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  • 1. The Presidency
  • 2. Qualifications
    • Natural-Born Citizen
    • 35 Years old
    • 14 years residency
  • 3. Qualifications
    • Natural-Born Citizen
    • 35 Years old
    • 14 years residency
      • Which 2008 nominee was not born in the U.S.?
  • 4. Qualifications
    • Natural-Born Citizen
    • 35 Years old
    • 14 years residency
      • Which 2008 nominee was not born in the U.S.?
        • John McCain, b. 1936 Colon, Panama
  • 5. Historical Perspective
    • Originally weak
      • Commander-in-Chief, but no strong army
    • Constitution was vague, flexible
    • Late 19 th Century
      • Shift started with industrialization
    • Skyrocketed in 20 th Century with growth in US power, economic expansion
  • 6. Why more power?
    • Energy
    • Vague Constitution
    • Public Expectation
    • Congressional Delegation
  • 7. Executive Power
    • Prerogative Power
      • Locke: necessary to give executives the powers to do “several things of their own free choice, where the law is silent, and sometimes, too, against the direct letter of the law, for the public good”
        • Abraham Lincoln
  • 8. Powers and Duties
    • “ make treaties” “with advice and consent of the Senate”
    • “ shall nominate” “Ambassadors, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other Officers of the Supreme Court”
    • “ give to Congress Information of the State of the Union”
    • “ recommend to [Congress]…such measures he shall judge necessary and expedient”
    • “ Shall be removed from office…for…Treason, Bribery, or High Crimes and Misdemeanors”
  • 9. Powers and Duties
    • “ make treaties” “with advice and consent of the Senate”
    • “ shall nominate” “Ambassadors, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other Officers of the Supreme Court”
    • “ give to Congress Information of the State of the Union”
    • “ recommend to [Congress]…such measures he shall judge necessary and expedient”
    • “ Shall be removed from office…for…Treason, Bribery, or High Crimes and Misdemeanors”
      • Sestak allegation
  • 10. Constitution v. Individuals
    • Whig Model
      • Don’t go beyond explicit powers
    • Stewardship Model
      • Do all but those things that are explicitly forbidden
  • 11. Roles of the president
    • Chief of State
    • Commander-in-Chief
    • Chief Legislator
    • Manager of the Economy
    • Chief Diplomat
  • 12. Limited Powers
    • Persuasion
      • Speeches used to influence public, lawmakers, even foreign countries
      • Used much more often today
    • Recommendation
    • Budget
    • Appointment
    • Treaty
  • 13. Powers
    • Persuasion
    • Recommendation
      • Initiate Debate
      • Can be ignored by Congress
    • Budget
    • Appointment
    • Treaty
  • 14. Powers
    • Persuasion
    • Recommendation
    • Budget
      • Before 1921, agencies set their own budgets
      • Office of Management and Budget
      • Congressional Budget Office
    • Appointment
    • Treaty
  • 15. Powers
    • Persuasion
    • Recommendation
    • Budget
    • Appointment
      • “ appoints Ambassadors, other ministers and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court,” etc.
      • Subject to “advice and consent from the Senate”
    • Treaty
  • 16. Powers
    • Persuasion
    • Recommendation
    • Budget
    • Appointment
    • Treaty
      • Official agreements with other countries
      • 2/3 of Senate must approve
      • Before 1928, 14% of treaties were ratified
  • 17. Powers
    • Treaties
      • Executive Agreements – legal contracts with foreign countries that require only a presidential signature
      • Not specified in the Constitution
      • OK’d by the Supreme Court in 1937
      • 20:1 ratio of Ex. Agreements:Treaties
  • 18. Powers
    • Commander-in-Chief
      • Only Congress can declare War
      • Lincoln vastly expanded this role
      • Roosevelt showed Congressional weakness in stopping action
  • 19. Powers
      • War Powers Resolution (1973)
        • If troops are sent into harms way, Congressional approval required within 60 days
  • 20. Executive Orders
    • Directives to government employees which carry the weight of law unless they contradict acts passed by Congress
    • Lincoln – Emancipation Proclamation
    • Truman – desegregated armed forces
    • Johnson – affirmative action
    • Ford – assassination of foreign leaders
  • 21. Executive privilege
    • Right of the President to deny Congress the information it requests
      • Most controversial of implied powers
    • George Washington sets precedent
    • Nixon on Watergate
    • Clinton during the Lewinsky affair
    • Bush on a variety of things
      • Extended to VP, aides
  • 22. Veto Power
    • Most important FORMAL power
    • Before Lincoln, only ~4 vetoes per term
    • FDR: 650+ vetoes
    • Since JFK about 1 of 10 vetoes are overturned
  • 23. Signing Statements
    • Directives to executive branch departments and agencies telling how to implement a certain law, and are sometimes appended to a law when signed by the President
      • Explicates a President’s interpretation of a law or can be used for political gain
  • 24. Signing Statements
      • Up to Jimmy Carter, <100 signing statements
      • GHW Bush & Clinton : 247
      • GW Bush : 147 as of February 1, 2007
      • -tend to be vague, broad
      • Similar to a line-item veto
      • Clinton v. New York (1998): a President must sign a bill, or veto/return it to Congress
  • 25. The Presidential Character
    • James David Barber (1972)
      • a President’s style, worldview, and character are important in predicting whether they will succeed
  • 26. Character
    • Most important aspect
      • Based on 2 qualities:
      • Active/Passive
        • How much energy is put in?
      • Positive/Negative
        • How does the President feel about their role?
        • Four Types emerge
  • 27. Active-Positive
    • Healthy, active, energetic presidents
      • Office will be “an engine of progress”
      • Conviction of Capability
      • Positive Sense of the Future
      • Communication of Excitement
      • FDR, JFK, Carter, Truman, maybe Reagan and Clinton
  • 28. Active-Negatives
    • Compulsive, aggressive qualities
      • World is Dangerous
      • Persistent/Stubborn style
      • This style will be too rigid, will result in disastrous presidencies
      • Published in 1972, marked Nixon as Active-Negative, then Watergate happened
  • 29. Passive-Positive
    • Receptive, compliant, cooperative more than assertive
    • Tend not to accomplish much, but are otherwise harmless
  • 30. Passive-Negative
    • Tend to do political service in order to compensate for low self-esteem based on feelings of usefulness
    • Feel this is their “duty”
    • Avoid action, allows problems to worsen
    • Coolidge, Eisenhower
  • 31. Criticisms
    • Can’t “pigeonhole” individuals
    • Ideology more important than character
    • Context is decisive
      • Events make the president
  • 32. Vice President
    • Only formal role is President of the Senate
    • Vice President/President John Adams
      • “ the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived”
    • Vice President Thomas Marshall
    • Vice President John Nance Garner
  • 33. Vice President
    • Only formal role is President of the Senate
    • Vice President/President John Adams
    • Vice President Thomas Marshall
      • “ Once there were two brothers. One went away to sea. The other was elected Vice President of the United States. And nothing was heard of either of them again.”
    • Vice President John Nance Garner
  • 34. Vice President
    • Only formal role is President of the Senate
    • Vice President/President John Adams
    • Vice President Thomas Marshall
    • Vice President John Nance Garner
      • “ Not worth a pitcher of warm piss”
  • 35. Vice President
    • Any additional roles are at the discretion of the President
      • Truman knew nothing of the Manhattan Project
      • Usually not close to the President, or even trusted
      • Lately more roles have been given to the VP
      • Cheney has been most influential VP
  • 36. Vice President
    • Originally the runner-up in the presidential election
    • First in line if the President dies, resigns, or is unfit for duty
    • Is a stepping stone for many future Presidents