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Mobile data offloading
Mobile data offloading
Mobile data offloading
Mobile data offloading
Mobile data offloading
Mobile data offloading
Mobile data offloading
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Mobile data offloading

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  • 1. MOBILE DATA OFFLOADING:FEMTOCELL VS. WIFIASTON PRIMERA PASTEUR HOTEL – BANDUNG, NOVEMBER 10-11, 2011DR. IR. JOKO SURYANALaboratory of Radio Telecommunications and MicrowaveInstitut Teknologi Bandung
  • 2. Outline• MBB operator Problem• Why do MBB operators need offloading ?• What is Femtocell and Wifi offloading ?• How do we implement ? – Femtocell – Wifi offloading• Business Cases Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 2
  • 3. Operator OptionsStrategy to bridge the revenue gap :1. Network sharing : all forms of operator cooperation where sites or parts of the radio access networks are shared.2. Spectrum refarming : replace or mix radio access technologies in specific frequency bands.3. Offloading heavy data traffic : to local networks or indoor systems.4. Pricing strategies and service differentiation5. New types of services and revenues : M2M, NFC Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 3
  • 4. Operator Options : Highlight on OffloadingOffloading heavy data traffic to local networks• Instead of deploying a large number of outdoor base stations for mobile broadband the heavy data traffic can be offloaded to local networks or operators using indoor systems or femtocell.• In addition to the potential of substantially lowered network costs a number of other motivations can be identified: – the data traffic is mostly (~90% ) generated indoors – the users are stationary or nomadic – the users are ”known” (at the office or at home) – no need to deal with wall attenuation Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 4
  • 5. FEMTOCELL-BASED OFFLOADING Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 5
  • 6. Offloaded by Femtocell Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 6
  • 7. Why is Femtocell Important?• Femtocell is very important for the following reasons: 1. It can provide indoor coverage for places where macrocells cannot 2. It can offload traffic from the macrocell layer and improve macrocell capacity 3. Addition of a femtocell layer will significantly improve the total network capacity by reusing radio spectrum indoors 4. There is a growing demand for higher and higher data rates 5. Femtocells can provide significant power saving to UEs 6. The use of femtocell is ‘greener’ than macrocells 7. Femtocell provides an ideal solution for FMC (Fixed Mobile Convergence). 8. Femtocell plays an important role in mobile broadband and ubiquitous communications. 9. Femtocell represents a major paradigm shift Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 7
  • 8. FEMTOCELL CONCEPT Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 8
  • 9. Evolution of Cellular Systems 2G 3G 4G As throughput demand and usage increases, cell size decreases Current Traffic Future Traffic TrendMacro Base Stations Trend Outdoor Home Work Femto Stations Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 9
  • 10. Evolution of Cellular Systems: Cell Size• Cell size decreases dramatically.• Usage: – Macrocell: Rural, highway. – Microcell: Urban, street. – Picocell: building, enterprise, station. – Femtocell: indoor, very high-rate coverage Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 10
  • 11. Cell Size v.s. Throughput and Usage• As throughput demand and usage increase, cell size decreases. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 11
  • 12. Traffic Trend (User Behavior)• 29% of calls placed at home. [JD Power 2006]• 57% of mobile usage at home or at work. [Northstream2007]• 75% of 3G traffic to originate in-building by 2011. [VisionGain2006]• In the future, more and more indoor mobile usage. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 12
  • 13. Shortcoming of Macrocell for Indoor Usage• Macrocell cannot provide good signal strength for indoor coverage. (Think about PHS.) Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 13
  • 14. High-rate Indoor Coverage in Macrocell• Small high-rate indoor coverage in macrocell.• Poor coverage is major cause of churn. (Ex. 3G ⇔WiFior mobile ⇔fixed)• People always want to use high-speed data–Femtocells can enable this. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 14
  • 15. Femtocell : Femtoforum• Femtocells are low-power wireless access points that operate in licensed spectrum to connect standard mobile devices to a mobile operator’s network using residential DSLor cable broadband connections. [Femtoforum]• By 2011, 102 million users on 32 million access points worldwide. [ABI Research]• Femtocellbase station is also known as home base station, home access point, or home NodeB. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 15
  • 16. Femtocell is Access Point• Femtocell is a low-power domestic access point – Small-size cellular base stations (BSs) for residential or small business environments. – Full-strength mobile technology but simpler deployment. – With full operator management. – Improve indoor coverage and capacity. – With internet-grade backhaul. – At prices comparable with Wi-Fi access points ($30~$200 for home usage). – Typically support 2 to 6 concurrent users. – An alternative method to Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC). Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 16
