Human trafficking

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  • 1. apjy IS¯v:kmaqly/km¼¯nI {]XymLmX§Ä…
  • 2. apjy IS¯v (Human Trafficking) F¶m F´mWv?• emt`OtbmsS S¯p¶ apjy hnev]bpw hm§epamWv apjyIS¯v F¶ t]cnÂAdnbs¸Sp¶Xv.• apjy IS¯v henb em`w sIm¿p¶ hym]mcambn amdnbncn¡p¶p. ssewKnINqjWw, nÀ_ÔnX sXmgn (Forced labour) icocmhbh§Ä FSp¡Â XpS§nbImcy§Ä¡mWv apjy IS¯v S¯p¶Xv.• apjy IS¯nsâ CcIÄ, kz´w Xmev]cy¯nv hncp²ambn, nÀ_ÔnX tPmensN¿p¶Xntm tkhw evIp¶Xntm k½À±taevt¡­n hcp¶p. Ccsb kmamy _p²n¡vAXoXamb Xc¯n NqjWw sN¿pIbmWv e£yw.
  • 3. NqjW taJeIÄ:hy`nNmc imeIfnse ssewKnINqjWw, `ojWns¸Sp¯n tPmensN¿n¡Â, ASna¯w, icocmhbh§Ä o¡w sN¿Âta e£y§tfmsS, Ip«nIÄ/apXnÀ¶hÀ, Bbhscdn{Iq«v sN¿Â, IS¯nsIm­p t]mIÂ, ssIamäwsN¿Â þ CXnmbn apjysc Hfn¸n¨psh¡pItbm, kzoIcn¡pItbm sN¿p¶Xv þ apjyIS¯embn ]cnKWn¡s¸Sp¶p.hfsc kwLSnXambn, ssewKnI NqjW¯nmbnkv{XoIsf cmPy¯nIt¯m, cmPy¯np]pdt¯t¡m nÀ_Ônt¨m, kzm[ont¨m, h©nt¨msIm­p t]mIp¶XnsbmWv skIvkv {Sm^n¡nwKvF¶p ]dbp¶Xv.
  • 4. apjy IS¯v : nehnepÅ AhØ• UN ]Tapkcn¨v 127 cmPy§fnÂn¶mbn c-c Zie£wt]cmWv hÀjw tXmdpw apjyIS¯nncbmhp¶Xv.• ab¡p acp¶p hym]mc cwKw IgnªmÂ, Gäw IqSpX em`wsIm¿p¶ Hcp hyhkmbambn apjyIS¯v amdn Ignªp.• ILO bpsS 2005 se IW¡pkcn¨v 31.6 _ney¬ tUmfÀhmÀjnI AämZmbamWv CXneqsS _Ôs¸«hÀD­m¡p¶Xv. CXn ]IpXnbntesdbpw hymhkmbnIcmPy§fnepw aq¶nsemt¶mfw Gjy³ cmPy§fn n¶pamWv.• ILO bpsS IW¡pkcn¨v, 5 apX 17 hbÊphscbpÅ 246Zie£w Ip«nIÄ ASnathebnepw, hy`nNmc¯nepw, _meáNn{X hym]mc¯nepw, Bbp[§Ä, ab¡p acp¶vXpS§nbhbpsS ssIamä¯nepw nÀ_ÔnXambn tPmensNbvXp hcp¶p. CXc NqjW taJeIÄ: Z¯vFSp¡Â, ]«mf tkhw, `njmSw XpS§nbh.
  • 5. • _methesb¶Xv Ip«nIfpsS imcocnIhpw, amknIhpw, Bßobhpw, kmaqlnIhpw, [mÀ½nIhpambhfÀ¨sb _m[n¡mhp¶Xpw hnZym`ymkw XSÊs¸Sp¯p¶Xpamb kwKXnbmWv.• 2010  S¯nb BtKmf ]Tapkcn¨v ssewKnImhiy§Ä¡mbpÅ Ip«nIfpsS IS¯Â GäwIqSpXepÅXv Xmbveâ v, {_kn F¶o cmPy§fnemWv.• C´ybnÂ, s]¬Ip«nIsf ssewKnI sXmgnente¡v IS¯p¶hcn Zqcn`mKhpw ap¼vapjyIS¯nv Ccbmb kv{XoIÄXs¶bmWv F¶mWv ]T§Ä ]dbp¶Xv.
