TAKE A DEEP BREATH




                 Photo:Edward Stokes
TAKE A DEEP BREATH




                 Photo:Edward Stokes
Particulate Matter PM




                        SOURCE: HKUST
Particulate Matter PM

29%



            32%
9%
      31%


                         SOURCE: HKUST
Sulphur Dioxide SO2
5%

     4%
1%




          89%


                       SOURCE: HKUST
Sulphur Dioxide SO2
5%

     4%
1%




          89%


                       SOURCE: HKUST
Nitrogen Oxides NOx




                      SOURCE: HKUST
Nitrogen Oxides NOx

      15%




18%
              44%
        23%



                      SOURCE: HKUST
365 DAYS
365 DAYS
365 DAYS
LOW POLLUTION DAYS 41 Days
365 DAYS
LOW POLLUTION DAYS 41 Days
365 DAYS
   LOW POLLUTION DAYS 41 Days




POLLUTED DAYS 324 Days
365 DAYS
365 DAYS




Dominant: REGIONAL 36%
365 DAYS




Dominant: REGIONAL 36%

          SOURCE: Relative Significance of Local vs. Regional Sources: Hong Kong’s Air...
365 DAYS



   ominant: LOCAL 53%
       192 DAYS


Dominant: REGIONAL 36%

          SOURCE: Relative Significance of Loca...
2006
                   Low                Regional                                            Local




DAYS




       J...
2006
                   Low                Regional                                            Local




DAYS




       J...
2006
                   Low                Regional                                            Local




DAYS




       J...
2006
                   Low                Regional                                            Local




DAYS




       J...
2006
                   Low                Regional                                            Local




DAYS




       J...
2006
                   Low                Regional                                            Local




DAYS




       J...
32%
PM         SO2    NOx   44%


            89%



                        SOURCE: HKUST
32%
PM         SO2    NOx   44%


            89%



                        SOURCE: HKUST
1992
 1993      !quot;#$%&'(



 1994
                      The Hongkong Electric Co., Ltd.




 1995
 1996
1997
 1998
 19...
FGD Timeline
The Hongkong Electric Co., Ltd.

      !quot;#$%&'(




                                                     ...
1%

PM     SO2   NOx
31%          23%



                   SOURCE: HKUST
1%

PM     SO2   NOx
31%          23%



                   SOURCE: HKUST
Photo: ambient_mind @ Flickr
50000


                 Top Container Ports
             40000




             30000

 Container
throughput
(‘000 TEU)
 ...
50000


                   Top Container Ports                                                                            ...
5%

     PM    SO2   18%   NOx
9%




                             SOURCE: HKUST
5%

     PM    SO2   18%   NOx
9%




                             SOURCE: HKUST
32%
PM         SO2    NOx  44%


            89%


 GREATEST QUANTITIES
1%

PM       SO2      NOx
31%               23%


GREATEST HEALTH IMPACT
5%

                  18%
9%
   PM      SO2          NOx

    GROWING EVERY YEAR
   MOST POLLUTING FUELS
o miscommunication regarding air quality and associated                  days per month went up to about four in summer
ea...
o miscommunication regarding air quality and associated                  days per month went up to about four in summer
ea...
Average Levels 1994-2007
                                          PM10              SO2                 NO2
             ...
Average Levels 1994-2007
                                          PM10              SO2                 NO2
             ...
Average Levels 1994-2007
                                          PM10              SO2                 NO2
             ...
HK vs WHO
                                                PM10                SO2              NO2
                       ...
Due to HK’s Air Pollution...




Hong Kong's Silent Epidemic - Public Opinion Survey on Air Pollution, Environment and Pub...
Due to HK’s Air Pollution...

                                             1/10                  Go to hospital -
        ...
2008
 according to the



      1,155
     81,023
   7,250,000
HK$2,317,130,000
                    SOURCE: hedleyindex.sp...
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation
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Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation

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Keynote address for one-day public forum to focus the air pollution debate on health-based facts and science. What policies do the government and the public need to adopt to protect public health for this and future generations? This event has been co-organized by The Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust and Civic Exchange
http://www.dialogue.org.hk

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  • Air pollution has become a serious concern for the people of this city.

