Summary Tesis Six Sigma by Joko Prasetiyo

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SIX SIGMA ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVEMENT IN STUDENT ACADEMIC SERVICES PERFORMANCE SMK 2 IN YOGYAKARTA

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Summary Tesis Six Sigma by Joko Prasetiyo

  1. 1. iSUMMARYSIX SIGMA ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVEMENT INSTUDENT ACADEMIC SERVICES PERFORMANCESMK 2 IN YOGYAKARTASubmitted by:JokoPrasetiyo11/327329/PEK/16768MASTER OF MANAGEMENT PROGRAMFACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESSUNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA2013
  2. 2. iiSUMMARYSIX SIGMA ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVEMENT INSTUDENT ACADEMIC SERVICES PERFORMANCESMK 2 IN YOGYAKARTASubmitted by:JokoPrasetiyo11/327329/PEK/16768Approved by:SupervisorWakhid Slamet Ciptono, MBA., MPM., Ph.D
  3. 3. iiiTABLE OF CONTENTSTITLE PAGE .................................................................................................................... iAPPROVAL PAGE ..........................................................................................................iiTABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................iiiABSTRACT .................................................................................................................. iv1. Introduction................................................................................................................... 12. Literature Review........................................................................................................ 23. Research Methods........................................................................................................ 54. Results and Discussion................................................................................................ 64.1 Research Findings...................................................................................................... 64.2 Discussion.................................................................................................................. 75. Conclusions and Recommendations.......................................................................... 10References...................................................................................................................... 11
  4. 4. ivABSTRACTThe purpose of this study is to measure students academic service performancevalue in SMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta service performance using instruments (servperf),and analyzed using six sigma to improve the academic performance of services.This research is a descriptive study, this study population is 2,300 students ofSMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta school year 2012/2013, whereas samples taken was 350students. Quantitative data were obtained using instruments servperf given to 350students with proporsionate stratified random sampling technique. The qualitative dataobtained through interviews with teachers and administrators respondents SMK Negeri2 Yogyakarta.Results of this study indicate that students level of satisfaction on theperformance of academic services at servperf measurements are: 3.72 tangibledimension, reliability dimension 3.59, 3.53 dimensions of responsiveness, assurancedimension of 3.69, 3.38 empathy dimension. Average rating is 3.58, meaning that theoverall academic performance of services in SMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta at 71.64% andstill provide opportunities for the emergence of dissatisfaction on the performance ofsuch services students at 28.36%. The calculation in the phase measure shows that theaverage performance of the service is at the level of 2.07 sigma, and DPMO value of284 339. By these sigma level, the average performance achieved academic servicesSMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta entered the unfavorable category, because in six sigmacompanies or organizations that are at 2.07 sigma level is still not showing themaximum service performance. According to the terminology of six sigma, companiesor organizations that have a sigma level of 2.07 is classified as a company ororganization that is not competitive (Gaspersz, 2002).Measurement results on measure phase, shows that the dimensions that have thesmallest sigma level is the dimension of empathy (1.95 sigma) and responsiveness (2.04sigma). From interviews with teachers and the management of SMK Negeri 2Yogyakarta then analyzed with the fishbone diagram, so we found the root cause of theproblem and proposed solutions to improve the academic performance of services interms of: (1) manpower (human resources), in this case is teachers and educational staff(teachers and employees), (2) machine, in this case the machinery and equipment aswell as the supporting infrastructure of teaching and learning processes and practices,(3) methods , in this case include the methods and school management, and (4 )materials.Keywords: six sigma, service performance.
