Bureaucracy
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Bureaucracy

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Bureaucracy Bureaucracy Presentation Transcript

  • The Bureaucracy
  • Bureaucracy Defined
    • A large organization in which people with specialized knowledge are organized into a clearly defined hierarchy of bureaus and offices, each of which has a specific mission
  • Democratic?
    • Bureaucrats are de facto policymakers
    • Sometimes conduct judicial-style hearings
    • IRS, not a court, determines penalties; you must prove innocence to the IRS
      • Bureaucrats yield considerable responsibility, but are not subjected to elections
  • Organizational Structure of the Federal Bureaucracy Departments Independent Agencies Independent Regulatory Commissions Government Corporations
  • Cabinet Departments
    • Originally 3
      • State, War, Treasury
    • Homeland Security Most Recently
    • Headed by Secretaries
      • Appointed by the President with the “advice and consent of the Senate”
  • Departments
    • State (1789)
    • Treasury (1789)
    • Defense (1947; formerly the War Department, created in 1789, and the Navy Department, created in 1798)
    • Justice (1870; created in 1789 as Office of the Attorney General – a part-time position, made a cabinet level department in 1870)
    • Interior (1849)
    • Agriculture (1889)
    • Commerce (1913)
    • Labor (1913)
    • Health and Human Services (1953 as Health, Education, and Welfare; reorganized with Education as a separate department in 1979)
    • Housing and Urban Development (1965)
    • Transportation (1966)
    • Energy (1977)
    • Education (1979)
    • Veterans Affairs (1989)
    • Homeland Security (2002)
  • Centralized?
    • Departments are NOT centralized or monolithic
    • Each has many sub-units with responsibilities
    • Department of Justice
      • FBI, DEA, ATF, US Marshals, Bureau of Prisons, etc
  • What is a Czar?
    • A popular term used in reference to an official who is appointed to oversee a particular policy or issue
      • Drug
      • Counterterrorism
      • Energy
      • Climate
  • Czars
    • Allows quicker action on important matters
    • Criticism
      • No “advice and consent of the Senate”
  • Number of Positions by President
    • FDR 12
    • Truman 6
    • Eisenhower 1
    • Kennedy 0
    • Nixon 3
    • Reagan 1
    • GHW Bush 2
    • Clinton 7
    • GW Bush 35
    • Obama 38
  • Independent Agencies
    • These agencies are independent from larger departments, but still under the control of the president.
  • Independent Agencies
    • Currently ~ 50
    • NASA ~20,000 employees
      • Little oversight responsibility
  • Independent Executive Agencies
    • Not included in any departments, but are distinct from corporations and regulatory commissions
    • Environmental Protection, Central Intelligence, National Science Foundation
  • Government Corporations
    • These agencies are run by an independent board in the same way as a private corporation.
  • Government Corporations
    • Perform an economically important activity
    • Mostly self-supporting
    • Postal Service, AMTRAK, Tennessee Valley Authority
  • Independent Regulatory Commissions
    • While these agencies are run by “political” figures, they are independent of both the president and larger departments.
  • Regulatory Commissions
    • Regulate where the free market does not work properly to protect the public interest
    • FCC, FEC
  • The Advantages of Bureaucracy
      • Standardization
      • Expertise and Competence
      • Coordination
  • Ideological Problems
    • Lack of popular sovereignty
    • Little incentive to be efficient
    • Public Opinion not as important to bureaucrats
    • Largely shielded from Congress, the President
    • “ Captured” by interest groups, private firms
  • Political Liberty
    • Red Scare
    • DOJ’s “Red Squads”
    • IRS used to harass critics
      • Nixon most famous for this
      • Bill O’Reilly audited four consecutive years under Clinton
  • Political Liberty
    • FBI most notorious, especially under Hoover
      • McCarthy witch hunts
      • Cointelpro
      • MLK
  • The Development of the Bureaucracy
    • The Expansion of Federal Civil Employment
  • Shrinking Government
    • “ Government is not the solution to our problems; it is the problem”
  • Patronage vs. Merit System Patronage System Government employees are hired and fired based on support for a political party or individual candidate. Merit System Government employees are hired based on their qualifications and cannot be fired arbitrarily for political reasons
  • Assassination of President Garfield
  • Patronage
    • President Jackson
      • “ To the victor goes the spoils”
    • Problems
      • Massive turnover every administration
      • Pendleton Act curbed patronage