Objectives - as a learning guide to selection of teaching materials, instructional activities and teaching strategies. Outcome - a result or effect. Learning – knowledge or skills acquired through experience or study or by being taught.
It is an intent communicatedby a statement of what thelearner is to be like when he hassuccessfully completed alearning experience. -Mager
One of the recent developmentsin the educative process is theformulation of instructional goalsin behavioral terms.
Once an instructor decides he will teach his students something several kinds of activity are necessary on his part if he is to succeed. First, he must decide upon the goals he intends to reach at the end of his course or program. Second, he must select procedures, content and methods that are relevant to the objectives. Finally, measure or evaluate the student’s performance according to the objective or goals originally selected.
There are instructional objectives stated interms of what we, as teachers, are going to do.Example:1. To demonstrate to students how to set uplaboratory.
A more fruitful way to state instructionalobjectives is in terms of outcomes we expect from ourteaching; therefore, after we demonstrate how to uselaboratory equipment, we might expect students to beable to do the following:1. Identify the laboratory equipment used indemonstration.
Note: Behavioral Objective to be meaningful and effective should be:• S - specific• M - measurable• A - attainable• R - realistic• T – time bound
Stating Specific Learning Outcomes How to write objectives that will describe the desired behavior of the learner.Mager has three suggestions:1. First, identify the terminal behavior by name; you can specify the kind of behavior that will accept as evidence that the learner has achieved the objective.
2. Second, try to define the desired behavior further by describing the important conditions under which the behavior will be expected to occur.
3. Third, specify the criteria of acceptable performance by describing how well the learner must perform to be considered acceptable.
1. To be able to solve quadratic equations.2. To develop an appreciation for music. The first objective tells what the learner will bedoing when he is demonstrating that he has reachedthe goal: he will be solving quadratic equations. The second objective, on the other hand, does notmeet the criterion.
1. Terminal Instructional Objectives are use to check progress at the end of a unit, course, school year, or designated level of instruction.Example: By the end of the year, 90 percent of all students will write the 100 multiplication with 100 percent accuracy in five minutes.
2. Short-term Instructional Objectives Are derived from terminal instructional objectives and designed to guide shorten-range instruction.Example: 1. At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to state at least three reasons why warm-up exercises should precede intensively physical activity.
Classification of Behavioral Objectives(Based on Classification or taxonomy of Objectives) Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain
Cognitive Domain Which is compose of intellectual abilities.
A. Knowledge – The activity of the learner in to recall specifies, methods, and other items.Example: The students will be able to: 1. Memorize the multiplication table 2. Recite the poem, “The Tree: 3. Name the cities and municipalities comprising the Metro Manila
B. Comprehension – in the second level, the learner can make use of certain idea or material without necessarily knowing or seeing its fullest implications.Example: The learner will be able to: 1. Summarize a short story 2. Identify the part of a simple sentence.C. Analysis – Analysis is more than comprehension.Example: The students will be able to: 1. Distinguish truthful advertisement from doubtful one. 2. Determine the past solution to a given problem. 3. Recognize the correct and factual information from the newspaper.
D. Synthesis – This is putting together the different elements to create a new one.Example: The students will be able to: 1. Prepare a balance diet for a nursing mother. 2. Compose a poem showing love of country.E. Evaluation – This is the highest level of objectives in the cognitive domain.Example: The student will be able to: 1. Evaluate the progress of a community after several visits to place after conducting interviews of different families. 2. Write evaluation report on the dialogue between the management labor forces.
Affective domain Which include emotions, interests, appreciation and others that relate to aesthetic expression.
Receiving Phenomena: Awareness, willingness to hear, selected attention.
Examples: Listen to others with respect. Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people.Key Words: asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, sits, erects, replies, uses.
Responding to Phenomena: Active participation on the part of the learners. Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon. Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding, willingness to respond, or satisfaction in responding (motivation).
Examples: Participates in class discussions. Gives a presentation. Questions new ideals, concepts, models, etc. in order to fully understand them. Know the safety rules and practices them.Key Words: answers, assists, aids, complies, conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs, practices, presents, reads, recites, reports, selects, tells, writes.
Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, while clues to these values are expressed in the learners overt behavior and are often identifiable.
Organization: Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating an unique value system. The emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values.
Internalizingvalues (characterization): Has a value system that controls theirbehavior. The behavior is pervasive,consistent, predictable, and mostimportantly, characteristic of thelearner. Instructional objectives areconcerned with the students generalpatterns of adjustment (personal, social,emotional).
Psychomotor Domain Which embrace muscular or motorabilities, manipulation, writingvocational and technical abilities.
Perception: The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to translation.
Examples: Detects non-verbal communication cues. Estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and then moving to the correct location to catch the ball. Adjusts heat of stove to correct temperature by smell and taste of food. Adjusts the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing where the forks are in relation to the pallet.Key Words: chooses, describes, detects, differentiates, distinguishes, identifies, isolates, relates, selects.
Set: Readiness to act. It includes mental,physical, and emotional sets. Thesethree sets are dispositions thatpredetermine a persons response todifferent situations (sometimes calledmindsets).
Examples: Knows and acts upon a sequence of steps in a manufacturing process. Recognize ones abilities and limitations. Shows desire to learn a new process (motivation). NOTE: This subdivision of Psychomotor is closely related with the “Responding to phenomena” subdivision of the Affective domain.Key Words: begins, displays, explains, moves, proceeds, reacts, shows, states, volunteers.
Guided Response: The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing.
Examples: Performs a mathematical equation as demonstrated. Follows instructions to build a model. Responds hand-signals of instructor while learning to operate a forklift.Key Words: copies, traces, follows, react, reproduce, responds
Mechanism: This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency.
Examples: Use a personal computer. Repair a leaking faucet. Drive a car.Key Words: assembles, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches.
Complex Overt Response: The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, players are often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce.
Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tight parallel parking spot. Operates a computer quickly and accurately. Displays competence while playing the piano.Key Words: assembles, builds, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches.
Adaptation: Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements.
Examples: Responds effectively to unexpected experiences. Modifies instruction to meet the needs of the learners. Perform a task with a machine that it was not originally intended to do (machine is not damaged and there is no danger in performing the new task).Key Words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, reorganizes, revises, varies.
Origination: Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills.
Examples: Constructs a new theory. Develops a new and comprehensive training programming. Creates a new gymnastic routine.Key Words: arranges, builds, combines, composes, constructs, creates, designs, initiate, makes, originates.
Quiz_________1. It is an intent communicated by statement of what the learner is to be like when he has successfully completed learning experience._________2. A result or effect._________3. The instructional objective should be stated in terms of what we, as teachers, are going to do. Yes or No?_________4. What is SMART?_________5. Are derived from terminal instructional objectives and designed to guide shorter range instruction._________6. Give the 3 domains._________7. Are use to check progress at the end of a unit course, school year, or designated level of instruction._________8. Which is composed of intellectual abilities._________9. Embraces muscular or motor abilities_________10. Give at least 2 levels of Cognitive Domain.