  • 6. ImcW§Ä:• hnZym`ymk Ipdhv, km¼¯nI taJebnÂAhkc§fpsS Ipdhv, XpS§nbh Kc{]tZi§fnte¡pÅ IpSntbä¯npw ssewKnIhyhkmb¯n IpSp§n t]mImpwImcWamImdp­v.• Zmcn{Zw, sXmgnenÃmbva, kaql¯nÂkv{XoItfmSpÅ hnthNw XpS§nbh.• BtKmf hevIcWt¯msS, sXmgnÂIpSntbä§Ä hÀ²n¨p• Hm¬sse³ sskäpIfpw, tkmjyÂsäphÀ¡pIfpw sk¢v {Sm^n¡nwKnv B¡whÀ²n¸n¡p¶p.• kmt¦XnI hnZyIfpsS sXämb hnntbmKw• kmt¦XnI hnZyIfneqsS Xs¶ nbanÀÆlW GP³knIsf klmbn¡mpamhpw
  • 7. • am[ya kzmX{´y¡pdhv, ISp¯ Zmcn{Zyw, hfsc DbÀ¶ km¼¯nIØnXn, cmPy¯nsâ hep¸w Chsbms¡ {Sm^n¡nsâ km[yXIÄhÀ²n¸n¡p¶Xmbn ]T§Ä ]dbp¶p. AtXmsSm¸wsXmgnenÃmbva, ISp¯ enwK AkaXz§Ä þ Chbpw {]XnIqeLSI§Ä Xs¶.• nÀ_ÔnX tPmenbpw, ssewKnI NqjW¯npambpÅapjyIS¯nsâ Imcy¯n þ ]pcpj³, kv{Xo, Ip«nIÄ þ `mcXwHcp {]`h Ømhpw e£yØmhpw, k©mc amÀ¤hpw BsW¶vAtacn¡³ ]T§Ä.• `mcX¯n 20 apX 65 Zie£w hsc apjyIS¯v S¡p¶p;CXn 80% kv{XoIfpw 50% Ip«nIfpamWv. hmÀjnI hcpamw 20_ney¬ cq]bmsW¶v IW¡m¡s¸Sp¶p.
  • 8. apjy IS¯v : nehnepÅ nba§Ä1921 International Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic inWomen and Children (sponsored by the League of Nations)Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of theExploitation of the Prostitution of Others (United Nations GeneralAssembly resolution, came into force in 1951)In 2000 the United Nations adopted the Convention againstTransnational Organized Crime, also called the PalermoConvention, and two Palermo protocols there to:Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking inPersons, especially Women and Children; andProtocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.On 3 May 2005, the Committee of Ministers adopted the Council ofEurope Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (CETSNo. 197).Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children againstSexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (Lanzarote, 25 October 2007).
  • 9. Current international treatiesConvention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age forMarriage, and Registration of Marriages, entered into force in1964Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking inPersons, especially Women and Children; andProtocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea andAir.ILO Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105)ILO Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138)ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182)Cu hnjbw kPoh ]cnKWbnseSp¯ UNO , 2000þ  {Sm^n¡nwKt{]mt«mtImÄ AwKoIcn¡pIbpw 2003  AXv {]m_ey¯n hcnIbpwsNbvXp. C´ybS¡w 117 cmPy§Ä CXn H¸p sh¨p Ignªp. (As onMarch 2013) 2011 sabv amk¯nemWv C´y CXv AwKoIcn¨Xv.`cWLSbpsS 23þmw AptOZhpw, C´y³ in£m nba¯nse 20 HmfwhIp¸pIfpw apjy IS¯ns ntcm[n¡pItbm/ in£IÄhn[n¡pItbm sN¿p¶p.
