Audio visual aids pt
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  • 1.  “Audiovisual aids are any device which can be used to make the learning experience more concrete , more realistic and more dynamic” KINDAR . S. JAMES
  • 2.  Audio visual material should function as integral part of educational programme Audio visual aids should be centralized under specialized direction and leader ship Advisory committee should be appointed for the selection and co-ordination of AV aids Instructors have to help the student how to use AV aids Budget appropriation should be made regularly Legal aspect should be considered
  • 3. Projected av aids
  • 4. Opaque projector, built of large blackConsists two mirrors at top & bottom;1000w bulbprincipleLight rays passes through the first mirror, then to theobject, light rays from the illuminated picture thenfocuses to the second mirror , then it is projected toscreen by using a convex lens operation :handle beneath the epidiascope islowered then the picture want to project is placed on theplate and handle is fixed again , then switch on light
  • 5.  Helps in retention  It is easily of material breakable Attract attention  It should be Arouse interest planned in among the student sequence Tests students interesting
  • 6.
  • 7. Magic lantern, used for projecting film stripsIt contains condensing lenses to concentrate alllight into beam,500w bulb, smooth channel forthreading the filmNear the base of the channel there is knob whichcarries a film strip, can be turned by hand to pullthe film strip through the projectorOPERATION : projector is placed on the table, asface to the screen, insert one end of the film stripin the knob (inverted position), film strip isadvanced by turning the knobThe blower and the lamp switched on; distancebetween the projector and the screen is adjustedto get the picture on the screen
  • 8.  It is an economical  Theequipment visual material used for is quite It is to make a expensive convenient to handle and carry Takes up little space and can be eassily stored Logical sequence to teaching
  • 9. OVER HEAD PROJECTOR Vital teaching aid, replaces chalk board, produces images behind and over the head of the teacher It consists metal box with 1000w bulb and a concave reflector vertical rod on the side of the box carries objective convex lens and mirror which can be slows up and down by using rock and pinion arrangement Size of the sheet is 25cm *25 cm
  • 10. STEPS IN USING OHP Put the plug into Move the the objective power lens andPlace the Explain the wall mirror up OHP on material on the socket andthe table transparency switch down tofacing to with a small on the get the screen pointer blower image on first and the screen lamp
  • 11. • Permits the teacher  OHP is too costly pointing the material &  Writing by some type of observe the student on pen get blotted out on the same time plastic• It can be used in fairly lighted room• Materials projected can be changed quickly and easily• Operation of OHP is convenient• OHP can be used with other type of AV aids
  • 12. Still picture gives illusion of spacePhotographs are made by stereoscopic cameraObserver receives the impression of realityTwo photographs being taken from slightly differentangle which are enlarged and merged into one view
  • 13. Micro film contains photographed reading material eachframe being reduced photo of printed page. It can be usedfor the storage and retrieval of information. when microfilm is passed through microfilm reader, an enlarged imageis found on the on the screen
  • 14. CARTOONMetaphorical presentation of reality, humorous caricatureIt is an interpretative which uses symbols to portray anopinion , situationQuality of drawing should be highADVANTAGESInitiate certain lesson, motivate students to start adiscussion, make the lesson lively and interesting
  • 15. COMIC STRIPSSeries of pictures very interesting in teaching stories, historical events, scientificprocessIt enhances imagination , stimulate reality and involvement
  • 16. CHARTSVisual illustrative media for depicting the relation betweenmain idea and supporting facts purposes of charts for showing relation by means of facts and figuresTo show the continuity of processFor presenting abstract ideaFor showing the development of structureTo stimulate thinking HOW TO USE THE CHART EFFECTIVELY?
