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Ways of separating components of a mixture

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  • 1.  When two or more materials or substances are mixed together but do not chemically combine.  This means they retain their original properties.  This means they can be separated by physical means.
  • 2.  Magnetism  Simple Distillation  Hand separation  Filtration  Sifting or sieving  Evaporation  Chromatography
  • 3.  If one component of the mixture has magnetic properties, you could use a magnet to separate the mixture. Iron, nickel, and cobalt are all materials that are magnetic.  Not all metals are magnetic: gold, silver, and aluminum are examples of metals that are not magnetic.
  • 4.  Using a magnet to separate nails from wood chips.
  • 5. The process by which a mixture is separated by heating a solution and condensing using a cooling tube. The liquid collected is the distillate.
  • 6. “It is the process whereby distilled water is produced and accessible in the market” “Rain water is a product of distillation” “Some medicine that has fish oil ingredients passes through double distillation”. Gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, and lubricating oil are produced from petroleum by distillation.
  • 7. Figure 2.14: The solution is boiled and steam is driven off.
  • 8. Figure 2.14: Salt remains after all water is boiled off.
  • 9. Saltwater solution (homogeneous mixture) Distillation (physical method) Salt Pure water
  • 10.  Separating the parts of a mixture by hand.  Only useful when the particles are large enough to be seen clearly.  Useful for: separating parts of a salad.
  • 11.  Using your fork to separate tomatoes, lettuce, cucumber, onions, etc. in your salad.
  • 12. Filtration  Used when separating a solid substance from a fluid (a liquid or a gas) by passing a mixture through a porous material such as a type of filter.  Works by letting the fluid pass through but not the solid.  Examples of filters: coffee filter, cloth, oil filter, even sand!
  • 13. Example of filtration:  Using a coffee filter to separate the coffee flavor from the coffee beans.
  • 14. separates a liquid from a solid Mixture of solid and liquid Stirring rod Filtrate (liquid component of the mixture) Filter paper traps solid Funnel
  • 15. Sifting or sieving  Used to separate a dry mixture which contains substances of different sizes by passing it through a sieve, a device containing tiny holes.
  • 16. Example of sifting/sieving:  Using a sieve to separate sand from pebbles.
  • 17.  Allowing the liquid to evaporate, leaving the soluble solid behind.  Example: heating sugar water. The water evaporates and the sugar crystals are left behind.
  • 18. Figure 2.17: Separation of a sand-saltwater mixture.
  • 19. Iron stand Beaker Wire gauze Ring Bunsen burner E V A P O R A T I O N
  • 20. Chromatography  Tie-dye t-shirt  Black pen ink  DNA testing  Tomb of Unknown Soldiers  Crime scene  Paternity testing
  • 21. Paper Chromatography
  • 22. Separation by Chromatography sample mixture a chromatographic column stationary phase selectively absorbs components mobile phase sweeps sample down column detector http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/matter/slides/sld006.htm
  • 23. Separation by Chromatography sample mixture a chromatographic column stationary phase selectively absorbs components mobile phase sweeps sample down column detector http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/matter/slides/sld006.htm
  • 24. Chromatography  Used to separate dissolved substances in a solution from each other. Mixture Components Separation Stationary Phase Mobile Phase
  • 25. Example of chromatography:  Using chromatography paper to separate ink into it’s original components.

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