AU TO N O M O U S CARPresented By JOLSNA J3 rd sem MCA
AU TO N O M O U S CAR An autonomous car, is capable of fulfilling the human transportation capabilities of a traditional car. Also known as driverless car or robotic. As an autonomous vehicle, it is capable of sensing its environment and navigating on its own.
A human may choose a destination, but is not required to perform any mechanical operation of the vehicle. The Google Driverless Car is a project by google that involves developing technology for driverless car.
The project is currently being led by Google engineer Sebastian Thurn , director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and co- inventor of Google Street View.
The person who is sitting inside the car can just have to give the name of the place where he/she wants to go. The vehicle itself find it out the root and reach the destination very fastly Because the car choose the root which is short and less traffic jams.
The vehicle automatically find out all the features of vehicles near by the car and take right decisions on right time that means it finds out the velocity , speed and other all details about the vehicle and change our side. The main advantage of autonomous vehicles are it wont do any mistakes like humans. so we can avoid accidents.
Autonomous vehicles uses radar, Lidar, GPS and computer vision. Advanced control systems interpret the information to identify appropriate navigation paths , as well as obstacles and relevant signage. Autonomous vehicles typically update their maps based on sensory input, such that they can navigate through uncharted environment
Googles this project is using their own services like Google Earth and Google Map. The project is currently being led by Google engineer Sebastian Thrun.
TECH N O LO GY The system combines information gathered from Google Map & with Artificial Intelligence software that combines input from video cameras inside the car. LIDAR sensor on top of the vehicle, radar sensors on the front of the vehicle and a position sensor attached to one of the rear wheels that helps locate the cars position on the map.
Google expects that the increased accuracy of its automated driving system could help reduce the number of traffic-related injuries and deaths, while using energy and space on roadways more efficiently
In August 2011, a human-controlled Google driverless car was involved in the projects first crash near Google headquarters in Mountain View , CA. Google has stated that the car was being driven manually at the time of the accident.
In June 2011 the state of Neveda pass a law concerning the operation of autonomous cars. The Nevada law went into effect on March 1, 2012, and the Neveda Department of Motor vehicle. issued the first license for a self-driven car in May 2012.
A N A U TO N O M O U S C A RN EED S: The “heart of autonomous car system" is a laser range finder and is mounted on the roof of the car. The device, a Velodyne 64-beam laser, generates a detailed 3D map of the environment. .
The car then combines the laser measurements with high-resolution maps of the world, producing different types of data models that allow it to drive itself while avoiding obstacles and respecting traffic laws.
The vehicle also carries other sensors, which include: four radars, mounted on the front and rear bumpers, that allow the car to "see“ far enough to be able to deal with fast traffic on freeways; a camera, positioned near the rear-view mirror, that detects traffic lights; and a GPS, inertial measurement unit, and wheel encoder, that determine the vehicles location and keep track of its movements.
In case of autonomous vehicles ,the vehicles would become a shared resource, a service that people would use when needed. Youd just tap on your smart phone, and an autonomous car would show up where you are, ready to drive you anywhere. Youd just sit and relax or do work.
consider an example, if you want to reach in a meeting very fastly and you don’t get a driver at time. At the same time you want to prepare some PPTs for the meeting. If you are using autonomous car the answer is very easy ,you just sit in the car and just enter the destination and you can prepare your PPTs.
W O RKI G N It is possible with a combination of some incredible software and hardware engineering. Using processes developed by both Google and the best and brightest of DARPA’s robotic race challenges.
The first step in the process is navigation, something that requires a little more than the Google Maps Navigation functionality on display in Android. Before a Google autonomous car goes anywhere, the route is manually mapped out by a separate human driver, noting any changes in road conditions, obstacles or markers.
Once the route is set, a safety driver and software engineer load up into one of the automated cars. Once the passengers are set, the car loads up information created by one of Google’s massive data processing centres into the local computer.
The remote computers map the route and the local computer continually processes data from the car’s sensors, including a standard GPS . sensor, a powerful laser array for “seeing” obstacles, and small radar arrays mounted around the side of the vehicle.
The laser mounted on top of the spoiler is the most crucial element for its close-range operation. It creates a 3D image of everything in the immediate area of about 50 feet.
The laser compares the immediate surroundings of the car to the measurements taken by the previous manual run, paying special attention to moving objects & taking extra input from a wheel encoder. This allows for much more precise movement than GPS alone, keeping the car on a route accurate to a few c.m when compared with the previously gathered data.
The laser can differentiate between other cars, pedestrians, cyclists, and small and large stationary objects, and it doesn’t need light to be able to function. The radar arrays keep an eye any fast-moving objects from farther out than the laser can detect.
