Geography of Italy Italian Peninsula 100 Miles Wide 700 Miles Long It looks like a high- heeled boot with the toe aimed at Sicily.
Vocabulary arable land extinct volcano forum A public place where people could meet and exchange ideas and goods. no longer active Land that can be used to grow crops.
Mountains & Seas Tyrrhenian Sea Adriatic Sea Mediterranean Sea Apennines Range- runs from the north to the south of Italy Po Valley- low land between the Alps and the Apennines
The Italian peninsula has some valleys and plains. Most of them are at higher elevations. The land is less rugged than Greece, so travel by land was much easier. Travel by sea was more difficult because Italy had few good harbors. This made trade with others living on the peninsula easier than trading with outsiders.
Farmland There was much more arable land in Ancient Rome than in Greece. The fertile land and mild climate were ideal for farming. The Ancient Romans didn’t need to import as much, so extensive trade wasn’t necessary. Rivers carried mineral rich silt that created good farmland. Volcanic ash made the soil rich. (Most of the volcanoes are now extinct.)
Around 1000 B.C. (Latins) began migrating to the Italian Peninsula. They settled south of the Tiber River where they raised crops and herded sheep, goats, and cattle. Farmers and herders founded Rome in the 8 th century B.C. on a hill overlooking the Tiber River. The village grew into the city of Rome. The legend of Romulus and Remus is a story told to explain how Rome began.
City of Rome <ul><li>Good soil </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies of wood and stone nearby for building </li></ul><ul><li>7 hills helped in defending the city </li></ul><ul><li>Level ground near the river area for the forum </li></ul><ul><li>Inland location – protected from pirates </li></ul><ul><li>Sea – 15 miles away – close to sources of </li></ul><ul><li>fish and salt </li></ul><ul><li>River route to the sea – trade with other civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>Located in the center of the peninsula – ideal for </li></ul><ul><li>communication and trade with the rest of Italy </li></ul>
The Roman Republic Around 600 B.C. the Etruscans, people from the northern part of Italy, took control of Rome. They had traded with the Greeks, and they brought many of the Greek ideas and customs with them. After 100 years of Etruscan rule, the Romans rebelled. The old monarchy ended and the republic was formed.
Vocabulary republic consul dictator senate A nation in which political power lies with the citizens who elect leaders and representatives. Either of the two main elected officials of the Roman Republic. A ruler who has absolute power. In ancient Rome, the supreme council of the Republic and later of the empire.
to stop an action – from the Latin word meaning “I forbid” plebeian A member of the small class of wealthy citizens in ancient Rome . A member of the large class of ordinary citizens in ancient Rome. From the Latin word plebs – “the masses.” patrician tribune An official elected by the plebeian assembly. veto
Patricians Wealthy Romans started the republic . Wealthy freemen formed the assembly. Wealthy Romans were elected to represent the citizens of Rome.
Patricians Plebeians A small number of wealthy Roman families that held all governmental power. Most of the population – artisans, shopkeepers, peasants, etc. A few were wealthy, most were poor. Class was determined by birth. Wealthy plebeians could not become patricians. Both classes had the right to vote, but only patricians could hold political, religious, or military offices. Plebeians had to serve in the army and pay taxes.
Each year two consuls were elected by the senate. They were the chief officials. Two were elected so that no one person could have all the power. Consuls led the army and were judges . They had the same power as early kings, but they could only serve for one year and they could veto each other’s actions. During an emergency the consuls could appoint a dictator to lead for 6 months. Even the two consuls had to obey the dictator.
The consuls were advised by the senate. The 300 senators were elected for life. They controlled the treasury and foreign policy. Senators had to be patricians (descendents of early Roman citizens), and most were members of wealthy families. Senators were the most powerful group in the government.
The Republic of Rome was not a democracy because not every citizen had the same power. Slaves had NO rights. In 494 B.C. the plebeians withdrew from Rome and formed their own assembly. The council of plebeians elected officials called tribunes. The patricians realized that the economy of Rome would suffer without the plebeians. They agreed to let the tribunes attend meetings and veto laws they didn’t like.
