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Bureaucracy
 

Bureaucracy

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    Bureaucracy Bureaucracy Presentation Transcript

    • The Bureaucracy
    • Bureaucracy Defined
      • A large organization in which people with specialized knowledge are organized into a clearly defined hierarchy of bureaus and offices, each of which has a specific mission
    • Democratic?
      • Bureaucrats are de facto policymakers
      • Sometimes conduct judicial-style hearings
      • IRS, not a court, determines penalties; you must prove innocence to the IRS
        • Bureaucrats yield considerable responsibility, but are not subjected to elections
    • Organizational Structure of the Federal Bureaucracy Departments Independent Agencies Independent Regulatory Commissions Government Corporations
    • Cabinet Departments
      • Originally 3
        • State, War, Treasury
      • Homeland Security Most Recently
      • Headed by Secretaries
        • Appointed by the President with the “advice and consent of the Senate”
    • Departments
      • State (1789)
      • Treasury (1789)
      • Defense (1947; formerly the War Department, created in 1789, and the Navy Department, created in 1798)
      • Justice (1870; created in 1789 as Office of the Attorney General – a part-time position, made a cabinet level department in 1870)
      • Interior (1849)
      • Agriculture (1889)
      • Commerce (1913)
      • Labor (1913)
      • Health and Human Services (1953 as Health, Education, and Welfare; reorganized with Education as a separate department in 1979)
      • Housing and Urban Development (1965)
      • Transportation (1966)
      • Energy (1977)
      • Education (1979)
      • Veterans Affairs (1989)
      • Homeland Security (2002)
    • Centralized?
      • Departments are NOT centralized or monolithic
      • Each has many sub-units with responsibilities
      • Department of Justice
        • FBI, DEA, ATF, US Marshals, Bureau of Prisons, etc
    • What is a Czar?
      • A popular term used in reference to an official who is appointed to oversee a particular policy or issue
        • Drug
        • Counterterrorism
        • Energy
        • Climate
    • Czars
      • Allows quicker action on important matters
      • Criticism
        • No “advice and consent of the Senate”
    • Number of Positions by President
      • FDR 12
      • Truman 6
      • Eisenhower 1
      • Kennedy 0
      • Nixon 3
      • Reagan 1
      • GHW Bush 2
      • Clinton 7
      • GW Bush 35
      • Obama 38
    • Independent Agencies
      • These agencies are independent from larger departments, but still under the control of the president.
    • Independent Agencies
      • Currently ~ 50
      • NASA ~20,000 employees
        • Little oversight responsibility
    • Independent Executive Agencies
      • Not included in any departments, but are distinct from corporations and regulatory commissions
      • Environmental Protection, Central Intelligence, National Science Foundation
    • Government Corporations
      • These agencies are run by an independent board in the same way as a private corporation.
    • Government Corporations
      • Perform an economically important activity
      • Mostly self-supporting
      • Postal Service, AMTRAK, Tennessee Valley Authority
    • Independent Regulatory Commissions
      • While these agencies are run by “political” figures, they are independent of both the president and larger departments.
    • Regulatory Commissions
      • Regulate where the free market does not work properly to protect the public interest
      • FCC, FEC
    • The Advantages of Bureaucracy
        • Standardization
        • Expertise and Competence
        • Coordination
    • Ideological Problems
      • Lack of popular sovereignty
      • Little incentive to be efficient
      • Public Opinion not as important to bureaucrats
      • Largely shielded from Congress, the President
      • “ Captured” by interest groups, private firms
    • Political Liberty
      • Red Scare
      • DOJ’s “Red Squads”
      • IRS used to harass critics
        • Nixon most famous for this
        • Bill O’Reilly audited four consecutive years under Clinton
    • Political Liberty
      • FBI most notorious, especially under Hoover
        • McCarthy witch hunts
        • Cointelpro
        • MLK
    • The Development of the Bureaucracy
      • The Expansion of Federal Civil Employment
    • Shrinking Government
      • “ Government is not the solution to our problems; it is the problem”
    • Patronage vs. Merit System Patronage System Government employees are hired and fired based on support for a political party or individual candidate. Merit System Government employees are hired based on their qualifications and cannot be fired arbitrarily for political reasons
    • Assassination of President Garfield
    • Patronage
      • President Jackson
        • “ To the victor goes the spoils”
      • Problems
        • Massive turnover every administration
        • Pendleton Act curbed patronage