  • 17. New Business OpportunitiesFor wireless operators:• Femtocell is expected to be a fixed-mobile substitution (FMS) solution who can utilize it as a wireless DSL solution.For wireline operators:• Femtocell provides opportunity to enter the mobile virtual network operator (MVNO)-based wireless markets Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 17
  • 18. Femtocell Development• In 2002, a group of Motorola engineer introduced a Home Base Station technology• In 2007, vendors formed the Femto Forum to promote femtocell use• In 2008, Sprint Nextel released home-based 2G femtocell built by Samsung Electronics that works with any Sprint handset• In 2009, Verizon and Vodafone rolled out their femtocell network service with 3G standard Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 18
  • 19. Existing Commercial Femtocell Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 19
  • 20. Why Needs Femtocells? Data Coverage• Problem: – Mainly a issue for macrocellular systems. – Good voice coverage, but poor high data rate coverage. – Coverage degrades at high rates. – Femtocells:Extend high-rate data coverage. – Mainly applies to: Cellular operators with macrocell deployment. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 20
  • 21. Why Needs Femtocells? Basic Coverage• Problem: – RF coverage holes. – Need to improve voice coverage.• Femtocells: – Provide basic service coverage. – Home/Enterprise coverage. – Mainly applies to : Operators for suburban/rural coverage. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 21
  • 22. Why Needs Femtocells? Capacity Enhancement• Problem: – Data loads exceeding capacity. – Limited macro enhancement ability. (Higher power may induce higher interference.) – Increase capacity economically by offloading to femtocells.• Femtocells: – Provide localized capacity. – Increase overall capacity. – Mainly applies to:Highly saturated operators. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 22
  • 23. Benefits of Femtocell Networks: for Operators• Low cost solution.• Improve reliability.• Increases both coverage and capacity.• Reduce coverage holes and create new converged services.• Reduce macrocell backhaul capacity requirements.• Reduces churn.• Works with all existing handsets; no need for expensive subsidizes on dual-mode (3G + WiFi).• Increases 3G adoption. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 23
  • 24. Benefits of Femtocell Networks: for Consumers• Reduce cost. (Free calls at home!)• No need for expensive new device.• Superior indoor coverage and quality without change in phones.• Simplicity: – One phone. – One mode. – One number. – Location specific pricing.• Seamless services across all environments. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 24
  • 25. Indoor Wireless Coverage: Femtocell• Internet-grade service quality. (Wireline backhaul)• Easy plug-and-play.• Two typical operation modes of femtocells. – Public (open) – Private (closed) Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 25
  • 26. Femto Usage Model• Public (Open): – No restrictions on subscriber to use the femtocell. – All customers of a cellular service providers can access publicly accessible Femto-AP. – Hotspot type scenario: coffee shop or airport. – The femtocell becomes another part of the public mobile network.• Private (Closed): – Only authorized users are allowed to connect to a privately accessible Femto-AP. – Access Control List. – Non-authorised subscribers are denied access to the femto(redirected back to the public macrocell network). – Home or enterprise environments. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 26
  • 27. Competitors: UMA• Universal Mobile Access (UMA), formerly as Unlicensed Mobile Access – Example: Cellular access outdoor + WLAN access (VoIP) indoor. – Requires a dual-mode mobile handset. – Initial specifications were published in 2004. – On the contrary, femtocell promises fixed mobile convergence with existing handsets. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 27
  • 28. Comparisons of Femtocells, Distribued Antennas, and Microcells• These technologies enhances capacity and coverage by shortening the communication distance.• Comparisons from different perspectives. – Capital expenditure (CAPEX). – Operating expenditure (OPEX).• Benefits and shortcomings. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 28
  • 29. Comparisons: Femtocells• Consumers install mobile wireless AP inside homes.• Backhauls data through a broadband gateway (xDSL/cable/Ethernet/WiMAX) over the Internet to the cellular operator’s network.• Capital expenditure – Subsidized femtocell hardware.• Operating expenditure – Providing a scalable architecture to transport data over IP. – Upgrading femtocells to newer standards. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 29
  • 30. Comparisons: Femtocells• Benefits: – Lower cost, better coverage and prolonged handset battery life due to smaller cell. – Capacity gain from higher SINR and dedicated BS to home subscribers. – Reduced subscriber churn.• Shortcomings: – Interference from nearby macrocellsand femtocellslimits capacity. – Increased strain on backhaul from data traffic may affect throughput. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 30
  • 31. Comparisons: Distributed Antennas• Operator installed spatially separated antenna elements (AEs) connected to a macro BS via a dedicated fiber/microwave backhaul link.• Capital expenditure – AE and backhaul installation.• Operating expenditure – AE maintenance and backhaul connection. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 31