    That’s why you are here.

    But we’re not alone – Other cities have also faced serious air pollution, and many have made great advances to fix the problem. The good news is . . . Hong Kong too can do very much better.

    In the next few minutes, we will explore the nature and characteristics of Hong Kong’s air pollution, as well as appreciate that there are solutions.

    So, Be Air Aware.

    Everyone from the government to business to civil society has a role to play in cleaning-up the air for the sake of our own health, for the sake of our economy, as well as for the sake of Planet Earth.
  • Firstly:
    Let’s have a look at the chemicals that make up the most important forms of air pollution in Hong Kong.

    Particulate Matter or “PM” - comes mostly from power plants and vehicles.

    PM is associated with increased risks of diseases of the lungs, heart disease and blood vessels throughout the body. It is a major cause of extra doctor visits in this city for chest complaints. Reports from mainland China also point to damage to the unborn child in pregnant mothers caused by PM.

  • Firstly:
    Let’s have a look at the chemicals that make up the most important forms of air pollution in Hong Kong.

    Particulate Matter or “PM” - comes mostly from power plants and vehicles.

    PM is associated with increased risks of diseases of the lungs, heart disease and blood vessels throughout the body. It is a major cause of extra doctor visits in this city for chest complaints. Reports from mainland China also point to damage to the unborn child in pregnant mothers caused by PM.

  • Firstly:
    Let’s have a look at the chemicals that make up the most important forms of air pollution in Hong Kong.

    Particulate Matter or “PM” - comes mostly from power plants and vehicles.

    PM is associated with increased risks of diseases of the lungs, heart disease and blood vessels throughout the body. It is a major cause of extra doctor visits in this city for chest complaints. Reports from mainland China also point to damage to the unborn child in pregnant mothers caused by PM.

  • Firstly:
    Let’s have a look at the chemicals that make up the most important forms of air pollution in Hong Kong.

    Particulate Matter or “PM” - comes mostly from power plants and vehicles.

    PM is associated with increased risks of diseases of the lungs, heart disease and blood vessels throughout the body. It is a major cause of extra doctor visits in this city for chest complaints. Reports from mainland China also point to damage to the unborn child in pregnant mothers caused by PM.

  • Firstly:
    Let’s have a look at the chemicals that make up the most important forms of air pollution in Hong Kong.

    Particulate Matter or “PM” - comes mostly from power plants and vehicles.

    PM is associated with increased risks of diseases of the lungs, heart disease and blood vessels throughout the body. It is a major cause of extra doctor visits in this city for chest complaints. Reports from mainland China also point to damage to the unborn child in pregnant mothers caused by PM.

  • In Hong Kong Sulphur Dioxide or “SO2” is very strongly linked to premature deaths from heart and lung conditions and research here has shown that if you reduce SO2 you will protect the health of both children and older people.

    There’s lots of SO2 produced in Hong Kong, overwhelmingly from power plants.

  • In Hong Kong Sulphur Dioxide or “SO2” is very strongly linked to premature deaths from heart and lung conditions and research here has shown that if you reduce SO2 you will protect the health of both children and older people.

    There’s lots of SO2 produced in Hong Kong, overwhelmingly from power plants.

  • In Hong Kong Sulphur Dioxide or “SO2” is very strongly linked to premature deaths from heart and lung conditions and research here has shown that if you reduce SO2 you will protect the health of both children and older people.

    There’s lots of SO2 produced in Hong Kong, overwhelmingly from power plants.

  • Oxides of Nitrogen or “NOx” for short – there’s lots of it produced in Hong Kong mainly from power plants, vehicles, and ships & ports.

    There are several types of nitrogen oxides and one we will see later is “Nitrogen Dioxide” or “NO2”. Nitrogen dioxide, mostly produced from traffic exhausts, harms children and retards the growth and development of their lungs and amplifies the harm caused by other pollutants like PM.
    There are other harmful chemicals in our air, including Volatile Organic Compounds and Ozone – but for now we’ll focus on the big three: PM, SO2 and NOx.

