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Cultural Tourism in Catalonia

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Presentation of cultural tourism in Catalonia at EUTO conference in September 2008

Presentation of cultural tourism in Catalonia at EUTO conference in September 2008

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Cultural Tourism in Catalonia Cultural Tourism in Catalonia Presentation Transcript

  • Cultural events and tourist development in Catalonia (Spain) Oriol Miralbell Izard [email_address] Universitat Oberta de Catalunya EUTO Study Visit, 2008
  • Tourism in Catalonia
      • Catalonia is a community with a large and singular cultural tradition and a first class tourist region in Europe (14.5 M visitors in 2007)
  • Tourism in Catalonia. Some figures
      • International Tourists to Catalonia and Spain in 2007
      • Catalonia¹ Spain²
      • Country # (thousands) Rank # (thousands) Rank
      • France 4.275 1 9.319 3
      • Germany 1.443 4 10.046 2
      • Belgium and
      • Netherlands 1.455 3 4.127 4
      • Switzerland 350 8 1.388 8
      • Italy 1.304 5 3.634 5
      • UK 2.161 2 16.271 1
      • Scandinavia 585 7 3.450 6
      • Russia 255 9 445 9
      • US and Japan 706 6 1.490 7
      • Souce: ¹ - Turisme de Catalunya i Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya, a part ir de les dades de Frontur de l'IET. ² - Frontur de l'IET
  • Tourism in Catalonia. Some figures
      • British tourists coming to Catalonia (2006/2007)
      • 2006 2007
      • # % Catalonia / Spain # % Catalonia / Spain
      • Visitors 2.389.000 2.510.000
      • Tourists 2.227.000 13,8% 2.161.000 13,3%
      • Overnights 15.640.000 10,0% 12.932.000 8,6%
      • Average 7,0 6,0
      • Source: - Turisme de Catalunya i Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya, a partir de les dades de Frontur de l'IET.
  • Catalonia. Tourist regions
  • Tourism in Catalonia. Some figures
  • Some overview of Catalonia CulturalTourism
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  • The events as a phenomenon of tourism and leisure in Catalonia
      • Research done in 2007 by Francesc González and Oriol Miralbell – UOC
      • Catalonia is a community with a large and singular cultural tradition and a first class tourist region in Europe (14.5 M visitors in 2007)
      • The combination of both factors allows to design differentiation and complementary strategies based on the use of cultural heritage in tourism.
      • In the last decades, cultural tourism events are among the preferred elements to be integrated with strength in tourism offer in Catalonia.
  • The events as a phenomenon of tourism and leisure in Catalonia
      • The definition of events we've used:
    • “ a transient and one-time or infrequently occurring event outside the normal programme or activities of the sponsoring or organizational body and, for the guest, an opportunity for a leisure, social or cultural experience outside the normal range of choices or beyond everiday experience” (Getz, 1994)‏
  • What tourists perceive from Catalonia Evaluation
  • What tourists perceive from Catalonia Attractions
  • What tourists perceive from Catalonia Understanding Beautiful, Cultural and Sunny
  • The events as a phenomenon of tourism and leisure in Catalonia
      • Events combine two approaches :
        • Socializing approach (oriented towards the local community)‏
        • Festival approach (oriented towards the visitors and marketing)‏
      • Each dimension affords different arguments that foster the creation of events:
        • Socializing approach
        • Festival approach
    Strategic re-positioning of destinations based on the exhibition of heritage and traditions Dissolution of the shift between exclusive culture and popular culture for consume Festivals and heritage used as social identity vs. globalization Reduced organizacional costs (grant, support of voluntaries, temporary...) ‏ Appropriate for present consumption dynamics ( short breaks ) ‏
  • What do we know about the events on cultural tourism in Catalonia?
      • Previous research on the touristic correspondence of events (González, 2006):
      • Fast grow
      • Presence on the hole territory
      • But mainly concentrated in tourist areas and in Barcelona
      • Demand from urban areas and proximity (Catalonia as a functional area for leisure)‏
      • Remarcable position of popular culture as a theme (with differences depending on urban or rural area)‏
      • Seasonal distribution during the year
      • Important role of local government in promotion
      • Low use of ITC in distribution and marketing
    Distribution of events after municipality, 2005 Source: González, 2006
  • Goals
      • To study the Catalan events as a touristic phenomenon and to fill the gap of missing data
      • To analyze the importance of the events as an instrument to design strategies for local development centered in tourism.
  • Methodology
    • Telephone Survey to institutions in charge to organize the events # = 263 (December 2007- January 2008)‏
      • Building a unique database in Catalonia with information of the events
      • Factorial analysis: Identifying the factors of local development tied to the events and differentiating the models
      • Territorial differentiation: Differentiation of the events based on the geographic area where they belong to
      • Issues that have been analyzed to study the events:
      • Topic
      • Duration (seasonality)‏
      • Management
      • Marketing
      • Economic impact
      • Agents
  • Results (1)
      • 1. Topic
        • Main topics: Festivals, traditional and popular events, and musical events
        • High diversification :
          • Diversification strategies of destinations (creation of additional supply and new products for active demand)‏
          • Old tradition in celebrating festivals and especial recover after the 1980s
    Main topic event’s distribution, 2007 100,00 Total 4,02 Sport events 12,75 Gastronomy 7,04 Specialized exhibitions 11,74 Market or artisans fair 21,14 Popular festival 13,08 Entertainment 5,36 Theater festival 24,83 Concert or music festival % Source: González, 2006