The front-mounted camera handles all traffic controls, observing road signs and stop lights for the same information that a human driver uses. Google’s computers combine data from the laser and the camera to create a rudimentary 3D model of the immediate area, noting for example the colour of an active traffic light.
There’s a staggering amount of contextual software at work at all times. For managing lane changes, there’s an algorithm determining the smoothest route through the surrounding road combining trajectory, speed & the safest distance from obstacles.
When coming to an intersection without a traffic light, Google’s cars yield the right of way according to traffic laws. But if other drivers don’t take their appropriate turns, the Google car moves forward slightly, then watches for a reaction. If it determines that the other driver still won’t move, it takes the initiative.
Safety is paramount for Google: None of their cars go anywhere without a separate manual run- through and two human operators. But the goals are to create a system that can eliminate the human element in the unavoidably dangerous act of driving.
They’ve been testing for years and have accrued over 250,000 miles of data, but there’s still no word on how or when they intend to get this technology into the market.
TEA CH I G CO M PU TER S TO D R I E N V Autonomous driving in slow traffic is a logical combination of adaptive cruise- control and the lane-keeping systems. As adaptive cruise controls, self-parking options and automated-braking systems gradually become more capable and widespread, it is not a big leap to full autonomous control.
Prototypes are starting to move off test tracks and onto real roads. Last year BMW sent a robotic car at motorway speeds from Munich to Nuremberg.
Audi sent a self-driving TTS Coupe through 156 tight curves along nearly 20km of paved and dirt road on Colorado’s Pikes Peak, with nobody behind the wheel. Modified with help from roboticists at Stanford University , the car travelled about as fast as one driven by an average driver.
Getting a car to drive along an open road without crashing into other vehicles is one difficult thing. That is navigating junctions and roundabouts, responding appropriately at pedestrian crossings and avoiding obstacles on the road is not easy.
It is very costly to make such a s/w for a driverless car. That is ,for the car, kit, software, and brainpower etc. What we need is an array of extra sensors to make cars more aware of their surroundings.
Mapping nearby features, spotting road edges and lane markings, reading signs and traffic lights and identifying pedestrians is done using a combination of cameras, radar and LIDAR. Ultrasonic detectors provide more accurate mapping of the surroundings at short range.
Once the sensors and activators are in place, building a driverless car is essentially a software problem. Google’s approach involves driving a route manually, with all the sensors switched on, to build a detailed 3D map of features such as signs, guard-rails and overpasses.
when the autonomous driving mode is switched on the software can predict hazards with reasonable accuracy. A shaded bridge in a damp valley, for example, may be icy until noon if the night-time temperature drops below a certain point.
Each time a car follows a particular route, it collects more data. Google’s software also ingests data on speed limits and recorded accidents. Because the car’s roof-mounted sensors can see in all directions, it arguably has greater situational awareness than a human driver.
A D VATA G ES O F U SI G A D R I ER LESS N VCA R A R E: Fewer Traffic collisions, due to the autonomous systems increased reliability compared to human drivers. Relief of vehicle occupants from driving and navigation chores.
Reduction of space required for vehicle parking. Reduction in the need for traffic police and vehicle insurance. Safer than human driven cars.
FU TU R E O F D R I ER LESS CA R V The day when driverless vehicles will roam the streets freely to pick up and drop off passengers like futuristic taxies is far off, probably more than 20 years at least.
D I D VATA G ES O F D R I ER LESS SA VCA R These is a car which follows rules but if the human driven cars are not following the rules & these may lead to accidents & all because all are running in a same way. Autonomous cars are efficient than human driven car & at the same time we can use these cars only in an efficient road only.
Like any other machines we can say that this also making man lazy.
C O N C LU SI N O An autonomous car, also known as robotic or informally as driverless or self- driving. It is capable of fulfilling the human transportation capabilities of a traditional car. Googles autonomous car is a project proposed by Google itself.& is working with the help of Google map and GPS system.
In future the autonomous car will be there on our streets and by using these cars we can avoid accidents. In The I Robot (2004) features autonomous vehicles driving on highways, allowing the car to travel safer at higher speeds than if manually controlled.
we can hope in near by future we can also travel in such vehicles. Todays fictions will be tomorrows ,daily lifes technology.
R EFER EN C ES Sebastian Thrun (2010-10-09). "What were driving at". The Official Google Blog. Retrieved 2010-10-11. Wikipedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_driverless_car http://www.slashgear.com/back-to-ba sics- how-googles-driverless-carstays-on-the- road-09227396 http://www.theregister.co.uk/2012/09/25/go ogle_automatic_cars_legal