Latest developments in bio plastics (thermosets)

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Review bioplastics, trends on sources and uses.

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Latest developments in bio plastics (thermosets)

  1. 1. Latest developments in bioplastics (Thermosets) Jokin Hidalgo, TECNALIA Alvaro Tejado (TECNALIA), Maider Azpeitia (TECNALIA), Alejandro Salvador (TECNALIA). www.innobite.eu Donostia - San Sebastian 20/02/2014
  2. 2. www.innobite.eu Why we talk bio-plastics? Latest developments in bioplastics 1
  3. 3. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Sustainability "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1988) “El desarrollo sostenible se define como el desarrollo que satisface las necesidades del mundo actual, sin comprometer las necesidades de las generaciones futuras.” (Comisión mundial del medio ambiente y del desarrollo, 1988) Latest developments in bioplastics 2
  4. 4. www.innobite.eu Driving forces Consumers forces: DuPont Industrial Biosciences, “China Green Living Survey,” 2012. http://biosciences.dupont.com/china-green-living-survey/ Task X.Y Latest developments in bioplastics 3
  5. 5. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Governments Country Acronim Web Austria ÖNORM www.as-search.at Spain AENOR www.aenor.es France AFNOR www.afnor.org Germany DIN www.din.de Italy UNI www.uni.com Japan JIS www.jsa.or.jp/default_english.asp UK BSI www.bsigroup.com US ASTM www.astm.org International ISO www.iso.org Europe CEN www.cen.eu Standardisation bodies associated with the production of standards of biodegradability of plastics Latest developments in bioplastics 4
  6. 6. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Generally Accepted Ecolabels. Latest developments in bioplastics 5
  7. 7. www.innobite.eu Driving forces Clear up misunderstandings forces: DuPont Industrial Biosciences, “China Green Living Survey,” 2012. http://biosciences.dupont.com/china-green-living-survey/ Latest developments in bioplastics 6
  8. 8. www.innobite.eu Driving forces Clear up misunderstandings forces: DuPont Industrial Biosciences, “China Green Living Survey,” 2012. http://biosciences.dupont.com/china-green-living-survey/ Latest developments in bioplastics 7
  9. 9. www.innobite.eu Driving forces Clear up misunderstandings forces: Latest developments in bioplastics 8
  10. 10. www.innobite.eu Driving forces Clear up misunderstandings forces: Latest developments in bioplastics 9
  11. 11. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Global interest Growing interest in all indexed books related to bioplastics and biocomposites. Ngram Viewer Latest developments in bioplastics 10
  12. 12. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Research - Patents Latest developments in bioplastics 11
  13. 13. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Research - Patents Latest developments in bioplastics 12
  14. 14. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Market Latest developments in bioplastics 13
  15. 15. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Market Latest developments in bioplastics 14
  16. 16. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Market http://www.plasticseurope.es Latest developments in bioplastics 15
  17. 17. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Market http://www.plasticseurope.es Latest developments in bioplastics 16
  18. 18. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Market Plastemart, “Bio based plastics on the rise” http://www.plastemart.com/upload/Literature/Demand-for-bio-based-plastics-rising.asp Latest developments in bioplastics 17
  19. 19. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Future lack of resources http://www.oilposter.org/ Latest developments in bioplastics 18
  20. 20. www.innobite.eu History Latest developments in bioplastics 19
  21. 21. www.innobite.eu History Latest developments in bioplastics 20
  22. 22. www.innobite.eu History ▪ 1839, Charles Goodyear and his brother Nelson discovered the vulcanization of natural rubber. ▪ 1846 Christian Schönbein produced nitrocellulose. Then Alexander Parkes get the Parkesine, and John Wesley Hyatt the celluloid ▪ 1907, Leo Hendrik Baekeland, an American of Belgian origin, developed the first truly synthetic polymer, a thermoset polymer resulting from the reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Latest developments in bioplastics 21
  23. 23. www.innobite.eu History Latest developments in bioplastics 22
  24. 24. www.innobite.eu History Latest developments in bioplastics 23
  25. 25. www.innobite.eu Bioplastics: http://en.european-bioplastics.org/ Latest developments in bioplastics 24
  26. 26. www.innobite.eu Bioplastics: Market http://en.european-bioplastics.org/ Latest developments in bioplastics 25
  27. 27. www.innobite.eu Bioplastics: Market http://en.european-bioplastics.org/ Latest developments in bioplastics 26
  28. 28. www.innobite.eu Biorefinery: Resources from renewable sources. Latest developments in bioplastics 27
  29. 29. www.innobite.eu Biorefinery: From almost everywhere… We can extract raw materials to generate useful biopolymers, from almost all the tree of life, as we can read in the next articles: Vegetables: “Polysaccharides from Wastes of Vegetable Industrial Processing”. Animals: “Animal Waste for the Production of Biofuels and Biopolymers”. Fungi: “Are mushrooms the new plastic?” Micro algae: ”Making plastics from algae”. Bacteriums: “Researchers Train Bacteria to Convert Bio-Wastes Into Plastic”. Latest developments in bioplastics 28
  30. 30. www.innobite.eu Biorefinery: Diagram of possible applications of polymers obtained from bio refining processes of cereals and pulses. R. Wool and X. Sun, Bio-based polymers and composites. Elsevier, 2005 Latest developments in bioplastics 29
