1500s 1750

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1500s 1750

  1. 1. A City on a Hill The European back story: 1000s-1200s 1. Crusades 2. Spanish reconquest
  2. 2. The First Colonizers Portugal in 1415 – Cueta , North African coast
  3. 3. The Chinese Jump In Admiral Zheng He – Early 1400s 7 expeditions to Indian Ocean. 62 ships, 25,000 men. On 6 th voyage, Zheng He explored East Africa. A show of strength, and not discovery.
  4. 4. Slavery 1440s- slavery gets “rediscovered” Sugar industry Islands like Madeira near Mauritania Portuguese create Brazil and by- 1550- 50,000 slaves sent to Sao Tome Spain follows suit starting in the Canary Islands
  5. 5. 1492 Christopher Columbus First long term colony 1502 – Nicholas de Ovando- Santo Domingo, D.R. Method - 1. harbors 2. Adelantano - surveyors
  6. 6. Disease Exchange The Europeans were vulnerable to diseases too yellow fever The Native Americans were vulnerable to smallpox 1. Central and South American Indian population dropped from a. 20 million to 2 million 2. Native population north of Mexico roughly 1 million
  7. 7. Good Exchanges What went east – corn, squash, potatoes What went west -
  8. 8. Spain and Portugal 1494- Treaty of Tordesillas-
  9. 9. French Colonization 1534- Jacques Cartier – sailed up the St. Lawrence River
  10. 10. The British Colonization Started as pirates – 1578- Seaman Humphrey Gilbert – Assisted by Dr. John Dee – vision of the British Empire Richard Hakluyt- Gilbert
  11. 11. Sir Walter Raleigh The “Proto-American” Back story- 1584 – 1 st voyage – Florida Channel to Carolinas 1. July 13, 1584 – found Roanoke Island 1585 – He’s Knighted and given a charter to create a colony to be called Virginia -
  12. 12. The Roanoke Experiment 7 ships, and 600 men First effort is a poor result 1587 – A new journey to Roanoke 1. on arrival, they found only 114 colonists left 2. John White becomes governor 3. Meanwhile, the Spanish Armada – threatens 1590 - Delayed return – only to find . . .
  13. 13. The Genesis of a New Effort Sir Francis Bacon – new concept for colonies 1. The New Atlantis Religious element needed in next attempt to expand colonies 1. new myth- the English are now God’s chosen people a. Joseph of Arimathea- b. Resist the Catholic Church expansion-
  14. 14. New Travelers British Parliament decides to banish the “sturdy beggars” AKA “human offal” North Atlantic fishing – French Samuel Champlain -
  15. 15. English Virginia Company Virginia Co. returns to Chesapeake Bay in 1607 – 1. adventurers paid money into stock in VA Co. a. They got 100 acres/share 5/6/1607- 3 VA Co. ships build: Jamestown – Powhattan Indians Capt. John Smith -
  16. 16. New VA Co. Expedition Thomas Gates – 500 Indentured Servants – The state of Jamestown on arrival – 3 Relief ships arrive under VA Co. Gov. Lord De La Ware – harsh military style discipline De La Ware
  17. 17. The Turnaround John Rolfe – in fear of being punished for idleness he made 1 st – 1. Pocahontas 1619 – Key year 1. July 30, 1619 – General Assembly of Virginia a. Gov. Sir George Yeardley – 1. bicameral legislature 2. August 20, 1619 – 20 indentured servants arrive . . . a. No big numbers of slaves brought in until 1700s
  18. 18. The Mayflower 12/11/1620 – Puritan settlers on Mayflower ship 1. Land at Plymouth, MA Mayflower Compact - agreement signed en route
  19. 19. MA Bay Colony 4/4/1629 – Founded 1. 1630 – John Winthrop – soon to be governor of Bay Colony 2. 1630s – brought 20,000 to NE
  20. 20. Puritans Redeem the Old World with the New One John Winthrop: “We shall be as a City on a Hill” Indians gave them agricultural education
  21. 21. John Winthrop MA Colony run as a “dictatorship” Knowledge through reading Bible. Offshoot of the Reformation.
  22. 22. Winthrop gets in Trouble 1634 – ignored Assembly Theological battle over salvation
  23. 23. Roger Williams Dissents Roger Williams – He said it was sinful to steal Indian land after converting them 1. He believed in separation of Church and State 2. John Winthrop encouraged him to go w/ Indians a. There he set up Providence, RI 1. life in Providence -
  24. 24. Religious Freedom 1663 – English King Charles II granted a charter to Williams 1. a government of free and voluntary consent 2. people of different faiths were welcome there
  25. 25. Other Cases of Persecution Anne Hutchinson – believed in salvation by grace 1. John Winthrop followed a policy of - excommunication Other dissenters – Dr. John Clarke and Obadiah Holmes 1. They were against infant baptism Clarke
  26. 26. Early Universities In Boston Rev. John Harvard – 1636 – built the college to train ministers New Haven, Connecticut – Elihu Yale-
  27. 27. Puritans Move 1630-1660- 20,000 migrate 1623 - David Thompson – 1639 – others formed CT
  28. 28. Catholics come to Maryland George Calvert – given charter by King James I in 1625 to create A Catholic colony 1633- son Cecil 2 nd Baron Baltimore- Father Andrew White -