  5. 5. 1SIX SIGMA ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVEMENT INSTUDENT ACADEMIC SERVICES PERFORMANCESMK 2 IN YOGYAKARTA1. IntroductionQuality of the services produced by the educational institution must not beseparated from the quality assurance or guarantee to the quality of the graduatesproduced, quality assurance has an important and strategic role in the educationalinstitutions. Sallis (1995) says that one of the important challenges faced by educationalinstitutions is how to manage quality, particularly in the world of global competitionand mass industry. However, quality is not only in the business industry institutions, butalso the needs of educational institutions. It is intended to allow educational institutionsto survive in the highly competitive world of competition, and be able to educateacademics and practitioners.Six Sigma is a structured methodology to improve business processes focusedon reducing variation in processes and reduce defects (products / services that are out ofspecification) using statistical and problem solving tools intensively. The main focus ofSix Sigma as a management system is in three things, namely customer focus, processmanagement and data as well. In six sigma, customer satisfaction is the main focus.Jenicke, et. al, (2008) says that the six sigma methodology has been successfully appliedin many organizations leading to a remarkable improvement in the quality of productsproduced and services rendered, but the academic institutions have lagged behind otherorganizations in implementing six sigma.Previous research was conducted by Sulistiyowati, et.al (2008) at PT. PLN(Persero) Distributor of East Java, Surabaya APJ South - Ngagel UPJ. This researchintegrates servqual, lean six sigma methods in order to determine whether to integrateall three of these methods can be implemented in the service industry. The results showthat by integrating the servqual and lean six sigma, it can be implemented in the serviceindustry (service).Based on the data obtained from the author, profile of SMK Negeri 2Yogyakarta, the school gained accreditation ratings for the eight competencies ofexisting expertise in SMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta. This school has been certified for ISO9001:2000 issued by TÜV Rheinland Cert GmbH on March 27, 2008, the field is a
  6. 6. 2certificate of quality management system, ISO certification is then updated with the ISO9001:2008 certificate dated June 15, 2010. However, the problem is the ranking gainsaccreditation and ISO certification has not been contributing to improved schoolperformance, it is proved to the acquisition value of the average results of NationalExamination (UN) in the last three years are likely to decline. The average value of UNAcademic Year 2009/2010: Math: 7.10, Indonesian: 7.40 English: 7.20, Productive:8.30. The average value of UN Academic Year 2011/2012: Math: 7.00, Indonesian:7.20, English: 7.10, Productive: 8.10. The average value of UN Academic Year2011/2012: Math: 7.00, Indonesian: 7.00, English: 7.00, Productive: 8.00.Based on the description of the background and the above problems, the studyaims to: (1) measure the academic performance of services in SMK Negeri 2Yogyakarta by using Service Performance (Servperf), (2) analyze the design of sixsigma to improve the academic performance of services. Six sigmaanalysis is expectedfor SMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta to perform remedial efforts in order to improve theperformance of services to students and continuous improvement in the field ofacademic services.2. Literature Review2.1 Definition of Six SigmaThomsett (2005:6) defines Six Sigma as follows:"Six Sigma is the definition of outcomes as close as possible to perfection, with sixstandard deviation, we arrive at 3.4 deffect per million opportunities or 99.9997percent".Tunggal (2013) defines Six Sigma as a comprehensive and flexible system forachieving, members support and maximize business processes, which focuses onunderstanding the needs of customers by using facts, data and statistical analysis as wellas continuous attention to the setting, repair and review process effort.Etymologically six sigma is composed of two words, namely: six which meansthe number six and sigma which is a symbol of the standard deviation or can beinterpreted as a measure of unit statistics that describe the ability of a process and thesize of the sigma value is expressed in the DPU (Defect Per Unit) or PPM ( Part PerMillion). It can be said that the process of the higher sigma value (in a process) will
  7. 7. 3have less defect (a good number of defects and the type of defect). Increasing the valueof sigma quality decreases cost and cycle time.In epistemology, six sigma is a structured methodology to improve a process byfocusing on efforts to minimize the variation that occurs (process variance) whilereducing the defects or the products or services that are out of specification by usingstatistical methods and other quality tools intensively (Mangala 2005). The main focusof Six Sigma as a management system is in three things, namely customer focus,process management, and data. In six sigma, customer satisfaction is the main focus.Compared with the previous quality control methods, six sigma has theadvantage of process functions, Six Sigma is not just a quality oriented product /service, but also on all aspects of business operations with an emphasis on processfunctions.According to Brue (2005) Six Sigma is based on several key concepts, amongothers: (a) defects, (b) variation, (c) the quality crisis (CTQ), (c) ability to process(process capability), and (d) design for Six Sigma (DFSS).According to Pande, et al, (2000) there are six main components of the conceptof Six Sigma as a business strategy;1) Customer focused: as discovered together, replacement of not only mean the buyer,but it could also mean co-workers, the team received the results of labor, government,public service users.2) Management is based on data and facts: not based on opinion, or opinions withoutfoundation.3) Focus on process management and improvement; Six Sigma depends on ability tounderstand the process that is combined with good management to make improvements.4) Management is proactive: the role of leaders and managers is crucial in driving thesuccess in making changes.5) Collaboration without borders: the cooperation between the teams that should besmooth.6) Always chasingperfection.In Six Sigma, there are5 DMAIC phases (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve,Control) which is the process of continuous improvement towards the target of sixsigma. DMAIC is done systematically based on knowledge and facts. DMAIC is a