    Now, sometimes we hear that all of Hong Kong’s air pollution comes from the Mainland, . . . and we can’t do much about it.

    Let us look at this assumption more closely.

    While a lot of pollution in the atmosphere above Hong Kong may come from the Mainland, the pollution nearer to the ground that we breathe every day is produced locally.

    Let’s look at this in terms of the time of exposure.
  • Oxides of Nitrogen or “NOx” for short – there’s lots of it produced in Hong Kong mainly from power plants, vehicles, and ships & ports.

    There are several types of nitrogen oxides and one we will see later is “Nitrogen Dioxide” or “NO2”. Nitrogen dioxide, mostly produced from traffic exhausts, harms children and retards the growth and development of their lungs and amplifies the harm caused by other pollutants like PM.
    There are other harmful chemicals in our air, including Volatile Organic Compounds and Ozone – but for now we’ll focus on the big three: PM, SO2 and NOx.

    Now, sometimes we hear that all of Hong Kong’s air pollution comes from the Mainland, . . . and we can’t do much about it.

    Let us look at this assumption more closely.

    While a lot of pollution in the atmosphere above Hong Kong may come from the Mainland, the pollution nearer to the ground that we breathe every day is produced locally.

    Let’s look at this in terms of the time of exposure.
  • Research in 2006 shows that Hong Kong’s air is generally fit to breathe on only 41 days of the year.
    For the remaining 324 days of the year, breathing Hong Kong’s air has greater health risks.
    On 132 of these bad air days, the dominant air pollution comes from regional sources in Southern China.
    For the remaining 192 days, the air quality is dominated by pollution from local Hong Kong sources.

  • Research in 2006 shows that Hong Kong’s air is generally fit to breathe on only 41 days of the year.
    For the remaining 324 days of the year, breathing Hong Kong’s air has greater health risks.
    On 132 of these bad air days, the dominant air pollution comes from regional sources in Southern China.
    For the remaining 192 days, the air quality is dominated by pollution from local Hong Kong sources.

  • Research in 2006 shows that Hong Kong’s air is generally fit to breathe on only 41 days of the year.

  • For the remaining 324 days of the year, breathing Hong Kong’s air has greater health risks.

  • On 132 of these bad air days, the dominant air pollution comes from regional sources in Southern China.

  • For the remaining 192 days, the air quality is dominated by pollution from local Hong Kong sources.
  • This graph tells the same story in a different way:
    •The blue parts are the 41 low pollution days;
    •The brown parts are the 132 days when pollution is dominated by regional sources; and …
    •The yellow parts are the 192 days that pollution is dominated by local sources.

    I can see at least one striking feature of this chart – There were no safe days in April in 2006, so perhaps it’s best not to breathe at all for the whole of that month
    And if you must breathe heavily, then the best month to do that is August

    When deciding where to tackle air pollution first, the most logical place to start would be the pollution that is within our control – in other words – the local Hong Kong pollution that dominates air quality for about half the time in a year.

  • This graph tells the same story in a different way:
    •The blue parts are the 41 low pollution days;
    •The brown parts are the 132 days when pollution is dominated by regional sources; and …
    •The yellow parts are the 192 days that pollution is dominated by local sources.

    I can see at least one striking feature of this chart – There were no safe days in April in 2006, so perhaps it’s best not to breathe at all for the whole of that month
    And if you must breathe heavily, then the best month to do that is August

    When deciding where to tackle air pollution first, the most logical place to start would be the pollution that is within our control – in other words – the local Hong Kong pollution that dominates air quality for about half the time in a year.

  • This graph tells the same story in a different way:
    •The blue parts are the 41 low pollution days;
    •The brown parts are the 132 days when pollution is dominated by regional sources; and …
    •The yellow parts are the 192 days that pollution is dominated by local sources.

    I can see at least one striking feature of this chart – There were no safe days in April in 2006, so perhaps it’s best not to breathe at all for the whole of that month
    And if you must breathe heavily, then the best month to do that is August

    When deciding where to tackle air pollution first, the most logical place to start would be the pollution that is within our control – in other words – the local Hong Kong pollution that dominates air quality for about half the time in a year.