  • 32. Comparisons: Distributed Antennas• Benefits: – Better coverage since user communicate with nearby AE. – Capacity gain by exploiting both macro-and micro-diversity (using multiple AEsper macrocelluser).• Shortcomings: – Does not solve the indoor coverage problem. – RF interference from nearby AEsdiminishes capacity. – Backhaul costs between BS and AEs. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 32
  • 33. Comparisons: Microcells• Operatorinstalled microcell towers.• Improve signal in urban coverage.• Capital expenditure: – Installing new cell towers.• Operating expenditure: – Electricity, site lease, and backhaul. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 33
  • 34. Comparisons: Microcells• Benefits: – System capacity gain from smaller cell size. – Complete operator control.• Shortcomings: – Installation and maintenance of cell towers is prohibitively expensive. – Does not completely solve indoor coverage problem Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 34
  • 35. Indoor Techniques Comparison Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 35
  • 36. Femto Characteristics• Physique – Physically small for limited space in some households/offices – Silent in operation while generating low levels of heat output• RF Power – Tx RF power is between 10-100mW (lower than 1W by WiFi) – 3G handset is able to transmit at lower power levels when being close to the femtocell• Coverage – Dedicated 3G coverage within a household (10-200m) – Designed for a capacity of 2 to 6 end-users Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 36
  • 37. Femto Characteristics• Backhaul – Utilize Internet Protocol (IP) with a flat BS architecture – Link to operator networks via wired broadband connections• Interference – Macrocells vs Femtocells – Femtocells vs Femtocells• Security – Security risks due to broadband internet (open access) – Network security is managed by the IPSec protocol Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 37
  • 38. Femto Characteristics• Operation – Compatible with existing 2G/3G handsets and devices – Operates in licensed spectrum owned by operators – Remote configuration and monitoring system similar to that used by the macro networks – Remote management to enable QoS at the edge of the network – Includes provision for a services environment on which applications may be added• Worldwide Standard Support – Developed to support both 3GPP (UMTS) and 3GPP2 (CDMA) – Also supports emerging technologies such as WiMAX and LTE Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 38
  • 39. Femto Challenge• Low-cost Implementation – Under $200 per FC unit (or subsidize by carriers) – Integrate Femtocell-on-a-chip onto Cable/DSL Modems• Network Architecture Harmonization – Diversity in mobile core networks (CDMA, UMTS, WiMAX, etc.) – UMTS-centric: Leverages the mobile core for hand-off functions – SIP-based: More functions within FC plus IP integration• Remote Device Management – Update software/firmware, monitor status/performance, and do diagnostic tests (All from a console in the operator’s network) Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 39
  • 40. Femto Challenge• RF Interference – FC can interfere both macro-cell networks and each other – Auto-configuration functionalities with cognitive radio techniques• Quality of Services – Shared IP access link (voice, data, video, P2P, etc.) – Traffic prioritization is essential (ensures consumer satisfaction)• Time/Network Synchronization – 3GPP specifies that BS Tx frequencies be closely synchronized – GPS timing reference in FC units – Communication with overlaying macro-cell networks Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 40
  • 41. Femto Challenge• Provisioning – Plug-n-play (i.e. seamless installation and activation) – Strong control on the remote activation of FC (i.e. SIM)• Consumer Concern – Femtocells = Home Base Stations (i.e. health and safety issues) – Access control mechanisms for FC owners – Security is always an issue for IP-based broadband connections• Marketing – Technical alternatives such as UMA and WiFi – Compelling value propositions aimed at appropriate segments Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 41
  • 42. Formal Femtocell ReferenceReference: FemtoForum.org Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 42
  • 43. Key Attributes of Femtocells• Mature mobile technology: – Femtocells use fully standard wireless protocols over the air to communicate with standard mobile devices, including mobile phones and a wide range of other mobile-enabled devices. – Qualifying standard protocols include GSM, UMTS, LTE, Mobile WiMAX, CDMA and other current and future protocols standardised by 3GPP, 3GPP2 and the IEEE. – The use of such protocols allows femtocells to provide services to more than 3 billion existing devices worldwide and to provide services which users can access from almost any location as part of a wide-area network. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 43
  • 44. Key Attributes of Femtocells• Operating in licensed spectrum: – By operating in licensed spectrum licensed to the service provider, femtocells allow operators to provide assured quality of service to customers over the air, free from harmful interference but making efficient use of their spectrum.• Generating coverage and capacity: – As well as improving coverage within the home, femtocells also create extra network capacity, serving a greater number of users with high data- rate services. – They differ in this from simple repeaters or ‘boosters’ which may only enhance the coverage. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 44