  8. 8. 4closed-loop process that eliminates process steps which are not productive, oftenfocuses on new measurements and applying technology to improve the quality of thetarget toward six sigma.Research conducted by Jenicke, et al, (2005) findings indicate that the uniquestructure of six sigma make an academic institution interested in implementing sixsigma. Three-tiered framework for six sigma can be used by administrators, faculty, andstudents as guidance. The study also showed that a significant difference between theenvironments in making implementation in many areas within an academic institutionas a challenge.Research conducted by Achir (2007) examines the implementation of servicemanagement in Indonesian hajj with six sigma strategies, and designing strategies toapproach six sigma DMAIC appraisal strategy. Results of this study found that thesigma of organizing Hajj Indonesia in 2006 was 1.75 sigma, which means there are403,508.77 defect parts per million (DPMO), while the required six sigma is 3.4DPMO. Furthermore from interviews and questionnaires conducted on the Departmentof Religious Affairs Hajj organizers, then found the cause of the low numbers are due tomismanagement of sigma in services to pilgrims.Research conducted by Riawati (2009) examines the Quality ImprovementEvaluation of Credit Card Processing Services in the Six Sigma Approach: A CaseStudy of Bank Mandiri in 2006, the purpose of this study was to determine theacceleration of the credit card application process and delivery to the cardholder by theBank Mandiri. The results: the repair process gained new capabilities in the processingand delivery of cards with bettersigma level. Thus the new process can be implementedconsistently and provide increased customer satisfaction.Six sigma research in the field of education in Indonesia is still rarely done,because most research is conducted on six sigma in business or company. Guided byseveral studies that successfully implemented Six Sigma in the business world, thisresearch attempts to solve problems related to the academic performance of services inSMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta.
  9. 9. 53. Research MethodsThis research is a descriptive study, this study population is 2,300 students ofSMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta school year 2012/2013, whereas samples taken was 350students. Quantitative data were obtained using servperfinstrument given to 350students with proportionate stratified random sampling technique. The qualitative datawere obtained through interviews with teachers and administrators respondents of SMKNegeri 2 Yogyakarta.Instrument in this study used questionnaires of Service Performance (Servperf)on student academic services using five dimensions: (1) (tangibles / intangibles (2)reliability (3) responsiveness (4) assurance (5) empathy. The instrument uses a Likertscale of 1 to 5.Validity test was conducted to analyze the accuracy and precision of ameasuring instrument in performing measuring function. According to Sekaran (2003),validity demonstrated the reliability of precision measuring tools in conductingmeasuring function. To analyze the validity of the data, product moment correlation testwas used. An indicator is valid if the value of the significance> 0.30.While the reliability test is performed to measure the level of stability andconsistency of a measuring instrument. According to Cooper and Schindler (2011) ameasure is assessed reliable if it provides consistent results. Reliability is an importantsupport for the validity but not a sufficient condition for validity.Reliability test was performed with test statistic Cronbach Alpha (α). Aconstruct is said to provide reliable if the Cronbach Alpha value> 0.60 (Wijaya, 2013).Validity and reliability calculations used SPSS Statistics software version 18 forwindows. Validity and reliability test were conducted on item questionnaire using aLikert scale questionnaire filled out by the respondents 1-5. On the validity of the testusing the formula Correlation of Carl Pearson Product Moment by looking at thecorrected item total correlation. While reliability test was by looking at the standardizedCronbach Alpha.Phase of the study consisted of collecting primary data and secondary data,which is used to analyze student academic services at SMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta withthe six sigma method. One key to business success is the six sigma problem solving.
  10. 10. 6The stage model of problem solving DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve,Control) are as follows: (1) Define (2) Measure (3) Analyze (4) Improve (5) Control.4. Results and Discussion4.1 Research ResultsValidity and reliability testing were done to measure the performance indicatorsof academic services in five dimensions. Based on the results of the correlationcoefficient of performance indicators namely tangible dimension, reliability dimension,responsivenessdimensions, assurance dimension, empathy dimension suggest that allindicators are positively correlated and statistically significant, it is evident from thesignificant value> 0.30 so as it can be concluded that this study has valid instrument.While the reliability of the test results showed that the value of Cronbach Alphafor the performance indicators of academic services at 0,633 for tangible dimension,0.735 for reliability dimension, 0.854 for dimensions of responsiveness, 0.798 forassurance dimension, 0.831 for empathy dimension. All dimensions showed CronbachAlpha results in all dimensions> 0.6 so that it can also be concluded that the instrumentis a reliable indicator.Results of this study indicate that students level of satisfaction on theperformance of academic services at servperf measurements is: 3.72 for tangibledimension, 3.59 for reliability dimension, 3.53 for dimensions of responsiveness, 3.69for assurance dimension, 3.38 for empathy dimension. Average rating is 3.58, meaningthat the overall academic performance of services in SMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta is at71.64% and still provide opportunities for the emergence of dissatisfaction on theperformance of such services students at 28.36%. The calculation in the phase measureshows that the average performance of the service is at the level of 2.07 sigma, andDPMO value of 284 339. By these sigma level, the average performance achieved byacademic services of SMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta entered the unfavorable category,because in six sigma companies or organizations that are at 2.07, sigma level is still notshowing the maximum service performance. According to the terminology of six sigma,companies or organizations that have a sigma level of 2.07 is classified as a company ororganization that is not competitive (Gaspersz, 2002).