  • This graph tells the same story in a different way:
    •The blue parts are the 41 low pollution days;
    •The brown parts are the 132 days when pollution is dominated by regional sources; and …
    •The yellow parts are the 192 days that pollution is dominated by local sources.

    I can see at least one striking feature of this chart – There were no safe days in April in 2006, so perhaps it’s best not to breathe at all for the whole of that month
    And if you must breathe heavily, then the best month to do that is August

    When deciding where to tackle air pollution first, the most logical place to start would be the pollution that is within our control – in other words – the local Hong Kong pollution that dominates air quality for about half the time in a year.

  • This graph tells the same story in a different way:
    •The blue parts are the 41 low pollution days;
    •The brown parts are the 132 days when pollution is dominated by regional sources; and …
    •The yellow parts are the 192 days that pollution is dominated by local sources.

    I can see at least one striking feature of this chart – There were no safe days in April in 2006, so perhaps it’s best not to breathe at all for the whole of that month
    And if you must breathe heavily, then the best month to do that is August

    When deciding where to tackle air pollution first, the most logical place to start would be the pollution that is within our control – in other words – the local Hong Kong pollution that dominates air quality for about half the time in a year.

  • This graph tells the same story in a different way:
    •The blue parts are the 41 low pollution days;
    •The brown parts are the 132 days when pollution is dominated by regional sources; and …
    •The yellow parts are the 192 days that pollution is dominated by local sources.

    I can see at least one striking feature of this chart – There were no safe days in April in 2006, so perhaps it’s best not to breathe at all for the whole of that month
    And if you must breathe heavily, then the best month to do that is August

    When deciding where to tackle air pollution first, the most logical place to start would be the pollution that is within our control – in other words – the local Hong Kong pollution that dominates air quality for about half the time in a year.

  • So where does local pollution come from?

    There are three major sources that we’ve already mentioned:

    Power plants

    Road vehicles

    Ships and ports

    Aviation and the airport are also relevant but in view of time, let’s focus on the other three.
  • So where does local pollution come from?

    There are three major sources that we’ve already mentioned:

    Power plants

    Road vehicles

    Ships and ports

    Aviation and the airport are also relevant but in view of time, let’s focus on the other three.
  • So where does local pollution come from?

    There are three major sources that we’ve already mentioned:

    Power plants

    Road vehicles

    Ships and ports

    Aviation and the airport are also relevant but in view of time, let’s focus on the other three.
  • Let’s start with power plants.

    Here’s the pollution profile for power plants.

    In terms of total quantities of pollutants, power plants emit by far the most emissions.

    How polluting they are depends on what kind of fuel they burn, and how well they are managed and regulated. Plants burning coal are the most polluting.
  • So, can power plants be less polluting?

    •Well, a major initiative is being implemented …
    Hong Kong’s power plants are being fitted with a technology called “Flue Gas Desulphurisation” - FGD. When FGD becomes operational in phases from later this year, we can expect dramatic reductions in pollution from power plants over the next few years.

  • So, can power plants be less polluting?

    •Well, a major initiative is being implemented …
    Hong Kong’s power plants are being fitted with a technology called “Flue Gas Desulphurisation” - FGD. When FGD becomes operational in phases from later this year, we can expect dramatic reductions in pollution from power plants over the next few years.

  • So, can power plants be less polluting?

    •Well, a major initiative is being implemented …
    Hong Kong’s power plants are being fitted with a technology called “Flue Gas Desulphurisation” - FGD. When FGD becomes operational in phases from later this year, we can expect dramatic reductions in pollution from power plants over the next few years.

  • So, can power plants be less polluting?

    •Well, a major initiative is being implemented …
    Hong Kong’s power plants are being fitted with a technology called “Flue Gas Desulphurisation” - FGD. When FGD becomes operational in phases from later this year, we can expect dramatic reductions in pollution from power plants over the next few years.

  • So, can power plants be less polluting?