  31. 31. www.innobite.eu Biorefinery: Latest developments in bioplastics 30
  32. 32. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Natural rubber Starch Poly (lactic acid) Poly (hydroxyalkanoates) Poly (butylene succinate) Poly (γ-glutamic acid) Glycosaminoglycans Proteins Cellulose Hemicelluloses Lignin Chitin / Chitosan Task X.Y Latest developments in bioplastics 31
  33. 33. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Polyolefins Polyesters Polycarbonates Polyamides Methyl acrylate Poly (vinyl chloride) Thermosetting resins: polyurethanes, polyester, epoxy, phenolic, alkydic. Task X.Y Latest developments in bioplastics 32
  34. 34. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Task X.Y Latest developments in bioplastics 33 http://www.nova-institut.de
  35. 35. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Latest developments in bioplastics 34
  36. 36. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Mono-Ethyleneglycol (MEG) Latest developments in bioplastics 35
  37. 37. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Other C2 based building blocks: Acetic acid Dichloroethane (formed by chlorination of ethane) Vinylchloride (formed by dehydrochlorination of dichloroethane) Ethylene oxide (oxidation of ethylene) Ethylenediamine (reaction of 1,2-dichloroethane and ammonia) Latest developments in bioplastics 36
  38. 38. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Latest developments in bioplastics 37
  39. 39. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Ethyl Lactate Latest developments in bioplastics 38
  40. 40. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Propylene Glycol (1,2-Propanediol) , coolants and antifreeze, hydraulic and brake fluid, aircraft de-icing fluid, heat transfer fluids, paints and coatings. Latest developments in bioplastics 39
  41. 41. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: DuPont formed a joint venture with agriculture products company Tate & Lyle 1,3 Propanediol Susterra® PDO: products from textiles to coatings and engineering plastics. Susterra® PDO is co-polymerised with terephthalic acid to produce poly(trimethylene) terephthalate (PTT) sold by DuPont under the trade name Sorona® . Sorona® PTT has been targeted at clothing, carpet and automotive textile markets. Cerenol™ polyols based on PDO can be used in variety of applications from personal care and functional fluids to performance coating and elastomers. Latest developments in bioplastics 40
  42. 42. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Production of resins and polymers (mainly epoxy resins (76%) ) Epichlorohydrin Latest developments in bioplastics 41
  43. 43. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Epichlorohydrin Glycerol Latest developments in bioplastics 42
  44. 44. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Isopropanol production via fermentation and its conversion into propylene have been reported by Mitsui Chemicals, INC. Isopropanol Propylene Latest developments in bioplastics 43
  45. 45. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: n-Propanol Recently a Braskem patent was published which describes the fermentative production of npropanol and the subsequent dehydration into propylene. Propylene Latest developments in bioplastics 44
  46. 46. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Coatings, adhesives, sealants, textiles, fibres, polymer additives/impact modifiers, super absorbent polymers… Acrylic acid Latest developments in bioplastics 45
  47. 47. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: n-Butanol Succinic Acid Methyl methacrylate Latest developments in bioplastics 46
  48. 48. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Latest developments in bioplastics 47
  49. 49. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Succinic Acid Latest developments in bioplastics 48
  50. 50. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Furfural Levulinic acid Isoprene Xylitol Latest developments in bioplastics 49
  51. 51. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Lysine Adipic acid Glucaric acid Latest developments in bioplastics 50
  52. 52. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: 2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) 51
  53. 53. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Sorbitol Isosorbide Task X.Y Latest developments in bioplastics 52
  54. 54. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: p-Xylene Latest developments in bioplastics 53
  55. 55. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Fatty Acid derivatives Lubricants, metal-working fluids, fuel additives, personal care products, corrosion inhibitors, rheology modifiers… Latest developments in bioplastics 54
  56. 56. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Latest developments in bioplastics 55
  57. 57. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Task X.Y Latest developments in bioplastics 56
  58. 58. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Tannin-based Bark of various trees. Review of existing bioresins and their Applications (Jim Dewar)2007 Latest developments in bioplastics 57
  59. 59. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Lignin: and resin, . Lignin: 5-50% of the wood. (For PF) Barrier to commercial development if different blends and source of lignins are going to give different properties. Review of existing bioresins and their Applications (Jim Dewar)2007 Task X.Y Latest developments in bioplastics 58
  60. 60. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: R. J. A. Gosselink, “Lignin as a renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry,” 2011. Latest developments in bioplastics 59