  • Results (2)
      • 2) Duration (seasonality)‏
      • There's a trend to organize events according to the patterns of frequency of visitors.
  • Results (3)
      • 2) Duration and dimension (# visitors)‏
      • Small events with short duration, taking place every year since the 1980-1990s tending to augment in the last years.
    76,4 Continuous organization (every year) ‏ 28,1 Editions starting after 1997 67,1 Duration < 2 days 13,6 Dimension (> 50.000 visitors) ‏ % Indicator
  • Results (4)
      • 3) Management
      • * Low budgets (42% <15.000€)
      • * Expenses most for functioning rather than promotion and HR
      • * Low professional profile of management structure, strong amateur profile and low capacity to generate benefits (> 50% do not have benefits or have very little)
      • * Main goals are socializing (66%) rather than touristic (34%)
      • * Lack of coordination and networking. Trends: act independently and isolated competing directly with other events.
  • Results (5)
      • 4) Marketing
      • * Low use of distribution channels
      • * More extended use of promotional channels
      • * Low use of the traditional means of tourism in both cases
    Use of promotion channels, 2007 100,00 100,00 100,00 100,00 100,00 100,00 100,00 100,00 % total 75,29 84,41 95,44 4,18 61,60 17,87 14,07 20,53 % no 24,71 15,59 4,56 95,82 38,40 82,13 85,93 79,47 % yes Promotion events Specialized exhibitions Cell phone Internet (web) ‏ Specialized journals Daily Newspapers Radio TV Font. Elaboració pròpia Distribution channels of events, 2007 100,00 100,00 100,00 % Total 3,04 3,04 3,04 % free 93,54 42,97 63,12 % no 3,42 53,99 33,84 % yes Travel Agents (packages) ‏ Booking systems Official distributors (Servicaixa…) ‏
  • Results (6)
      • 5) Economical impact (qualitative results based on perceptions of interviewed)‏
      • * Seems evident the beneficial effect (68% of events have a great impact on hospitality and 78% on restaurants)‏
      • * Direct link between the capacity to generate economic impact and getting profit, and the presence of tourism
      • * The events with a structured and professional management and a solid promotion and professional organization attract more tourists and generate a greater local impact.
  • Results (7)
      • 6) Agents
      • * Strong dependence on local governments’ involvement to maintain and organize the events (82% become grants and financial support from local government)
      • * Patronage is rare (11%), private financial support is more frequent (55%)
    Formes de finançament dels esdeveniments, 2007 100,00 Total 100,00 Total 1,90 No answer 0,00 No answer 42,59 No 88,59 No 55,51 Yes 11,41 Yes (%)  Private support (%)  Patronage Font: Elaboració pròpia
  • Links between events and local development
      • Factorial Analysis
        • 9 indicators have been chosen from the different blocks that the OECD relates to the possibility of culture to generate local development
    List of indicators linked to local development fields selected to develop FA method Budget > 50.000€ Profits obtained Territorial concentration Organization of planified meetings between the different organizing agents Involvement of local government Involvement of local agents Belonging to a network or circuit Association capacity Continuous / discontinuous event Time continuity Involvement of local citizens Attracts more than 20% of tourists Presence of international tourism Density and proximity to the market Indicator 3 Indicator 2 Indicator 1 Field Table from the authors
  • Links between events and local development
      • The resulting matrix shows 3 factors that may correspond to 3 models of event:
        • 1) Socializing and with local participation
        • 2) Touristic and professional
        • 3) Discontinuous professional
    14,210 18,492 23,319 % explained variance 1,279 1,664 2,099 Proper value 0.477 0,481 Obtaining economical profit -0,465 Budget > 50.000€ -0,736 Continuous / discontinuous event 0,737 Belonging to a network or circuit 0,811 Presence of more than 20% of tourists 0,676 Presence of foreign tourist 0,617 Participation of local citizens 0,649 Planned meetings 0,787 Participation or involvement of local government Factor #3 Factor #2 Factor #1 Associations
  • Links between events and local development
      • The factorial analysis confirms the idea that the events are excellent resources to design strategies for local development with tourism business
      • It also shows that there exit (socializing) models that hardly may be assumed by tourism without a suffering a negative impact
      • The most important factors to generate local development with tourism business are those related to attractiveness or market proximity and regional concentration
      • Local government’s involvement is key to reach positive social impacts at a local scale.
  • Conclusions
      • Recommendations for a future tourism strategy based on events in Catalonia:
      • Events show great capacity to become attraction focus for visitors and to generate social and economic local impacts
      • Though many events should not be target to tourism consume, and those which can be addressed to tourists should have a professional management team.
      • Because of the probable increase of events in the future we suggest the criteria to act properly:
          • Select event models that allow a correct repositioning supply strategy and attract visitors
          • Minimize the negative effects before launching a tourism event strategy like: concentrated, small and fragmented supply, lack of cooperation and association of stakeholders, excessive role of local administration, different goals and interests between promoters, etc.
          • Change structural weaknesses like: excessive concentration of demand, low percentage of tourists, seasonality, lack of professional management skills, lack of economical sustainability, insufficient creativity skills, and serial repetition of existing events.