Rubypan proposal


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Rubypan proposal

  1. 1. DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES AND INTERVENTIONS FOR SARDOS IN SELECTED HIGH SCHOOLS IN DEPED CAMARINES SUR FOR S/Y 2012-2013 Key Word: Attributes, Interventions, Student at Risk of Dropping Out Ruby P. Pan, Ph.D.,R.S.W.,R.G.C.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Policies to improve school progression and reduced the numbers of students dropping out of school are critical if universal secondary education is to be achieved. Students are starting high school in greater numbers than before but dropout rates are significant and lead to low levels of secondary school completion in many countries. Benes ( 2005) 62% Democratic Republic of Congo (2007) 51% Bangladesh ( 2000) 60% Philippines ( since 1975) 43% ( World Bank 2008)
  3. 3. BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM • In S/Y 2011-2012, the public secondary schools in Camarines Sur have recorded a dropout rate of 6.94%. This school year 2012-2013, the division have still recorded a high dropout rate of 6.20%, despite the start of Deped DORP implementation.
  4. 4. School Year Dropout Rate 2011-2012 6.20% 2010-2011 6.94% 2009-2010 6.22% 2008-2009 6.70% 2007-2008 6.79% 2006-2007 6.14% 2005-2006 5.87%
  5. 5. Municipality No. of Schools 2011 2010 2009 Cabusao 2 5.26 5.84 Del Gallego 3 5.20 7.30 Lupi 5 7.61 7.78 Ragay 8 6.38 7.90 Sipocot North 8 5.58 11.05 Sipocot South 6.04 6.55 TOTAL 26 DISTRICT 1 Drop Out Rate (%)
  6. 6. Municipality No. of Schools 2011 2010 2009 Libmanan North 16 6.86 5.88 Libmanan South 4.36 6.53 Milaor 4 Gainza 1 5.07 8.23 Minalabac 6 5.98 6.66 Pamplona 6 8.28 7.55 Pasacao 5 6.36 6.45 San Fernando 4 4.17 6.11 TOTAL 42 DISTRICT 2 Drop Out Rate (%)
  7. 7. Municipality No. of Schools 2011 2010 2009 Calabanga 7 4.97 8.26 Camaligan 1 3.94 7.33 Canaman 3 10.57 6.14 Magarao 3 Bombon 2 6.17 6.33 Ocampo 2 2.82 3.08 Pili 11 18.43 8.63 TOTAL 29 DISTRICT 3 Drop Out Rate (%)
  8. 8. Municipality No. of Schools 2011 2010 2009 Caramoan 8 6.39 7.12 Garchitorena 5 8.77 5.70 Goa 6 6.46 6.60 Lagonoy North 6.82 10.44 Lagonoy South 5 6.53 6.95 Presentacion 5 7.70 6.27 Sagnay 5 5.54 6.39 San Jose 4 7.40 8.40 Siruma 4 9.91 6.63 DISTRICT 4 Drop Out Rate (%)
  9. 9. Municipality No. of Schools 2011 2010 2009 Tigaon 7 6.21 5.10 Tinambac North 10.49 10.82 Tinambac South 13 8.63 12.37 TOTAL 62 DISTRICT 4 Drop Out Rate (%)
  10. 10. Municipality No. of Schools 2011 2010 2009 Baao 5 4.72 4.79 Balatan 5 4.48 5.67 Bato 5 4.99 5.42 Buhi 4 6.96 9.00 Bula 10 6.10 6.68 Nabua East 3 3.72 3.49 Nabua West 3 4.41 4.96 TOTAL 35 DISTRICT 5 Drop Out Rate (%)
  11. 11. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study will seek to determine the factors affecting the dropout rate of High School students in the Division of Camarines Sur, for school year 2012-2013.
  12. 12. RESEARCH QUESTIONS The study will aim to answer the following questions: 1. What are the Personalities of SARDOs in DepEd Camarines Sur along the following Personality scales? a. Anxiety b. Conduct Problems c. Somatization d. Depression 2. What is the locus of control encountered by SARDOs along the following areas? a. Teacher-student relationship b. Parent/care-giver relationship c. Self-motivation d. Socio-economic status e. Peer influence
  13. 13. RESEARCH QUESTIONS (cont.) 3. In what personal adjustment profile index do these SARDOs belong in terms of: a. Distress b. Restraint c. Low Self-Esteem 4. What government initiated drop-out reduction program are the respondents or their families involved in? 5. To what extent do the respondents’ involvements in government initiated drop- out reduction program help them in their conditions? 6. What proposed program may be recommended given the result of this research study?
