Building materials
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  • 1. BUILDINGS MATERIALS -
  • 2. Types of Building materials Types of building materials:
    • Stony Materials
    • 3. Concrete
    • 4. Pottery materials
    • 5. Binder matterials
    • 6. Other materials
  • 7. Stony materials
      There are 2 types of rocks:
    • Compact Rocks: They are blocks of marmol, granite, shale. ..etc, called slabs.
    • 8. Break-up Rocks: fragments of rock, such as clay.
  • 9. Concrete:
    • It is a mixture of aggregates, water and binder.
    • 10. The most used are: mass concrete, cyclopean concrete, aerated concrete and reinforced concrete.
  • 11. Pottery materials:
      They are pieces made with clay molded and cooked in stoves.The process consists of two phases:
    • Mixing and molding.
    • 12. Continuous baking.
    • 13. The most used are bricks. Tiles, stoneware and porcelain.
  • 14. Binder materials:
    • They are materials that became doughy with water. They are used to stick other materials (mortar). There are three types:
    • 15. Lime: it's obtained with the heat of limestones.
    • 16. Plaster : powder mineral that with water is used to cover walls.
    • 17. Cement: the most used is the Portland cement.
  • 18. Other materialas:
    • Metals: the more used are steel, aluminium and copper.
    • Woods: is a common material in roofing doors windows and floors.
    • 19. Plastics : are found in water pipes and in electrical wiring.
    • 20. Glass: are used in windows, doors, decorations fences...
  • 21. Process of construction
    • The construction of a bulding is a long and complex process that comprises several phases:
    • 22. Preparation of the area
    • 23. Foundation
    • 24. Elevation of the structure
    • 25. Water covering
    • 26. Pavings laying
    • 27. Wales lift
    • 28. Laying of the facilities
    • 29. Work of finished
  • 30. Preparation of the area
    • It is done by means of operation, of demolition clean-up and leveling out and is realized by heavy machinery as excavator and road-rollers.
  • 31. Foundation
    • It is the laying of the elements that shape the base of the building. This part is located underground and the ca be:
    • 32. -Piles. -Fligstones. -Shallow foundation.
    • 33. They used machinery such as: concrete mixers, angers or vibrators.
  • 34. Elevation of Structure In this phase the are constructed the props and the badges that have to form the plants of the building. Somo of them are metallics (beams of steel) but the majority they are of armed concrete.
  • 35. Water covering
    • It is the placement of the roof of the building whose characteristics depend on the weather.
    • 36. The materials used are: tiles, slate tiles and slabs of zinc.
  • 37. Pavings laying:
    • On each floor plate building materials placed such as marble, sandstone, wood...
  • 38. Wales lift
    • Here there are built the walls and the partitions that close and divide the floors of the building to isolate it from the exterior.
    • 39. The used material is the brick.
  • 40. Laying of the facilities
    • Here there are placed all the facilities of water, gas, electricity, TV, elevators...
    • 41. Each one is carried out by a group of profesinales diferent.
  • 42. Work of finished:
    • Here it is adapted to its definitive use.
    • 43. The used materials are: paintings, wood, stony materials and materilas of decoration.