  29. 29. The Maryland Colony Indentured servants – Lifespan – Womens’ work- Toleration Act – Labadists – 1684 first American Utopians Ephrata Cloister- Rosicrucians, later in PA
  30. 30. Primitive Colonial Structure The Dutch and New Amsterdam- founded 5/4/1626 The Carolinas – 1670- Charleston- First North and South Divide emerges
  31. 31. Pennsylvania 1682 – PA is founded by William Penn - Quaker- Philadelphia – American individualism – PA as a key colony -
  32. 32. American Individualism Yeomen farmers – Independent existence – Do-it-yourself society-
  33. 33. American Political Culture English tradition of politics Glorious Revolution of 1688- American colonies got charters, and then . . . Suffrage – Contradiction with slavery?
  34. 34. Carolina – The First Slave State Slavers from Barbados – Comparing white indentured servant to a slave – The number of slaves in 1714-
  35. 35. Cash Shortage Barter economy – e.g. tuition at Harvard – Colonial script - New Jersey script UK Currency Act of 1764-
  36. 36. Pequot War Pequot Indians vs. Mohicans – 1630s Colonial deaths and Massachusetts Gov. response- Pequot payback – 1637- MA and CT w/ Indian allies response – 6/5/1637-
  37. 37. More Indian War 1644 – VA on James River Algonquian Chief Opechancanough – Dutch in CT counter -
  38. 38. Two Southern Societies Coastal society- Interior groups- Bacon’s Rebellion- 1676 – VA Coasters vs. Interior people VA Gov. Sir William Berkeley – vs. – Nathaniel Bacon -
  39. 39. King Philip’s War 1675-1678 Back story: John Elliot converted Algonquian Indians “ Praying Indians ” Real cause of war- King Philip – AKA- “Metacom” – goes on a rampage All of NE was involved
  40. 40. Salem Witchcraft Issue Puritan view after King Philip’s War- From 1660 on Britain wanted to regain more power from the colonies But the Glorious Revolution throws Catholic King James II out in England Increase Mather – Back story on witchcraft – 1692 – Daughters of Samuel Parris 1. They listened to the tales of Tituba – a. Tituba admitted-
  41. 41. The Hunt and the End Temp. Gov. William Phips – The accused – The result – How it ended – Cotton Mather and dad Increase Mather- Cotton’s fascination w/ the witch issue- Dad Increase said the trials were- 1. Reparations-
  42. 42. 1700s Colonial America Where are the people moving to? What did the average person want? Where were the immigrants coming from? German Immigrants
  43. 43. Carolina Divided 1691 – the division happens a. Already, slaves outnumber whites Spain got involved with this -
  44. 44. Early Slave Revolts 1739- Slaves headed to FL- Stono River Rebellion- 1741- New York fires broke out-
  45. 45. Early Georgia English parliament wants a place to send jailed debtors 1732- King George II-
  46. 46. Why Colonial Control Did not Work 1750s- Colonies overwhelmingly prosperous 1. 2 million acres, people have tracts of land 2. population over 1 million a. augmented by immigration and high birth rates Growth was of such speed that- the cat was way out of the bag 1. English attempts reign it in-
  47. 47. Colonial People Colonial shipyards- Mercantilism becomes obsolete- Avg. American farm- Skilled workers-
  48. 48. Rise of Elected Assemblies 1735 John Peter Zenger – England (now the UK)- did not expect to pay for the colonies 1. What did they want? 2. What changed? a. Royal colonies- 1. the power structure-
  49. 49. Differences between UK Parliament and Colonial Assembly Constitution- CT- Broke the ice and did something historic 1639- Fundamental Order of Connecticut Genie was out of the bottle 1688- meanwhile back in England – Colonial response -
  50. 50. Battle Continues The story of the lower houses of the Assemblies taking control 1. The weapons they used – Suffrage- Further inland-
  51. 51. Assembly Power By 1770- the lower houses of the assemblies- 1. What did the small government with limited power allow for?
  52. 52. Great Awakening One German immigrant described Philadelphia: a “hell for officials and preachers” American Christianity – Began with thankful German immigrants – “ Pietism ”- Literacy – a. Early education- William Tennant - a. Log College -
  53. 53. The Preachers Jonathan Edwards - 1. The legendary “ Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God ” Rejected predestination
  54. 54. George Whitefield The touring preacher -
  55. 55. John Davenport Early personal evangelist- Went on seven tours
  56. 56. Enlightenment vs. Religion Samuel Johnson – Morality the same as- Impact on education- Charles Chauncy- founder of later Unitarianism -
  57. 57. Affects of Great Awakening People like John Edwards sought a new man with a rebirth Rev 21:5: “Behold, I make all things new.” Pre-Revolutionary event- Rationalism of elites + Great Awakening for the masses = Popular enthusiasm for the revolution

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