    •Well, a major initiative is being implemented …
    Hong Kong’s power plants are being fitted with a technology called “Flue Gas Desulphurisation” - FGD. When FGD becomes operational in phases from later this year, we can expect dramatic reductions in pollution from power plants over the next few years.

  • So, can power plants be less polluting?

    •Well, a major initiative is being implemented …
    Hong Kong’s power plants are being fitted with a technology called “Flue Gas Desulphurisation” - FGD. When FGD becomes operational in phases from later this year, we can expect dramatic reductions in pollution from power plants over the next few years.

  • So, can power plants be less polluting?

    •Well, a major initiative is being implemented …
    Hong Kong’s power plants are being fitted with a technology called “Flue Gas Desulphurisation” - FGD. When FGD becomes operational in phases from later this year, we can expect dramatic reductions in pollution from power plants over the next few years.

  • So, can power plants be less polluting?

    •Well, a major initiative is being implemented …
    Hong Kong’s power plants are being fitted with a technology called “Flue Gas Desulphurisation” - FGD. When FGD becomes operational in phases from later this year, we can expect dramatic reductions in pollution from power plants over the next few years.

  • •Another way is to switch to cleaner fuels.
    For example, natural gas is much cleaner than coal ... So the question is: How soon can Hong Kong access even more gas than what is available today?

    •And yet another way to reduce pollution is for power plants to become more efficient in their power generation, producing more electricity for every unit of fossil fuel burned.

    Using the most efficient technology available, improving management and maintenance practices, as well as rewarding efficiency through regulation, are all important.


  • •Finally, even where power plants must burn coal, some types of coal are less polluting than others. Using ultra-low sulphur coal will reduce sulphur-related emissions. However, the power utilities must be able to source the better types of coal.



  • Let’s look at vehicles next.

    Vehicles are the second largest source of air pollution in Hong Kong, accounting for almost a third of all PM and a quarter of all NOx for the whole territory.

    While power plants produce the greatest quantity of air pollution, vehicles produce the air pollution with the greatest health impacts.

  • This is because vehicles are emitting pollution right in the heart of the city, where we all live, shop, work, exercise and travel every day. Vehicular PM, especially from diesel vehicles, represents the dominant public health threat for a very large number of people..


  • At least 80% of the PM and NOx produced by vehicles comes from the 120,000 commercial vehicles that run on diesel.

    There is no disputing diesel-powered trucks are the most polluting vehicles. Many of them have very old engines, and even if ultra-low sulphur diesel is used, emissions from these old engines are much worse than those from a new engine.

  • At least 80% of the PM and NOx produced by vehicles comes from the 120,000 commercial vehicles that run on diesel.

    There is no disputing diesel-powered trucks are the most polluting vehicles. Many of them have very old engines, and even if ultra-low sulphur diesel is used, emissions from these old engines are much worse than those from a new engine.

  • Roadside pollution in Hong Kong is very high on a daily basis because of Hong Kong’s urban environment. Congested roads between tall buildings create the ‘street canyon effect’ trapping pollution that is hard to disperse.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Now let’s look at ships and ports.

    Hong Kong and its sister port at Shenzhen handle an amazing 10% of the world’s shipping container throughput.

    Together they create by far the largest number of marine movements in a small area - in fact, 70% bigger than their closest Asian rival, Singapore – and the numbers are still growing.