  • 45. Key Attributes of Femtocells• Using internet-grade backhaul: – Femtocells backhaul their data over standard residential broadband connections, including DSL and cable, using standard internet protocols. This may be over a specific internet service provider’s network, over the internet itself or over a dedicated link.• At competitive prices: – The large volumes envisaged for femtocells will allow substantial economies of scale, driving efficiencies in manufacturing and distribution in a manner similar to the consumer electronics industry and with pricing projected to be comparable with access points for other wireless technologies. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 45
  • 46. Key Attributes of Femtocells• Fully managed by licensed operators: – Femtocells only operate within parameters set by the licensed operator. – While they have a high degree of intelligence to automatically ensure that they operate at power levels and frequencies which are unlikely to create interference, the limits on these parameters are always set by operators, not the end user. – The operator is always able to create or deny service to individual femtocells or users. This control is maintained whether the femtocell itself is owned by the operator or the end user. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 46
  • 47. FEMTOCELL DEPLOYMENT Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 47
  • 48. Femtocell Configuration Scenarios• Macrocells are operated by a mobile wireless operator, while femtocells are privately owned and connected to a broadband service provider, such as an Internet Service Provider (ISP).• Thousands of femtocells may co-exist in a coverage area of a macrocell-based cellular network. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 48
  • 49. Femtocell Network Configuration• There are three possible types of femtocell network configurations based on the availability of a broadband connection (e.g., ISP) and on the coverage of the macrocellular network : – Type A : a single stand-alone femtocell – Type B : a network of stand-alone femtocells – Type C : a femtocell network integrated with a macrocellular infrastructure Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 49
  • 50. Femtocell Network Configuration Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 50
  • 51. Type A - a single stand-alone femtocell• This could be the case of a remote area with : – no macrocellular coverage – a poor coverage area • indoor • macrocell edge – when no other neighboring femtocells are available. • this type of a configuration extends the service coverage into remote areas. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 51
  • 52. Type B - a network of stand-alone femtocells• In this scenario, multiple FAPs are situated within an area in such a way that a radio signal from one FAP overlaps with other FAPs’ signals. – There is no macrocellular coverage – Ethe coverage is poor.• Femtocell-to-femtocell handovers are present and need to be handled by the femtocellular network.• As the Type A configuration, the Type B configuration is also able to extend the service coverage into remote areas. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 52
  • 53. Type C - a femtocell network integrated with a macrocellular infrastructure• This scenario can be viewed as a two-tier hierarchical network, where : – the macrocells create the upper tier ; and – the femtocells the lower tier• Handover between macrocells and femtocells, as well as handover between femtocells, are common occurrence in this scenario.• This configuration improves the indoor service quality and reduces the traffic load of the macrocells by diverting traffic to femtocells. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 53
  • 54. Deployment : Greater Femtocell• Not only for the home!• Femtocell economies of scale deliver cost-effective deployments in offices and in high-traffic or low coverage locations• Femtos in the enterprise and metrozone• Scope for cost-effective access to rural and developing markets via appropriate backhaul solutions Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 54
  • 55. Applications : Indoor Femto Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 55
  • 56. Applications : Data Femto Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 56
  • 57. Applications : Outdoor Femto Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 57
  • 58. Femtocells Initially Target Residential and Small Enterprise Hot Spots Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 58
  • 59. Femtocells Evolving Towards Femto Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 59
  • 60. WIFI-BASED OFFLOADING Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 60
  • 61. Wifi-based Offloading Types• We can divide the WiFi-based offloding into three distinct offload categories based on factors such as their specific network consideration and customer profile: – 1. Network bypass – 2. Managed network bypass – 3. Integrated data offload Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 61
