AUDIENCE They could be your classmates These are the person or people who will read your work. Teachers Friends Strangers Or perhaps a public you have written to
Example:A “No Durians” signs at the MRT stationAudience: People who travel on the MRTActivity #4 Identify the audience for the following writings;A radio play“Under One Roof”, a local situational comedy on televisionA letter of thanks for good serviceA political speechA story about a frightening experience
If your audience is not your teacher, classmate orexaminer , you need to ask these questions; What is the purpose of writing? Are they Who is my men, childr audience? en or women? AUDIENCE What are their How old are interests? they? Formal or informal?
FORMForm means the kind of writing you do: a composition, a letter, a poem, or a report.Types of Texts: Narrative / Personal Recount / Exposition Factual Recount / Procedure / Explanation Information ReportTypes of LetterTypes of PoemTypes of Report
Exercise: A) In which of these extracts is the wrong form and why? ( Activity #2 ) B)For each of the following, indicate the form and the likely audience. ( Activity #3 ) Read the situations and then decide what form of writing you will use. ( Activity #4 )
STYLE Your writing style will depend very much upon who your audience is: when you are writing to a friend , you should use an informal style. When your audience is someone in authority – a teacher, for instance- you should use a more formal style.
The form of writing which you use will also affect your style; describing how to use something (for example, a video camera) will need a very clear yet technical style. The language should be carefully chosen to help a person do something. A ghost story , oh the other hand, will need a style that builds up tension, helping the reader picture the scene vividly in his or her mind.
When arguing for or against a subject ( for example, using animals in scientific experiments), you will need carefully constructed arguments to try to persuade your reader that your ideas are right ( and probably showing why the opposing ideas are wrong ) Giving someone information about a place will need a clear, factual style with some description and a careful choice of details.
PURPOSE PURPOSE IS CLOSELY RELATED TO AUDIENCE AND FORM IT MEANS UNDERSTANDING THE REASON(S) WHY YOU ARE WRITING Whenever you write , remember why you are doing so, what are the results that you want.
REMEMBER: Your purpose can be obviously important, like getting a job It may be a public statement with the hope of attracting attention and getting a good response from people Getting good marks in class or in an examination is also a purpose and also the enjoyment and satisfaction that can come from writing may also be important to you.
MAIN PURPOSES OF WRITING EXPRESING YOUR IMAGINATIVE THOUGHTSGIVING INFORMATIONTELLING PEOPLE HOW TO DO THINGSTRYING TO PERSUADE PEOPLE
Here are some examples of writing. Decide what the main purpose of each is? ( Activity #5 ) Identifying the type of a composition ( Activity #6 ) It is your turn to write. ( Activity #7 )
2) BRAINSTORMING It enables you to work very freely Helps you overcome the fear that you do not know anything about a subject It triggers association in the mind Throws up a lot of useful material, but also encourages you to cut down when certain ideas are not useful in this way you learn the important skill of selecting ( pass examples of brainstorming )Activity #8: Brainstorming
3) CLUSTERING It is more structured than brainstorming You can often use clustering as a second step in getting ideas, helping them become more focused. It helps you develop your ideas about a subject very clearly. It is a great way to help you get rid of “writer’s block”, that horrible state where you simply cannot think of anything to write. ( distribute examples of clustering ) Activity # 9 ( Clustering )
4) WH - Questions When you are writing a narrative essay, WH – questions are a great way to get your story clear in mind. They help you remember the main points and stop you from losing track of what your story is all about Every news report, short story or novel is basically asking these same five WH questions
What is it about? When did Who is it it take about? place? a short story , novel or news reportWhy did things turn Where did it take out as they did? place?
5) MAKING LISTS Making lists under particular headings is very useful way to organise your thoughts Lists are really helpful when you have to look at the good and bad sides of a subject, such as doing co – curricular activities or having to sit for many examinations List help you see both sides of an argument and enable your writing to be more balanced. Activity #10( Sample list will be distributed)
THE WRITING PROCESS Publication Editing Drafting and Revising Planning