  61. 61. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Lignin: resin Plasticsengineeringblog, “Rumplestiltskin Wanted,” Plasticsengineeringblog, http://plasticsengineeringblog.com/2012/11/12/rumplestiltskin-wanted/ Latest developments in bioplastics 60
  62. 62. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) , and Review of existing bioresins and their Applications (Jim Dewar) 2007 Latest developments in bioplastics 61
  63. 63. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Triglycerides Triglycerides consist of three fatty acids (i.e., carbon numbers from 22 down to 14 and double bonds down from 3 to 0) covalently linked to a central glycerol. Chemistries available for turning such oils into useful polymeric products (Amines, monoglycerides, polyols, maleates, acrylates , epoxy, hydroxyl, and maleate half esters . Latest developments in bioplastics 62
  64. 64. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: : from Soya Oil … : Bio 1,3-propanediol from corn dextrose via fermentation… : Variety of renewably sourced raw materials. : From renewable resources like corn, linseed oil, soy, canola… Isosorbide, propylene glycol, glycerin, industrial ethanol and ethylene glycol… Latest developments in bioplastics 63
  65. 65. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Prepregs: sustainable, fire retardant prepregs suitable for composite applications. Similar performance to phenolic. Derived from hemicellulose crop waste such as sugar cane bagasse. derived from naturally occurring pine oil. Bio-based (ortho-, iso-, and terephthalic, dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) modified and bisphenol A fumarate) and . Latest developments in bioplastics 64
  66. 66. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Polyols for . Dimer diamine for use in both thermoplastic as well as curative in thermoset and systems. Polymerised fatty acids. Dimer diol building block with high di-functionality provides good colour, water repellency, flexibility, thermo-oxidative and UV stability and outstanding hydrolysis / chemical resistance for and coatings, adhesives and elastomers. and resins from cardanol [Industrial oily alkyl-phenolic product obtained by vacuum distillation of "cashew nut shell liquid" (CNSL)]. Latest developments in bioplastics 65
  67. 67. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Companies commercializing novel pathways to biobased commodity chemicals: February 2014 / Pathways to novel chemicals http://www.aocs.org/Membership/informArticleDetail.cfm?itemnumber=19304 Latest developments in bioplastics 66
  68. 68. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Task X.Y Latest developments in bioplastics 67
  69. 69. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: http://materia.nl/article/worlds-first-biobased-facade/ Latest developments in bioplastics 68
  70. 70. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Task X.Y Latest developments in bioplastics 69
  71. 71. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Task X.Y Latest developments in bioplastics 70
  72. 72. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: Task X.Y Latest developments in bioplastics 71
  73. 73. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/ford-makes-car-lined-coke-bottle-material/story?id=20904665 http://www.dieselpowermag.com/tech/ford/1109dp_fords_bio_plastic_techology/photo_01.html Task X.Y Latest developments in bioplastics 72
  74. 74. www.innobite.eu Bio-based polymers: en.wikipedia.org Task X.Y Latest developments in bioplastics 73
  75. 75. Thank you www.innobite.eu INNOBITE is co-funded by the European Community Seventh Framework Programme for European Research and Technological Development (2012-2015)
  76. 76. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Governments - Standards Title CEN/TR 16208:2011 Biobased products- Overview of standards Mandate TC M/429 ___ CEN/TR 15932: 2010 Plastics - Recommendation for terminology and characterisation of biopolymers and bioplastics ___ CEN/TC 249 2010-03-24 CEN/TS 16137:2011 Plastics - Determination of bio-based carbon content M/430 CEN/TC 249 2011-04-27 CEN/TR 16227:2011 Liquid petroleum products – Bio-lubricants – Recommendation for terminology and characterisation of biolubricants and bio-based lubricants M/430 CEN/TC 19 CEN/TS 16295:2012 Plastics - Declaration of the bio-based carbon content M/430 CEN/TC 249 2012-02-15 CEN/TS 16398:2012 Plastics - Template for reporting and communication of bio-based carbon content and recovery options of biopolymers and bioplastics- Data sheet M/430 CEN/TC 249 2012-10-31 Task X.Y Presentation Title Publication Date 2011-05-04 2011-08-10 75
  77. 77. www.innobite.eu Driving forces: Governments - Standards Title Mandate TC prEN 16575 Bio-based products - Vocabulary FprCEN/TS 16640 Bio-based products - Determination of the bio-based carbon content of products using the radiocarbon method CEN/TR xxxxx Bio-based products - Overview of available and possible methods and techniques for determination of the total bio-based content of products TS xxxxx Bio-based products - Bio-based solvents Requirements, application classes and test methods EN xxxxx Bio-based products - Sustainability criteria M/492 M/492 Expected Publication Date CEN/TC 411 2014-12-30 CEN/TC 411 2014-02-22 M/492 CEN/TC 411 2014 M/491 CEN/TC 411 2015 M/492 CEN/TC 411 2016 EN xxxxx Bio-based products - Life Cycle Assessment M/492 CEN/TC 411 2016 EN xxxxx Bio-based products - Determination of the biobased content - Method based on the 14C content and elemental X.Y Task analysis Presentation Title CEN/TC 411 2016 76

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