  • 62. Network Bypass• Network bypass is the process of taking mobile subscribers in Wi-Fi range and transparently moving their data onto the Wi-Fi network – in the process completely bypassing the core network for data access (voice continues to be delivered via the core network).• This can be achieved by putting a small application on the subscriber’s device that detects when they are in a Wi-Fi area and automatically moves all data access to that network.• It does not require that any additional network equipment be installed. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 62
  • 63. Network Bypass Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 63
  • 64. Network Bypass• However it has two major drawbacks : – First, the carrier loses visibility and control of their subscriber while they are in the Wi-Fi area. This will prevent the carrier from billing for usage (if they have a metered service like in some countries) or providing any other features that they generally provide to their customers on their 3G networks. – Second, since there is no connectivity between the core network and the device, the carrier is unable to deliver any 3G content leading to potential loss of revenue.• In spite of these drawbacks, some carriers have opted to deploy such a solution as an immediate work around to their network overload problem – especially since they are reasonably easy to deploy.• But that is just a stop gap and in the longer term they will have to enhance their solution to move to one of the next two offerings. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 64
  • 65. Managed Network Bypass• The next levels of carriers are those that are uncomfortable with this level of desegregation of the two networks and the resulting loss of subscriber control.• That could be for multiple reasons. – Some carriers provide metered network access which requires subscriber control. – Others deliver services, like parental control/filtering, that they are not able to provide in a completely desegregated network. – Others insist on secure access for their subscribers when they are accessing internet services via Wi-Fi. – And finally others simply want to be aware of subscribers browsing habits for targeted marketing or security reasons.• This solution can be delivered without having to fully integrate the two networks. However, while this solution does allow the carrier to ‘manage’ their subscribers, it still prevents them from delivering any carrier subscribed content is in the Wi-Fi zone (a rather irritating user experience for some!).• Nevertheless, it does solve the issue of data overload and may work well for some carriers that do not have any significant walled garden content to deliver. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 65
  • 66. Managed Network Bypass Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 66
  • 67. Integrated Data Offload• The final set of carriers insist on full integration of their core and Wi-Fi networks to provide a completely seamless experience to their subscribers when they move between the two networks.• They want to not only manage the customer but also want to be able to deliver all carrier subscribed content to the subscriber while they are in the Wi-Fi network.• These carriers tend to have a significant amount of content available to them via their 3G network (e.g. IP. TV. etc.).• This is only possible when a ‘bridge’ is established between the two networks through which data flow can be established between the two networks. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 67
  • 68. Integrated Data Offload Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 68
  • 69. Wifi Offload based on 3GPP I-WLAN• Mobile operator and WISP communities has been to devise improvements that would deliver a more ubiquitous; more automated; more secure; and ultimately more utilized mobile Wi-Fi offload experience. – SIM Authentication – where the subscriber credentials contained on the SIM/USIM card can be used to authenticate capable Cellular devices on the Wi-Fi network. – Mobile Network Interworking – specification of hardware and software elements required for these newly defined authentication methods to interact with the mobile network. – The components specified by the 3GPP included : • A WLAN Access Gateway (WAG) to handle the policy enforcement • Accounting functions and additional Packet data gateway (PDG) functionality to handle session management, IPsec tunnel termination routing and charging events in the interaction between the connected device with the core packet services of the operator. • These specifications have been defined under a 3GPP architecture known as I- WLAN Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 69
  • 70. Wifi Offload based on 3GPP I-WLAN Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 70
  • 71. Commercial Worldwide Wi-Fi Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 71
  • 72. Commercial Worldwide Wi-Fi Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 72
  • 73. Public Wi-Fi Usage Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 73
  • 74. US Offload Scenarios Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 74
  • 75. WiFi Offloading Cost Reductions• The cost savings associated with offload are significant according to exclusive data provided by Chetan Sharma Consulting.• Operators deploying a WiFi offload strategy can expect savings in the range of 20 to 25 per cent per annum.• In the US market, operators will save between $30 and $40 billion per annum by 2013 through an offload strategy alone. Mobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 75
  • 76. THANK YOUMobile Data Offloading: Femtocell vs. Wifi 76

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