Plebeians protested unwritten laws because only the patrician leaders knew exactly what they were. The Roman government began recording laws on clay tablets. The “Twelve Tables” were posted in Rome’s Forum. Many plebeians couldn’t read the laws, but the laws were no longer hidden. Plebeians eventually gained equal rights.
Tribunes <ul><li>Were elected to protect plebeians </li></ul><ul><li>rights </li></ul><ul><li>Held office for one year </li></ul><ul><li>Could be re-elected </li></ul><ul><li>Could defend citizens against unfair </li></ul><ul><li>acts by magistrates or judges </li></ul><ul><li>Could initiate laws </li></ul><ul><li>Could veto measures made by the </li></ul><ul><li>senate </li></ul>
By 367 B.C. the government had become more democratic, and by 287 B.C. complete equality had been reached. Two consuls – One patrician & One plebeian 300 Senators patricians and plebeians 10 tribunes Citizens Assemblies
Roman Society Family wealth determined social class. Upper Class – Wealthy held jobs as government officials. Many lived in large homes. Their needs were taken care of by slaves. Some owned 500 or more slaves.
Lower Classes ranged form the fairly wealthy to the very poor. They held jobs such as: Soldiers Farmers Merchants Craft workers Most lived in apartment-style dwellings. Some families lived in one room.
<ul><li>Slaves were at the bottom of society. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were not counted as citizens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were not well protected by laws. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many were freed when their owners’ died. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some were given a chance to buy their </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freedom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living conditions depended on the owner. </li></ul></ul>In all classes the men ruled the households. Women helped make decisions and gave advice to their husbands. Women could own property! Women could take NO part in government.
Roman Conquest By 500 B.C. the Romans had extended their power to most of the Italian peninsula. By 272 B.C. all of the peninsula was under Roman control and a rivalry developed between Rome and Carthage (a city-state in northern Africa founded by the Phoenicians) over who would control sea trade in the western Mediterranean.
The Punic Wars Rome and Carthage fought three wars between 264 B.C. and 146 B.C. 1 st War – Rome Won 2 nd War – Rome was threatened when Hannibal and his army (some on elephants) marched on the city of Rome. Roman general, Scipio, attacked land in Northern Africa.
Hannibal was forced to return to Africa to defend Carthage’s lands. Carthage gave up in 202 B.C. After the 3 rd Punic War in 146 B.C., Carthage was left in ruins and many of the Carthaginians were sold into slavery. The word Punic comes from the Roman word for Phoenicians - Punicus Greece, Macedonia, and parts of southwest Asia were also under Roman control.
The Roman Republic was divided into provinces and a governor was appointed to rule each one. The people of the new provinces had to pay taxes to Rome and some were taken into slavery. <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>The rich became richer. </li></ul><ul><li>The poor lost jobs and land because their </li></ul><ul><li>work was turned over to the slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between rich and poor led to civil </li></ul><ul><li>war. </li></ul><ul><li>After 50 years of conflict, Lucius Sulla </li></ul><ul><li>became dictator for 3 years . </li></ul>
In 79 B.C., Sulla retired and the government returned to consuls. <ul><li>In 59 B.C., Julius Caesar was elected as consul. </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted to rule all Roman Lands. </li></ul><ul><li>He formed an army and captured Gaul (France). </li></ul><ul><li>He became the governor of Gaul and watched </li></ul><ul><li>Rome closely. </li></ul><ul><li>In 49 B.C. he returned to Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and a civil war began. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>After three years of war, Caesar </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>was appointed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>dictator for 10 years. </li></ul>
Julius Caesar - <ul><li>Strong leader </li></ul><ul><li>improved lives </li></ul><ul><li>made laws to help the poor </li></ul><ul><li>created new jobs </li></ul><ul><li>gave citizenship to more people </li></ul>In 44 B.C., Caesar was appointed dictator for life. The Roman Republic was then a dictatorship, and senators feared he would make himself the king. Caesar was stabbed to death on the way to the senate on March 15 th (the Ides of March). Another civil war began.