  14. 14. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The findings of this study hoped to provide the basis for assessment of the proposed school initiated interventions in Division of Camarines Sur. Its result will contribute towards school improvement and creation of other intervention programs that will effectively respond to the identified needs of the school Students at Risk of Dropping Out (SARDOs) and a scientific handling of the most emotionally charged SARDO problems.
  15. 15. SCOPE & LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY • This study focused on the personalities, locus of control, adjustments of SARDOS and government initiated drop-out reduction program. • The respondents of the study will include selected public High Schools in the Division of Camarines Sur such as : (1st District) San Jose National High School, Alanao , Lupi ; (2nd District) Pamplona National High School ; (3rd District) Binanuaanan National High School, Pili ; (4th District) Agay-ayan National High School, Tinaambac North; and (5th District) Buhi SPED Integrated School.
  16. 16. District Municipality School Dropout Rate (2011)(%) Dropout Rate (2010)(%) 1 Lupi San Jose NHS 9.60 12.12 2 Pamplona Pamplona NHS 10.53 5.18 3 Pili Binanuanan NHS 27.35 20.12 4 Tinambac North Agay-ayan NHS 17.09 23.86 5 Buhi Buhi SPED Integrated School 14.29 12.24
  17. 17. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The 1987 constitution mandates that the state shall give priority to education, Science and technology, Arts, Culture, and Sports, to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress and promote total human liberation and development; the citizens have the right to quality education which should be accessible to all; it requires the establishment and maintenance of free public education in both elementary and high school levels.
  18. 18. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The theory central to this study is Norma Haan’s Theory of Ego Processes. Haan (1977) postulated that there are certain generic ego processes (adjustment , defense and fragmentation) . This study on the Personalities , Locus of Control and Adjustments influencing the drop-out behavior of students focuses on the interaction between the individual, which in this study are the students, and his relationships with teachers, parents/caregiver, self-motivation, socio-economic status and peer influence. The drop-out behavior is the fragmentation perceived as his constructed response/adjustment to his environment.
  19. 19. SARDOs Personalities: a. Anxiety b. Conduct problems c. Somatization d. Depression Involvement of SARDOs and their families in Division Government Initiated Dropout Reduction Programs: -Easy and Affordable Secondary Education (EASE) -Open High School or Distance education Program (OHSP) -School Initiated Interventions (SII) -Alternative Learning System (ALS) RECOMMENDED SUPPLIMENTAL INTERVENTION FOR A RESPONSIVE DIVISION DROPOUT REDUCTION PROGRAM Locus of Control a.Teacher b.Parents/ Caregiver c.Self d.Socio- Economic Status Adjustment Profile Index: a.Distress b.Restraint c.Low-Self Esteem Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm
  20. 20. ASSUMPTIONS This study has the following assumptions: •Personalities , Locus of Control and Adjustments are significant predictors of the Dropout problem of Public Secondary School Students in Division of Camarines Sur. •The extent of involvement of SARDOs and their families in Government Initiated programs affects their tendency to stop or finish schooling. •If the continued increase in the rate of school dropout is not arrested, then the EFA goal of making every Filipino functionally literate by 2015 would not be achieved. •The increase in dropout rate could be arrested if the causes of the dropout problem are properly identified and described and appropriate intervention programs are initiated to remove the causes. • If the school, the home, the community and the SARDO are actively involved in planning, developing, and implementing the DORP, then the DORP would succeed.
  21. 21. ASSUMPTIONS cont. • The likelihood of students leaving school could be reduced if students’ felt needs are being satisfied and learning experiences are pleasurable. • Learning is scaffolding. New knowledge, skills and attitudes are developed, shaped, modified or reconstructed on the basis of previous ones. If student attendance is irregular and previous lessons are not fully mastered, then the scaffolding process is weakened. • The full mastery of basic competencies could be achieved if the instructional process has a strong remedial component. • If the school has a strong and effective DORP, which is collaboratively planned and managed by the school head, teachers, students, parents, and other key stakeholders, then the school dropout rate would be diminished. • The school DORP would have higher probability of success if it is provided adequate technical and administrative support by the Division, Regional and Central offices.