  • Civic Exchange The Air You Breath Conference Keynote Address Presentation

    1. 1. TAKE A DEEP BREATH Photo:Edward Stokes
    2. 2. TAKE A DEEP BREATH Photo:Edward Stokes
    3. 3. Particulate Matter PM SOURCE: HKUST
    4. 4. Particulate Matter PM 29% 32% 9% 31% SOURCE: HKUST
    5. 5. Sulphur Dioxide SO2 5% 4% 1% 89% SOURCE: HKUST
    6. 6. Sulphur Dioxide SO2 5% 4% 1% 89% SOURCE: HKUST
    7. 7. Nitrogen Oxides NOx SOURCE: HKUST
    8. 8. Nitrogen Oxides NOx 15% 18% 44% 23% SOURCE: HKUST
    9. 9. 365 DAYS
    10. 10. 365 DAYS
    11. 11. 365 DAYS LOW POLLUTION DAYS 41 Days
    12. 12. 365 DAYS LOW POLLUTION DAYS 41 Days
    13. 13. 365 DAYS LOW POLLUTION DAYS 41 Days POLLUTED DAYS 324 Days
    14. 14. 365 DAYS
    15. 15. 365 DAYS Dominant: REGIONAL 36%
    16. 16. 365 DAYS Dominant: REGIONAL 36% SOURCE: Relative Significance of Local vs. Regional Sources: Hong Kong’s Air Pollution; Civic Exchange; 2007
    17. 17. 365 DAYS ominant: LOCAL 53% 192 DAYS Dominant: REGIONAL 36% SOURCE: Relative Significance of Local vs. Regional Sources: Hong Kong’s Air Pollution; Civic Exchange; 2007
    18. 18. 2006 Low Regional Local DAYS Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec MONTH SOURCE: Relative Significance of Local vs. Regional Sources: Hong Kong’s Air Pollution; Civic Exchange; 2007
    19. 19. 2006 Low Regional Local DAYS Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec MONTH SOURCE: Relative Significance of Local vs. Regional Sources: Hong Kong’s Air Pollution; Civic Exchange; 2007
    20. 20. 2006 Low Regional Local DAYS Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec MONTH SOURCE: Relative Significance of Local vs. Regional Sources: Hong Kong’s Air Pollution; Civic Exchange; 2007
    21. 21. 2006 Low Regional Local DAYS Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec MONTH SOURCE: Relative Significance of Local vs. Regional Sources: Hong Kong’s Air Pollution; Civic Exchange; 2007
    22. 22. 2006 Low Regional Local DAYS Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec MONTH SOURCE: Relative Significance of Local vs. Regional Sources: Hong Kong’s Air Pollution; Civic Exchange; 2007
    23. 23. 2006 Low Regional Local DAYS Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec MONTH SOURCE: Relative Significance of Local vs. Regional Sources: Hong Kong’s Air Pollution; Civic Exchange; 2007
    24. 24. 32% PM SO2 NOx 44% 89% SOURCE: HKUST
    25. 25. 32% PM SO2 NOx 44% 89% SOURCE: HKUST
    26. 26. 1992 1993 !quot;#$%&'( 1994 The Hongkong Electric Co., Ltd. 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 FGD Timeline 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
    27. 27. FGD Timeline The Hongkong Electric Co., Ltd. !quot;#$%&'( Emissions Castle Pea Environme Emissions Co Castle Peak P Environmenta ” Executive June 2006 Executive Sum Environmenta June21/F Lincoln H 2006 Taikoo Place 9 Island East Ho Environmental Res Telephone 227 21/F Facsimile 2723 Lincoln Hous Taikoo Place 979 K Island East Hong K www.erm.com 2011 1992 1994 1995 1996 1993 1998 2002 2004 2007 2009 2010 2012 1999 2000 2001 2003 2005 2006 2008 2013 1997 Telephone 2271 300 Facsimile 2723 5660 www.erm.com
    28. 28. 1% PM SO2 NOx 31% 23% SOURCE: HKUST
    29. 29. 1% PM SO2 NOx 31% 23% SOURCE: HKUST
    30. 30. Photo: ambient_mind @ Flickr
    31. 31. 50000 Top Container Ports 40000 30000 Container throughput (‘000 TEU) 20000 10000 0 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 SOURCE: Marine Department, Ranking of Container Ports of the World, HKSAR Government
