First Line Prinicipal Barriers suchas skin, mucus, sweat,tearsNonspecific Second Line Inflammatory ResponseSpecific Third Line Immune responses-Humoral and Cell-mediatedEffective againstspecific kinds of
  • 7. Second Line1. Damaged tissues release histamine, increasingblood flow to the area2. Histamine causes capillaries to leak, releasingphagocytes and clotting factors into the wound3. Phagocytes engulf bacteria, dead cells &cellular debris4. Platelets move out of the capillary to seal thewounded area
  • 8. Two Other Components of SecondLine Defense1. Interferon – attacks many viruses and cancercells. Protein that interferes w/ the replication ofviruses. Released by cells that have beeninvaded by viruses2. Natural Killer cells – Found in both blood andlymph. Fever – when macrophage produce pyrogens w/cstimulates the brain to raise body temperature,can inhibit growth and development of pathogensand phagocytes will become more active
  • 9. Third Line: Specific Defense Lymphocytes respond to antigens and are the keyplayers in the immune system Antigens – a molecule that elicits the immuneresponse. Surface Most antigens are moleculeson the surface of the pathogens (certain toxinsare also antigens) Antibody (Y-shaped) – a disease fighting proteinproduced in response to a specific antigen
  • 10. Cell-Mediated Immunity Phagocytosis Neutrophils – they ingest other cells but do not survive Macrophage - phagocytize (engulf and then digest) cellulardebris and pathogens either as stationary or as mobilecells, and to stimulate lymphocytes and other immune cellsto respond to the pathogen. Lymphocytes T cells – Divided into 3 ( T killer cells, helper T cells andSuppressor T cells) B cells - type of lymphocyte that, when stimulated by aparticular antigen, differentiates into plasma cells thatsynthesize the antibodies that circulate in the blood andreact with the specific antigens NK cells – Attacks body cells that have been infected with
  • 11. Kinds of T Cells Cytotoxic T cells / T killer cells Attacks a dangerous cell by producing a protein thatruptures the cell membrane Work the same manner with NK cells Helper T cells Stimulate T cells to divide forming a large army ofKiller T cells Suppressor T cells Inhibit the activity of other T cells when they are nolonger needed
  • 12. Humoral Immunity
  • 13. Cell Mediated Immunity
  • 14. Immunization Active Immunization Passive Immunization
  • 15. Reproductive System Asexual Sexual
  • 16. Asexual Reproduction Budding Fragmentation Parthenogenesis Spore formation Vegetative reproduction Regeneration Binary fission
  • 17. Male Reproductive System Sperm Scrotum Epididymis Vas Deferens Ejaculatoryduct Seminal Vesicle BulbourethralGland Prostate Gland Penis
  • 18. Sperm Head Nucleus – contains the chromosome that carrygenetic material of the male parent Acrosome – produces enzymes that help the spermpenetrate the egg Midpiece – packed withmitochondria, manufacturers ATP, provide energyfor movement of flagellum Flagellum – The tail of the cell. It has the typical9+2 arrangement of microtubules
  • 19. Anatomy of the Male ReproductiveOrgan Penis – cylindrical in shape Root – attaches to the wall of the abdomen Body/Shaft Glans – the head of the penis. Covered with a layerof skin called foreskin Erectile tissue – allows penis to erect Scrotum Loose pouch like sac of skin that hangs below thepenis Climate control system
  • 20.  Testicles Oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in thescrotum Responsible for making testosterone, generating sperm Epididymis Long coiled tube that stands on the backside of each testis Transport and storage of sperm cells produced from the testi To bring sperm to maturity During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into theVas deferens If sperm is not ejaculated after its sperm life, they willdegenerate
  • 21.  Vas Deferens Transport mature sperm to the urethra inpreparation fro ejaculation Ejaculatory Duct Formed by the fusion of the vas deferens andseminal vesicles Urethra
  • 22.  Seminal Vesicles Sac-like pouches that attach to the Vas Deferensnear the base of the bladder Fluid produced makes up most of the volume of aman’s ejaculatory fluid Viscous secretions, produce sugar-rich fluid(fructose) Provides sperm with a source of energy Helps with the sperm’s motility
  • 23.  Prostate Gland Walnut-sized below the urinary bladder and in frontof the rectum Small ducts surrounding the urethra, a milky fluidcontaining a little citric acid, some lipids, fewenzymes and enough bicarbonate to make the fluidalkaline Prostate secretions aid in sperm motility and helpneutralize acid in urethral urine residue and vaginalsecretions Contributes additional fluid to ejaculate Prostate fluid nourishes the sperm
  • 24.  Bulbourethral gland / Cowper’s Gland Pea-sized structure located on the sides of theurethra just below the prostate gland Produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directlyinto the urethra
  • 25. Trivia Blue-whale has the largest penis which measures11 feet and releases 360 gallons of sperm butonly 10% of the sperm can be fertilized Average size of penis not erect – 3.5 inches Average size of penis when erect – 5.2 – 6.4inches Largest ever recorded: 13 inches
  • 26. Female Reproductive System Egg Ovaries Fallopian Tube Uterus Cervix Vagina
  • 27. Pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, counting from the first dayof your last normal period. The weeks aregrouped into three trimesters.