  • 17. Types of chartNarrative chart : narrating the idea and the factsCause and effective chart :relationship between rights andresponsibilitiesChain chart: expressing idea and facts in the form of cyclesEvolution chart: for expressing changes in specific item frombeginningStrip tease chart : expressing information step by step. it hasGreat suspense value, holding attention and building interest,Increases interest and imagination of audiencePull chartFlow chartTime or table chartJob chartTree chartFlip chartPie chart
  • 18. FLASH CARDSThese are the sequence of cards which are presented before theaudience in proper sequence to till a complete story, size :25 *30cm, it should contain picture or diagrams PREPARATION OF FLASH CARDcut full sheet chart paper into four equal partsHeight of the writing should be 5cmIt should hold in a way that the audience can see properly ADVANTAGES OF FLASH CARDSused to introduce and present the topicCan be used to review a topicCan be used to develop cognitive ability of recognition andrecall of students
  • 19. GRAPHSIt depicts numerical or quantitative or statisticaldata are presented in the form of visual symbols TYPES OF GRAPHSPIE GRAPH: Data are presented through the sectors of circle
  • 20. BAR GRAPH Category 4 Category 3 Series 3 Series 2 Category 2 Series 1 Category 1 0 2 4 6A graphic presentation extends the scale horizontally along thelength of the bars
  • 21. LINE GRAPH 6 5 4 3 Series 1 Series 2 2 Series 3 1 0 Category Category Category Category 1 2 3 4Concepts are presented through the lines drawn either horizontallyOr vertically .The plotted points are connected each another
  • 22. Pictorial graphPictures are used for expressing the idea ,moreattractive and easily understood. Vivid pictures areused for depicting the information
  • 23. Display boards
  • 24. chalk boardIt is the life of the class room, helps to teacher inexplaining, illustrating, and giving notes to children. It can bemade of plastic, wood, cement or glass types of chalk boardORDINARY CHALK BOARD: it is movable and adjustableAnd contains a wooden supportROLLER TYPE: made of thick canvas, wrapped on a rollerMagnetic board: made up of steel on which magnet canused to hold the objectsBLACK OR GREEN BLACK BOARD: framed with wood andavailable on black or green color
  • 25. Rules in using chalk boardLetters and drawing should be in large size and legibleAvoid spelling mistakeWriting should be in straight rowDo not use abbreviationWhile writing on the board , the teacher should ensurethat the class is attentive
  • 26.  Economical  It makes the teaching aid student to heavily Captures student depend on teacher attention  Makes chalk It can be used powder to inhaled again and again by teacher  Constant use of chalk board make it smooth and full of glare
  • 27. Bulletin boardIt can be used for educational and informational purpose. It is asoft board which holds pins or tags and used for displayingmaterial
  • 28. Principles in the use of bulletin boardA board for posting notices should be kept separate fromthose for current events and studyPlacement of bulletin board is to have one near theadministrator’s office , other near the library third onconference hall, fourth one is in class roomAppearance should be neat orderly and attractive mannerNotices should be removed as they have fulfilled the purposeCrowding of material should be avoided ,organized inattractive mannerBulletin board should be kept a little above the eye levels ofthe average individuals
  • 29. Flannel boardThe rigid material covered with flannel cloth. The item to be displayedare pictures, or drawing
  • 30. Magnetic chalk boardA magnetic chalk board is framed iron sheet carrying porcelaincoating .Magnetic chalk board can used to write with chalkstick , glass marking pencil, and to display pictures
  • 31. 3-Dimensional aidsModelModels are the substitutes of real things . It can be made of clay, plaster ofParis, thermacole cloth, wood etc
  • 32. Types of modelScale model: correct idea of an object can be displayedSimplified model : gives a idea about external form of objectWorking model : to demonstrate in a simple way of an operationor processCross section model :inside of an object is visible
  • 33. specimenPart of a real object taken from natural setting.It shows the quality of structure . Eg :section oflung
  • 34. Mock upIt emphasizes the functional relationship between device realityand its workability. Certain elements of original reality isemphasized to make it more meaning full eg :an artificial kidneyto demonstrate dialysis
  • 35. moulageIt can be made up of plastic material to stimulatelife object
  • 36. objectBrought from natural setting into class room that willmake the instruction more meaning full
  • 37. Audio aids
  • 38. RADIOCHARACTERISTICS OF AUDIO EXPERIENCEImmediacy : can describe the events as they happenEmotional impact :through the combined effect ofmusic , voice , and environmental sound studentsinterest can capturedOne way communication :no possibility of studentsfeed back
  • 39. recording
  • 40. advantagesRecording can be stopped at willRecording can play when we requiredIt can be used for introducing as well as summarizing thetopicTo evaluate the speech defect in ones own speechTo teach good pronunciation in foreign language
  • 41. television
  • 42. usesIt combines the sound and sight ,thus makes the experiencemore concrete, real, and immediateOffers uniformity in communication even the back benchfeels the pleasure of front row seatIt offers opportunity for seeing and listeningIt can teach large number of students at a timeIt provides excellent learning opportunity for both preservice and inservice education of teachersHelps to make the leisure time more interested
  • 43. Activity aids
  • 44. dramatizationMakes the class room instruction more livelyand interesting.Student get the opportunity for participatingas well as in observing
  • 45. computer
  • 46.  Handling large  It lacks human and number of student emotional factor Multi dimensional  Computers are very learning through costly works and graph  Problem in developing The high storage language capacity of a computer allows to complete many activity at a time
  • 47. summary