Day 6
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Day 6

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    Day 6 Day 6 Presentation Transcript

    • Immune System and ReproductiveSystemDay 6
    • Different Ways Where PathogensCan Cause Disease Producing Poison (toxin) Use of body cells toreplicate Destroy body tissues byfeeding on or burrowing intotissues (parasites)
    • Transmission of Diseases Direct Contact (Physical contact) Indirect Contact (Carrier or Vector) Food and Water (Salmonella, Botulinum)
    • Immune System Responsible for defending the body from foreignmaterials that cause diseases, called pathogens Antigens – causes the production of theantibodies Antibodies – identifies and neutralizes foreignmaterials like bacteria or viruses
    • Cells of the Immune System Leucocytes – main cellular components of theimmune system Phagocytes – are leucocytes that engulf anddigest unwanted cells and pathogens in anonspecific manner Macrophage – Largest phagocytes; each canengulf hundreds of bacteria cells Lymphocytes – leucocytes that is involved inthe body’s specific defense system
    • Type ofDefenseLine CharacteristicsNonspecific First Line Prinicipal Barriers suchas skin, mucus, sweat,tearsNonspecific Second Line Inflammatory ResponseSpecific Third Line Immune responses-Humoral and Cell-mediatedEffective againstspecific kinds of
    • Second Line1. Damaged tissues release histamine, increasingblood flow to the area2. Histamine causes capillaries to leak, releasingphagocytes and clotting factors into the wound3. Phagocytes engulf bacteria, dead cells &cellular debris4. Platelets move out of the capillary to seal thewounded area
    • Two Other Components of SecondLine Defense1. Interferon – attacks many viruses and cancercells. Protein that interferes w/ the replication ofviruses. Released by cells that have beeninvaded by viruses2. Natural Killer cells – Found in both blood andlymph. Fever – when macrophage produce pyrogens w/cstimulates the brain to raise body temperature,can inhibit growth and development of pathogensand phagocytes will become more active
    • Third Line: Specific Defense Lymphocytes respond to antigens and are the keyplayers in the immune system Antigens – a molecule that elicits the immuneresponse. Surface Most antigens are moleculeson the surface of the pathogens (certain toxinsare also antigens) Antibody (Y-shaped) – a disease fighting proteinproduced in response to a specific antigen
    • Cell-Mediated Immunity Phagocytosis Neutrophils – they ingest other cells but do not survive Macrophage - phagocytize (engulf and then digest) cellulardebris and pathogens either as stationary or as mobilecells, and to stimulate lymphocytes and other immune cellsto respond to the pathogen. Lymphocytes T cells – Divided into 3 ( T killer cells, helper T cells andSuppressor T cells) B cells - type of lymphocyte that, when stimulated by aparticular antigen, differentiates into plasma cells thatsynthesize the antibodies that circulate in the blood andreact with the specific antigens NK cells – Attacks body cells that have been infected with
    • Kinds of T Cells Cytotoxic T cells / T killer cells Attacks a dangerous cell by producing a protein thatruptures the cell membrane Work the same manner with NK cells Helper T cells Stimulate T cells to divide forming a large army ofKiller T cells Suppressor T cells Inhibit the activity of other T cells when they are nolonger needed
    • Humoral Immunity
    • Cell Mediated Immunity
    • Immunization Active Immunization Passive Immunization
    • Reproductive System Asexual Sexual
    • Asexual Reproduction Budding Fragmentation Parthenogenesis Spore formation Vegetative reproduction Regeneration Binary fission
    • Male Reproductive System Sperm Scrotum Epididymis Vas Deferens Ejaculatoryduct Seminal Vesicle BulbourethralGland Prostate Gland Penis
    • Sperm Head Nucleus – contains the chromosome that carrygenetic material of the male parent Acrosome – produces enzymes that help the spermpenetrate the egg Midpiece – packed withmitochondria, manufacturers ATP, provide energyfor movement of flagellum Flagellum – The tail of the cell. It has the typical9+2 arrangement of microtubules
    • Anatomy of the Male ReproductiveOrgan Penis – cylindrical in shape Root – attaches to the wall of the abdomen Body/Shaft Glans – the head of the penis. Covered with a layerof skin called foreskin Erectile tissue – allows penis to erect Scrotum Loose pouch like sac of skin that hangs below thepenis Climate control system
    •  Testicles Oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in thescrotum Responsible for making testosterone, generating sperm Epididymis Long coiled tube that stands on the backside of each testis Transport and storage of sperm cells produced from the testi To bring sperm to maturity During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into theVas deferens If sperm is not ejaculated after its sperm life, they willdegenerate
    •  Vas Deferens Transport mature sperm to the urethra inpreparation fro ejaculation Ejaculatory Duct Formed by the fusion of the vas deferens andseminal vesicles Urethra
    •  Seminal Vesicles Sac-like pouches that attach to the Vas Deferensnear the base of the bladder Fluid produced makes up most of the volume of aman’s ejaculatory fluid Viscous secretions, produce sugar-rich fluid(fructose) Provides sperm with a source of energy Helps with the sperm’s motility
    •  Prostate Gland Walnut-sized below the urinary bladder and in frontof the rectum Small ducts surrounding the urethra, a milky fluidcontaining a little citric acid, some lipids, fewenzymes and enough bicarbonate to make the fluidalkaline Prostate secretions aid in sperm motility and helpneutralize acid in urethral urine residue and vaginalsecretions Contributes additional fluid to ejaculate Prostate fluid nourishes the sperm
    •  Bulbourethral gland / Cowper’s Gland Pea-sized structure located on the sides of theurethra just below the prostate gland Produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directlyinto the urethra
    • Trivia Blue-whale has the largest penis which measures11 feet and releases 360 gallons of sperm butonly 10% of the sperm can be fertilized Average size of penis not erect – 3.5 inches Average size of penis when erect – 5.2 – 6.4inches Largest ever recorded: 13 inches
    • Female Reproductive System Egg Ovaries Fallopian Tube Uterus Cervix Vagina
    • Pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, counting from the first dayof your last normal period. The weeks aregrouped into three trimesters.