New Innovation Networks In Destinations 2

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Presentation for International Tourism Symposium at ESADE, Barcelona, May 2008

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New Innovation Networks In Destinations 2

  1. 1. New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 Oriol Miralbell [email_address] & Sílvia Sivera [email_address] Universitat Oberta de Catalunya Barcelona, May, 21, 2008
  2. 2. ESADE 2008 Networks New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 <ul><li>There’s a multilevel and multitheorical perspective to explain how internal an external networks are build, maintained, disappear and rebuild in organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Shapes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(internal and external) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global network organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. ESADE 2008 Networks & organizational change New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 <ul><li>Organizational change: merging of new network shapes inside the organization as an integral part of evolution in the new “network society” (Castells, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Through globalization communication finds 5 scenarios: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ITC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Appuradai, 1990) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. ESADE 2008 Networks & organizational change New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 <ul><li>Changes in social geography: </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism destination transcends local reality but becomes part of a broader comprehension of the destinations, more global. </li></ul><ul><li>Time and space shrink : </li></ul><ul><li>Through virtual organizations workers can work from the distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Through web 2.0 cooperation and knowledge exchange information is possible as well. </li></ul>
  5. 5. ESADE 2008 Networks embedding and disembedding New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 Organizations become embedded in larger networks of social processes and are influencing and getting influenced by these networks. (Granovetter, 1982, 1992) Though organizations loose also links to traditional networks ( disembedding ). (Giddens, 1984) Re-embedding emerges through globalization pushing people to establish new links in the distance and restructuring their world. They change their orientation from local to global. (DeSanctis & Monge, 1999)
  6. 6. ESADE 2008 Knowledge paradigm in destinations New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 <ul><li>Need of more flexible structures and more cooperative, through temporary alliances (inside and outside the clusters) according to segment oriented marketing strategies. Alliances may move from local to global. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to use clusters and associations as knowledge networks </li></ul>
  7. 7. ESADE 2008 Knowledge networks New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 Existing studies suggest that because knowledge is becoming more widely distributed innovation increasingly needs to occur at the interstices' of collaborating groups and organizations. Networked innovation processes have distinct advantages for the creation and integration of knowledge. (J. Swan & H. Scarborough, 2005)‏
  8. 8. ESADE 2008 External forces for innovation New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Demand Conditions Related and Supporting Industry Factor Conditions Sources Of Innovation Porter, 1990
  9. 9. ESADE 2008 Triple Helix Model New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 Etzkowitz / Leyesdorff, 2000)
  10. 10. ESADE 2008 Social capital New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 A reason to investigate: R. Burt states “[t]hat research and theory will better cumulate across studies if we focus on the network mechanisms responsible for social capital effects rather than trying to integrate across metaphors of social capital loosely tied to distant empirical indicators.” (2000)‏ “ The two mechanisms most often cited are protection within closed networks and brokerage across structural holes,..” (Burt, 2000)‏ Putnam (1995) calls them, bondind and bridging (also known as brokering )‏
  11. 11. ESADE 2008 Social capital New innovation networks in destinations 2.0
  12. 12. ESADE 2008 Internal and external networks New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 Internal Networks in the destination: Clusters in torusim need to socialize in a sustainable process of collaboration where trust is essential. This means a radical change of mentality. External networks: Brokers and leaders with external links will be essential in leveraging knowledge inside the destination.
  13. 13. ESADE 2008 External networks: APTALC New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 <ul><li>The APTALC case: Hypothesis: External networks with strong social capital are good to foster innovation in destinations Conclusions: SOCIAL CAPITAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strong internal cohesion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>homogeneous profile of members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high level of trust among members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>well structured leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>members pursue knowledge creation and exchange to improve personal skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the network supports professional information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong external networks </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. ESADE 2008 External networks: APTALC New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 <ul><li>The APTALC case: Conclusions: FOSTER INNOVATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members know achievements of other members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge exchange is strong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members use the network to share knowledge and innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation leaders are also brokers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High level of innovation projects in the last years </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. ESADE 2008 Web 2.0 New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 Web 2.0 is a term describing the trend in the use of World Wide Web technology and web design that aims to enhance creativity, information sharing, and, most notably, collaboration among users. ( Wikipedia )
  16. 16. ESADE 2008 Web 2.0 New innovation networks in destinations 2.0
  17. 17. ESADE 2008 Web 2.0: users in Europe New innovation networks in destinations 2.0
  18. 19. <ul><ul><li>1.500 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>58 groups of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>topics: </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. ESADE 2008 Communication 2.0 New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 Word of mouth to Word of mouse Viral marketing: take advantage of online word of mouth , through persuasive messages , that are designed to be shared among people, mainly over the e-mail. Buzz: online and offline simultaneity
  20. 23. ESADE 2008 Destination 2.0 New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 <ul><ul><li>Leadership: DMOs and industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take advantage of i nternal and external networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster cohesion and bridging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify internal groups (clusters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge => innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fostering collaboration and communication </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. ESADE 2008 Destination 2.0 New innovation networks in destinations 2.0 Leadership: DMOs and industry Social networks, blogs , Flickr, Google maps, RSS, digg, Take advantage of i nternal and external networks Foster cohesion and bridging Identify internal groups (clusters) Social networks, e-mail , Facebook, twitter, RSS, digg Knowledge => innovation Social networks, wikis, google docs, YouTube, Slideshare, RSS Fostering collaboration and communication Blogs, Social networks, YouTube, Flickr, Google maps, RSS, Flickr,

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