    32. 32. 50000 Top Container Ports 41703 HK+Shenzhen 40000 38799 35610 31099 30000 26758 Container throughput 22869 24792 Singapore (‘000 TEU) 20000 21329 22192 21710 Shanghai 18098 16211 18411 18084 14567 14582 17087 16941 13460 15945 15571 15100 14557 12944 14140 Kaoshing 10000 11280 11442 11843 12039 Busan 10408 9453 8610 Rotterdam 6985 7540 8073 Hamburg 5063 5693 6271 5612 6340 LA+Long Beach 3066 4210 Antwerp 0 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 SOURCE: Marine Department, Ranking of Container Ports of the World, HKSAR Government
    33. 33. 5% PM SO2 18% NOx 9% SOURCE: HKUST
    34. 34. 5% PM SO2 18% NOx 9% SOURCE: HKUST
    35. 35. 32% PM SO2 NOx 44% 89% GREATEST QUANTITIES
    36. 36. 1% PM SO2 NOx 31% 23% GREATEST HEALTH IMPACT
    37. 37. 5% 18% 9% PM SO2 NOx GROWING EVERY YEAR MOST POLLUTING FUELS
    38. 38. o miscommunication regarding air quality and associated days per month went up to about four in summer ealth risks. For example, in Foshan, there were 13 high API winter during the 1990s, and eight in the summer Smog days per month 2006 ays (API over 100) in 2007. However, at one of Foshan’s ub-stations, Chan Cheng Lian Tang, 84 high API days were the winter from 2000 onwards. 30 30 25 20 Number of days 15 10 5 0 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 Year Visibility <8km, RH<80%. SOURCE: HKUST
    39. 39. o miscommunication regarding air quality and associated days per month went up to about four in summer ealth risks. For example, in Foshan, there were 13 high API winter during the 1990s, and eight in the summer Smog days per month 2006 ays (API over 100) in 2007. However, at one of Foshan’s ub-stations, Chan Cheng Lian Tang, 84 high API days were the winter from 2000 onwards. 30 30 25 20 Number of days 15 10 5 0 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 Year Visibility <8km, RH<80%. SOURCE: HKUST
    40. 40. Average Levels 1994-2007 PM10 SO2 NO2 100 Roadside Roadside Annual Mean Concentration (µg/m3) 75 Urban 50 Urban Roadside Urban 25 0 1994-2007 1994-2007 1994-2007 SOURCE: HKUST
    41. 41. Average Levels 1994-2007 PM10 SO2 NO2 100 Roadside Roadside Annual Mean Concentration (µg/m3) 75 AQO AQO AQO Urban 50 Urban Roadside Urban 25 0 1994-2007 1994-2007 1994-2007 SOURCE: HKUST
    42. 42. Average Levels 1994-2007 PM10 SO2 NO2 100 Roadside Roadside Annual Mean Concentration (µg/m3) 75 AQO AQO AQO Urban 50 Urban WHO 1yr Roadside Urban 25 WHO 1yr WHO 24hr 0 1994-2007 1994-2007 1994-2007 SOURCE: HKUST
    43. 43. HK vs WHO PM10 SO2 NO2 100 80 80 Annual Mean Concentration (µg/m3) 75 AQO AQO 55 2x 50 AQO 4x 40 2.5x WHO 1yr 25 20 20 WHO 1yr WHO 24hr 0
    44. 44. Due to HK’s Air Pollution... Hong Kong's Silent Epidemic - Public Opinion Survey on Air Pollution, Environment and Public Health 2008 SOURCE: Hong Kong's Silent Epidemic - Public Opinion Survey on Air Pollution, Environment and Public Health 2008; Civic Exchange
    45. 45. Due to HK’s Air Pollution... 1/10 Go to hospital - Mostly productive, working citizens 1/10 Miss school / work 1/5 Shortness of breath, sore chest, asthma 1/4 Buy medicines Hong Kong's Silent Epidemic - Public Opinion Survey on Air Pollution, Environment and Public Health 2008 1/3 Go to a clinic - Mostly productive, working citizens 1/2 Coughing, choking stinging itchy eyes 2/3 Close windows, turn on a/c 2/3 Stay indoors, limit activities SOURCE: Hong Kong's Silent Epidemic - Public Opinion Survey on Air Pollution, Environment and Public Health 2008; Civic Exchange
    46. 46. 2008 according to the 1,155 81,023 7,250,000 HK$2,317,130,000 SOURCE: hedleyindex.sph.hku.hk

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