  22. 22. DEFINITION OF TERMS • Adjustment. As used in this study refers to the behavioral process by which humans and other animals maintain an equilibrium among their various needs and between their needs and their environment. • Anxiety . A feeling of nervousness , apprehension , fear or worry. Some fears and worries are justified , such as worry about a loved one or in anticipating a quiz or examination. But it may occur with or without a cause or it may occur based on a real situation but may be out of proportion to what would normally be expected. Severe anxiety can have serious impact on daily life.
  23. 23. DEFINITION OF TERMS cont. • Depression . A serious medical illness that involves the brain. It is more than just a feeling of being down or blue for a few days. It is a feeling of sadness , loss of interest , change in weight , difficulty in sleeping , energy loss, feeling of worthlessness and thoughts of death or suicide. • Distress. Occurs when an individual adapt to stress. • DORP. (Dropout Reduction Program) A Program of the Department of Education intended to strengthen the thrust towards the attainment of Education for All (EFA). • Government Initiated Interventions. The programs, projects, and activities which the government implements in response to DepEd Public Secondary Schools dropout problem. • Locus of Control. As used in this research, measures generalized expectancies for internal and external control of reinforcement. People with an internal locus of control encounter problems originating from self and with self-will could be changed. While those who encounters external locus of control believe that their own behavior does not matter much and that rewards in life are generally outside of their control.
  24. 24. DEFINITION OF TERMS cont. • Personalities. Are particular combination of emotional , attitudinal and behavioral response patterns of an individual. This study used Seattle Personality Questionnaire that measures self-reported psychological symptomatology and reflects respondents current feelings such as : anxiety , conduct problems , somatization and depression. SARDO. (Student at Risk of Dropping Out); student in disadvantage situation due to factors attributed to the family, school and community.
  25. 25. CHAPTER II Review of Related Literature and Studies
  26. 26. RELATED LITERATURE : •The total Philippine population as of 2007 stood at 88.7 million; for 2008 it was projected to be 90.5 million (2000 Census-Based Population Projections). •The 2003 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS), disclosed that out of 57.4 million Filipinos who are 10 to 64 years old, 3.8 million ten years old and above, do not know how to read and write and a total of 9.2 million are not functionally literate.
  27. 27. RELATED LITERATURE (cont): •According to the National EFA Committee (Manila, Philippines, 2006), a survey of young people, 7-21 years old showed that 65% do not participate in any community activities; only 37% can sing the national anthem, and only 38% can recite the Panatang Makabayan. The Committee further noted that the low participation in community activities, lack of awareness of Philippine history, and weak engagement with matters of public interest, provided a picture of educational disadvantage from the viewpoint of nation building. •The EFA report also pointed out that the school system is disadvantaged because of its poor completion rate and low academic performance.
  28. 28. RELATED LITERATURE (cont): • 2002-2003, only 90.32% of the total population of children 6-11 years old, enrolled at the start of the school year. The 9.68% that did not enrol constituted nearly 1.2 million children who most likely will eventually join the ranks of the adult illiterate. The 90.32% of the children who enrolled showed these trends: • For every 1,000 Grade 1 entrants, 312 or 31.2% will leave school before finishing Grade 6; 249 or 24.9% will finish the six-year program at an average of 9.6 years, each one repeating some grade levels two to three times; and only 439 or 43.9% will graduate in six years. Of these graduates only six will have sufficient mastery of English, Science and Mathematics.
  29. 29. RELATED LITERATURE (cont): • At the secondary level, for every 1000 entrants to first year high school, 389 or 38.9% will leave school without completing four years; 353 or 35.3% will graduate after repeating two to three times; and only 248 or 24.8% will graduate within the required four years.
  30. 30. RELATED LITERATURE (cont): •In sum, there is still a large number of Filipinos who are not basically literate (3.8 million) and up to 9.2 million who are not functionally literate. These Filipinos are educationally disadvantaged or handicapped to engage intelligently in various social, economic, civic and political activities and use to advantage their rights and privileges as members of society.