  11. 11. 74.2 DiscussionMeasurement results are on measure phase, shows that the dimensions that havethe smallest sigma level is the dimension of empathy (1.95 sigma) and responsiveness(2.04 sigma). From interviews with teachers and the management of SMK Negeri 2Yogyakarta then analyzed with the fishbone diagram, so the root cause wasfound of theproblem and proposed solutions to improve the academic performance of services interms of: (1) manpower (human resources), in this case is the educator and educationalstaff (teachers and employees), (2) machine, in this case the machinery and equipmentas well as the supporting infrastructure of teaching and learning processes and practices,(3) methods, in this case include the methods and school management, and (4)materials.In the improvement phase performed a redesign of the process of studentacademic services at SMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta. Suggestions for improvement that canbe done in order to improve the quality of academic services at SMK Negeri 2Yogyakarta, namely:a. Manpower (Human Resources), in this case is Labor and Education (teachers andstaff), suggestions for improvement include:1) Principal and Chair of Skills Competency recalled the duties and functions (duties) ofteachers and employees in carrying out their duties providing academic services arethe best to all the students, care about the students in helping students deal withproblems, respond to requests / needs of students, be friendly and courteous tostudents.2) Control of teachers and employees of SMK 2 Yogyakarta to always present the righttime in the process of learning and teaching and administrative services. Reward thegood in discipline and reprimand / punishment for those who are less well indiscipline.3) Increasing the number of academic staff (employees) that are still lacking,particularly the toll man and administrative personnel.4) Increasing the number of teachers in particular less productivesubjects, for example,in the Department of Mechanical Light Vehicle / Automotive, Computer EngineeringDepartment Network and Multi Media.
  12. 12. 85) Competency training for teachers, for example: teacher competency skills training,training computer / IT, pedagogical training, OJT (on the job training of teachers) forteachers to companies / industries that are relevant to the field of study taught.6) Competency training for employees, for example: management training workshops,training school administration systems, training library, computer training / IT, andothers.7) Staffing should be adjusted to the competence and expertise.8) Conduct training on information technology to teachers and employees of ITknowledge that is still lacking in a planned, purposeful and integrated manner.b. Machine, in this case is the machinery and equipment as well as the supportinginfrastructure of teaching and learning processes and practices, suggestions forimprovement include:1) The addition of machinery and equipment practices are still lacking, such as theBuilding Engineering Department, Engineering Machinery.2) Engine repair and new instruments are not working / damaged in a planned andregular.3) Increasing the number of laboratory space, especially physics laboratory, chemistry.The addition of the surgery / lab for engineering machinery currently is still ridingpractice in BLPT (Technical Education and Training Center) in Yogyakarta.4) Improve the cleanliness, comfort, layout and tidiness classrooms and laboratories forteaching and learning processes and practices by imposing a duty to clean andorganize classrooms and practice space.c. Methods, in this case including the methods and school management, suggestions forimprovement include:1) The selection and implementation of appropriate teaching methods teachers adjustedto the students and the material being taught.2) A briefing for the teacher to be a higher priority than the task of teaching otheradditional duties.3) Understanding and increasing teacher attention to students4) Distribute the workload evenly to teachers and employees so that no work isoverload.