The Roman Empire Caesar’s grand-nephew, Octavian, became dictator in 27 B.C. He changed his name to Augustus, meaning “respected one.” Augustus was the first true emperor of Rome. Pax Romana - Roman Peace - lasted 200 years
Under the leadership of Augustus, the following things were accomplished: <ul><li>laws were passed giving citizens more rights </li></ul><ul><li>Romans were the first people to take a census </li></ul><ul><li>(a count of the country’s people) </li></ul><ul><li>A professional army, divided into large groups </li></ul><ul><li>called legions, was established </li></ul><ul><li>Roads were built </li></ul><ul><li>New government buildings </li></ul><ul><li>( basilicas ), temples, </li></ul><ul><li>libraries,and public </li></ul><ul><li>baths were built. </li></ul>
Accomplishments continued - <ul><li>The aqueduct system (a system to carry </li></ul><ul><li>water from place to place) was constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>The arts and literature developed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman language Latin was used in </li></ul><ul><li>government and education. </li></ul>You can see the influence the Greek culture had on our projects.
Beginnings of Christianity Augustus was the religious leader in Rome. Many gods (many based on the Greek gods) were worshiped. Roman law punished those who discouraged the worship of Roman gods. Eventually emperors were worshipped as gods. Rome controlled the land of Judea. Jews were allowed to follow their religion, but were often mistreated.
The birth of Jesus affected the whole Roman Empire. Born in Bethlehem Grew up in Nazareth Later taught – to turn from sin belief in one God grace/forgiveness Performed miracles Jesus – the Messiah (one who is sent by God to save the world. Disciples – followers of Jesus
Roman Leaders became concerned as more people began to follow Jesus. The Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, ordered that Jesus be put to death by crucifixion (30 A.D.) The teachings of Jesus spread and were called Christianity. The Apostles – followers of Jesus – spread the word. Christians were persecuted, and Romans often ordered their deaths. Many Christians became martyrs who would die willingly for their beliefs.
Persecution of the Christians stopped around A.D.313. Constantine became the new emperor after he received a “message from God.” He won the battle against another Roman general and took over the leadership of Rome. Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in A.D. 313, making Christianity an accepted religion. Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire in A.D. 392. Emperor Theodosius was in power.
Writing by Christians, like Paul, were saved and shared with others. The gospels told of Jesus’ birth, life, death, and resurrection. The Old Testament – Books of the Bible before Jesus. The New Testament – Books of the Bible about Jesus and His teachings.
Christianity in Rome eventually became the Roman Catholic Church headed by the Pope. There are many other Christian churches in the world today with over 2 billion believers.
Rome's Decline in the West Trouble in the Roman Empire <ul><li>Barbarians – outsiders - began to attack the </li></ul><ul><li> Empire’s borders. </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic tribes from the north </li></ul><ul><li>Persians from the east </li></ul><ul><li>African people, called Berbers, from the south </li></ul>Rulers in Rome were unable to govern effectively. Tyrants seized control. Citizens lost respect for the government.
The economy began to suffer. Trade declined and money lost value. The price of food rose. The Roman Empire Splits in Two Diocletian came to power in 284 A.D. He divided the leadership of the Empire. He led the east. His trusted friend led the west.
Constantine, another leader, made Christianity an accepted religion and helped keep the Empire alive. He also focused on the eastern part of the Empire. Constantine moved the capital of the Empire to Byzantium – renamed the city Constantinople. In 395 A.D., the Empire officially split. East grew – West declined
A Time of Invasions Late 300’s and 400’s A.D – <ul><li>They needed land to escape the Huns. </li></ul><ul><li>The Vandals, a tribe, attacked Rome in </li></ul><ul><li>406 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic tribes invaded again. </li></ul><ul><li>They took items and destroyed monuments. </li></ul>Today, the word vandal means – someone who purposely destroys another’s property. By 500 A.D., the Roman Empire had broken into several kingdoms.