  31. 31. RELATED LITERATURE (cont): •In his 2012 State of Basic Education report, DepEd Secretary Armin Luistro noted that the dropout situation remains a serious problem—involving six percent of total elementary enrollment in the public system and nearly eight percent in public high schools. •Back in October 2011, Luistro said at least 46,000 students were saved from leaving school because of its Dropout Reduction Program (DORP). • The DepEd said the DORP save students from dropping out of the rolls “because of financial problems, peace and order issues, and physical handicap, family and health concerns, among others.”  
  32. 32. SUPPORTING LITERATURE: The DORP and the Regular Class Program •The regular class program provides the major contribution to produce the desired learner which is the goal of the SIP and the Division Education Development Plan (DEDP). The DORP enhances the delivery of the regular program as it prevents potential school leavers from leaving. Furthermore, DORP seeks to retrieve those who are out of school and who want to join the regular classes.
  33. 33. RELATED LITERATURE (cont): •DORP supports the regular class program through its strategic components, namely: the Open High School Program (OHSP), the Effective Alternative Secondary Education (EASE), School Initiated Interventions (SII) and Other Interventions (OI).
  34. 34. RELATED LITERATURE (cont): Alternative Delivery Mode (ADM) • The OHSP and EASE as strategic components of DORP are considered ADM because students do not attend the regular class program while enrolled in the OHSP or EASE. The OHSP as an intervention has an indirect link with the regular class program since it is distance learning; however, the learner has the option to join the regular class anytime during the period of his study.
  35. 35. RELATED LITERATURE (cont): •The EASE students on the other hand, are temporary leavers of the regular class program and they re-enter the class after satisfactory completion of the EASE modules.The SII and the OI are for the SARDO who do not qualify in the EASE and OHSP. These students are members of the regular class program but who participate in either of the two interventions (SII & OI) or a combination of both to prevent them from dropping out.
  36. 36. RELATED LITERATURE (cont): The DORP and the ALS •As mentioned earlier, the primary objective of the DORP is to prevent students from dropping out, at the same time, it motivates those who are out of school to return and finish basic education. In cases where a SARDO cannot be saved, he has the option to participate in the ALS so that he can attain functional literacy. ALS is a parallel learning that provides a viable alternative to the existing formal instruction. This is done through its three programs, namely: Basic Literacy Program, Accreditation and Equivalency Program and Indigenous Peoples Education Program.
  37. 37. RELATED STUDIES: McIntosh, & Bull (2008) -high school dropouts were discussed in literature as early as 1927. At that time the dropout phenomenon was called “school leaving” and was considered to be a psychological problem based on interest and attitudes. ( Hunt, 2008) there is not one single cause of drop out. Drop out is often a process rather than the result of one single event , and therefore has more than one proximate cause. ( Tinto,2008). Elkins, Braxton, and James (2000) wrote that a student’s sense of congruence with the social system of a college or university may be dependent upon the successful passage through the stages of separation, transition, and incorporation.
  38. 38. RELATED STUDIES: (Osipow, & Fitzgerald, 2006) congruence is supposed to reflect the degree to which an individual’s personal qualities match environmental demands. Peng, Lee, Wang, and Walberg (2002) found that locus of control was a significant predictor of academic success. ( Whatley,2006;Foreman,2008) Research in the area of locus of control and adjustment has expanded greatly. This partially maybe due to empirical support for the mediation and moderation of High School dropouts in public schools .
  39. 39. RELATED STUDIES: Cannon ( 2000) , in his work in the early to mid twentieth century , coined the term “homeostasis” and emphasized efforts of the organism to maintain internal equilibrium. Rumberger (2005) found that students’ low expectations for their educational futures are associated with early high school dropout . (Driscoll, 2009). The typical high school dropout is expected to finish high school and attend a junior college, while the typical high school graduate expects to complete two to four years of college
  40. 40. RELATED STUDIES: Worrell (2006) found that variables related to expectations of success in the future act as protective factors against dropping out. Arum (2008) conducted a study of how educational policy affects the relationship between vocational education participation and dropping out of high school. He found that states that have more resources invested in vocational programs have an increased likelihood of students graduating from high school. Conversely, states with low investments in vocational programs have students with higher odds of dropping out.