  13. 13. 95) Form the culture and mentality of the good teachers and employees by providingtraining or team building outbound training.d. Materials, suggestions for improvement include:1) Add and complement textbooks that are still lacking.2) Provide materials in accordance with the required practices.5. Conclusion and RecommendationsBased on the analysis and discussion of the performance of academic services atSMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta by using the six sigma method, the following conclusionscan be drawn:a. Student academic performance value services in SMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta based onmeasurement results obtained with the servperfinstrument: 3.72 for tangibledimension, 3.59 for reliability dimension, 3.53 for dimensions of responsiveness,3.69 for assurance dimension, 3.38 for empathy dimension. Servperf average valuewas 3.58, meaning that the overall academic performance of services in SMK Negeri2 Yogyakarta is at 71.64% and still provide student opportunities grievances arisingon the performance of such services amounted to 28.36%. The calculation in thephase measure shows that the average performance of services at the level of 2.07sigma, and DPMO value of 284 339. By these sigma level, the average performanceachieved by academic services in SMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta entered the unfavorablecategory, because in six sigma, companies or organizations that are at 2.07 sigmalevel is still not showing the maximum service performance.b. Measurement results on measure phase, shows that the dimensions that have thesmallest sigma level is the dimension of empathy (1.95 sigma) and responsiveness(2.04 sigma). From interviews with teachers and the management of SMK Negeri 2Yogyakarta, later elaborated by fishbone diagram, so the root cause of the problemand proposed solutions to improve the academic performance of services are asfollows:1) Manpower (Human Resources), in this case is Labor and Education (teachers andstaff).2) Machine, in this case the machinery and equipment as well as the supportinginfrastructure of teaching and learning processes and practices.
  14. 14. 103) Methods, in this case include the methods and school management.4) Materials.The suggestions can be given after this research is as follows:a. Performance of academic services at the dimensions that have a level of empathy thatis the smallest sigma (sigma 1.95) and responsiveness (2.04 sigma) is a top prioritythat must be addressed by the management, teachers, employees of SMK Negeri 2Yogyakarta.b. Results of the analysis with the six sigma method and proposed solutions solvingstudents academic performance of the service can be used as a reference andconsideration to make policy and strategy by the management of SMK Negeri 2Yogyakarta in improving the quality of student academic services. Application of sixsigma concepts can be integrated into the Quality Management System which hasbeen applied in SMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta, namely ISO 9001:2008, continualimprovement particularly in clause 8.5.1.REFERENCESAchir, M. R. 2007. Implementasi Strategi Six Sigma untuk Peningkatan Layanan Haji diIndonesia. Tesis. Magister Manajemen Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.Brue, G. 2005. Six Sigma for Managers. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Cooper, D.R. and Schindler, P.S. 2011. Business Research Methods, Eleventh Edition.New York: McGraw Hill.Gaspersz, V. 2002. Pedoman Implementasi Program Six Sigma: Terintegrasi denganISO 9001:2000, MBNQA dan HACPP. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.Jenicke, L.O , Kumar, A. and Holmes, M.C. 2005. “A framework for applying sixsigma improvement methodology in an academic environment”, Issues in TheTQM Journal Vol. 20 No. 5, 2008 pp. 453-462.Manggala, D. 2005. Mengenal Six Sigma secara Sederhana. Diakses tanggal 10 April2013 dari http://www.beranda.net/faktorq/Six%20Sigma%20Sederhana.pdf.Pande, P.S., Neuman, R. P.; and Cavanagh, R.R. (2000). The Six Sigma Way-How GE,Motorola, and Top Companies are Honing Their Performance. New York: TheMcGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  15. 15. 11Riawati, E. 2009. Evaluasi Perbaikan Kualitas Layanan dalam Pemrosesan KartuKredit dengan Pendekatan Six Sigma: Studi Kasus di Bank Mandiri 2006. Tesis.Magister Manajemen Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.Salis, E. 2005. Total Quality Management in Education. London: Taylor & Francis e-Library.Sekaran, U. 2003. Reseach Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. FourthEdition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.SMK Negeri 2 Yogyakarta. 2012. Profile Sekolah. Yogyakarta: Humas SMKN 2Yogyakarta.Sulistiyowati, W., Supriyanto, H., dan Suef, M. 2008. Integrasi Metode Servqual, LeanDan Six Sigma Implementasi: PT.PLN (Persero) Distribusi Jawa Timur, APJSurabaya Selatan – UPJ Ngagel. Laporan penelitian Jurusan Teknik IndustriInstitut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya.Thomsett, M.C. 2005. Getting Started in Six Sigma. New Jersey: John Wiley & SonsInc.Tunggal, A.W. 2013. Pengantar Manajemen Mutu. Jakarta: Harvarindo.Widjatmaka, T. 2006. Kualitas Layanan Akademik di Politeknik Negeri Jakarta: StudiKasus Pada Engineering Department. Jurnal Ekonomi & Bisnis, Vol.5 No.1 Maret2006, hal 47-54.Wijaya, T. 2013. Metodologi Penelitian Ekonomi dan Bisnis: teori dan Praktik.Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

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