  41. 41. RELATED STUDIES: Smink and Schargel (2004) parental role vital to student success, schools must implement strategies to connect parents to their children’s education and their children’s school. (Samuels, 2007; Stanley & Plucker, 2008). Despite research on the topic of high school dropouts, surprisingly little research on dropout intervention programs has been conducted .
  42. 42. SYNTHESIS OF THE STATE OF THE ART AND STUDIES: • The following studies on SARDOs personalities , Locus of control, adjustments and government initiated programs which were considered in this investigation have some similarities & differences with the present study. • McIntosh & Bull (2008) conducted a research on the historical development of high school drop outs in literatures and studies. They identified their problem source and students reactions to these sources . The present study not only dealt with problem problem source which will be discussed in this study in detail as locus of control and students reactions as adjustments . this study also aims to identify the type of personalities SARDOs belongs.
  43. 43. SYNTHESIS OF THE STATE OF THE ART AND STUDIES: • Laurence ( 2000), made a study on students personality in relation to academic success while this study concentrates on SARDOs personality types in relation to their locus of control and adjustments. • Knonick and Hargis ( 2008) , Peng, Lee , Wang and Walberg (2002) , Hersch and Sheibe (2007), researches showed that locus of control was a significant predictor of academic success . On the other hand , this research , will be dealing with locus of control as influential factor on Drop-out occurrence. • Studies of Parsley & Corcoran (2003), Pearl & Campbell ( 2009), sanders & Jordan (2000), Muller ( 2001), Calabrese, Goodvice & Niles ( 2005) , Dicintio & Gee ( 2009) focus on the effects of teachers on drop-out prevention while these study will be discussing three areas as influential factors on drop out occurrence.
  44. 44. SYNTHESIS OF THE STATE OF THE ART AND STUDIES: • More studies on locus of control such as class size, parent or care giver involvement, socio economic status, self motivation , peer influence discussed separately each areas as factor that results to drop out occurrence. While this study considers them as areas under locus of control. • Like most of the studies aforementioned, this study dealt with school setting. Thou the focus of this study will be public secondary students in the Division of Camarines Sur who are at Risk of Dropping Out: their Personalities, Locus of Control , adjustment and their involvement in Government Initiated Intervention on Drop Out Reduction Program.
  45. 45. CHAPTER III Research Design and Methodology
  46. 46. Methodology • This will be a highly qualitative research. The school guidance counselor will distribute the questionnaires to the class advisers who will facilitate its distribution to the students whom they have identified as SARDOs in their respective classes. The identified factors were examined and analyzed in terms of general concepts, learning and behavioural theories. • The data gathered will be tallied, tabulated and statistically analyzed to answer the problems of the study. The personalities, locus of control and adjustments that have influenced the students’ drop-out behavior will be tallied separately to gain significant correlation.
  47. 47. Population • The respondents of the study will include selected public High Schools in the Division of Camarines Sur such as : (1st District) San Jose National High School, Alanao , Lupi ; (2nd District) Pamplona National High School ; (3rd District) Binanuaanan National High School, Pili ; (4th District) Agay-ayan National High School, Tinaambac North; and (5th District) Buhi SPED Integrated School.
  48. 48. INSTRUMENT This study will use the 3 standard questionnaires: Seattle Personality Questionnaire, Locus of Control Student Survey Form and Weinberger Adjustment Inventory. The respondents will answer the questionnaire in 10-15 minutes.
  49. 49. STATISTICAL TREATMENT • The researchers will use simple statistics, the frequency count and percentage to determine the factors that can be altered through Division Dropout Reduction Programs.
  50. 50. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Allen, J. P., Porter, M. R., & McFarland, F. C. (2006). Leaders and followers in adolescent close friendships: Susceptibility to peer influence as a predictor of risky Behaviour , friendship instability, and depression. Development and Psychopathology , 18, 155-172. Allen, J. P., Porter, M. R., McFarland, F. C., Marsh, P., & McElhaney, K. B. (2005). The two faces of adolescents’ success with peers: Adolescent popularity, social adaptation, and deviant behavior. Child Development, 76(3), 747-760. Battin-Pearson,S. Predictors of Educational Psyhology. 2000 .
  51. 51. THANK YOU!!!