  • 10. apjy IS¯v : {]XymLmX§Äkmaqly _lnjvIcWwkmaqly _Ô§fnÂn¶pw (Social relation) kmaqlyCSs]SepIfnÂn¶pw (Social interaction) Hcp hyàn Hgnhm¡s¸Sp¶AhØ. GIm´X, Bßm`namanÃmbva, (low self esteem)A{Iahmk, hnjmZ `mhw Chsbms¡ A´c ^e§fmbp­mImw.kvtl¯npw (Love) _ԧġpw (belongingness) bpÅ ZmlwFÃmhcnepap­v.kmaqlw Häs¸Sp¯p¶hcpw, Iq«pImcm Hgnhm¡s¸Sp¶hcpamb Ip«nIfpsSs]cpamä coXnbn Xmsg ImWp¶ {]tXyIXIÄ D­mImwkmaqly {]Xn_²XtbmSpÅ s]cpamä¯n hfsc ]nt¶m¡w nevIp¶ØnXn (DZm. ]¦nSp¶ atm`mhw, kzaÊm tPmen GsäSp¡Â, k¶²{]hÀ¯w)iàamb ioIcW {]hWX (aggressive nature)A{i²hpw, A]Izhpw, ap¶dnbn¸v H¶panÃm¯Xpamb (impulsive)s]cpamä§Ähfsc DbÀ¶ DXvIWvT; hfsc Xmgv¶ Bßt_m[w (self esteem)1995 pw 2001 pw CSbn S¶ 15 kvIqÄ shSnsh¸p tIkpIfpsShniIe¯nÂ, 13 F®¯nepw Iq«pImcnÂn¶papÅ Häs¸S (peerrejection) Bbncp¶p IpäIrXy¯npÅ t{]cW F¶v Is­¯nbn«p­v.
  • 11. • kmaqly _lnjvIcWw (Social exclusion)F¶Xv, AhImi§Ä, Ahkc§Ä, hn`h§Ä F¶nh hyànIÄt¡mkaql§Ät¡m e`yamIp¶XnsXnscbpÅ hfsc hyhØm]nXambo¡amWv. Xmsg ]dbp¶h CXnsâ A´c ^e§fmhmw:• IpäIrXy§Äþ• kmaqlymwKoImcw e`n¡msXhcpt¼mÄ IpäIrXy§Ä¡pÅhmk hÀ²n¡p¶p.• PohnX nehmcw aäpÅhtcmsSm¸w nenÀ¯mpw nbahncp²{]hÀ¯§fnte¡v NmbmpÅ {]hWX ChcntesdbmWv.• X§fmbncn¡p¶ kaql¯nse ssZwZn {]hÀ¯§fnÂAhÀ ]¦p tNcmsX nevIpw• cmjv{Sobamb AyXmt_m[w:• apJy[mcm cmjv{Sob hyhØnXnIfnÂn¶pw Häs¸Sp¯pw þkmaqly hncp²/`oIc ]vØm§fn Ahsc sIm­psNs¶¯n¡pw. kmaqly Häs¸S (Social isolation) F¶Xv kz´wkaql¯nÂn¶pw thÀs]Sp¯s¸« F¶ AhØbmWv.
  • 12. apjyIS¯nsâ CcIÄ¡v [mcmfw {IqcXIÄ tcntS­n hcp¶p­.• {][mambpw: IÌtagvkv, thiymeb DSaIÄ, apjy IS¯pImÀ, AgnaXn¡mcmb t]meokvDt±ymKØÀ F¶nhcn n¶pw• IS¯enp hnt[bcmhp¶ Ip«nIÄ AwKsshIey§Ä¡pw Nnet¸mÄ acW¯npwCcbmbnXocmdp­v. ImcWw A]ISIcamb sXmgn kmlNcy§fnemWv ]et¸mgpw AhÀBbncn¡pI. am{XaÃ, aXnbmb BtcmKy ]cnc£bpw ]et¸mgpw ChÀ¡v e`yamImdnÃ.• KmÀlnI ]oV§fmWv IS¯s¸Sp¶ Ip«nIÄ tcnSp¶ asämcp {][m {]ivw. AhÀ¡v`£Ww ntj[n¡pI þ imcocnIambn ]oVn¸n¡pI F¶nhbpw km[mcWamWv.• Nnet¸mÄ thXambpw, Nnet¸mÄ X§fn B{ibw hÀ²n¸n¡p¶Xnpambn ab¡pacp¶pIfpw Ip«nIÄ¡v evIs¸Sp¶p.• CXnsâsbÃmw ^eambn«p­mIp¶ ISp¯ amknI kwLÀjw ]et¸mgpw o­pnev¡p¶Xpw, BhÀ¯n¡s¸Sp¶XpamWv. CsXÃmw Ahcn amkoI{]XnkÔnIfp­m¡p¶p.• ssewKnI NqjW¯np hnt[bcmhp¶ {]tXyIn¨p s]¬Ip«nIÄ IpSpw_¯nÂaS§nsb¯pt¼mÄ No¯t]À­m¡n F¶p ]dªv XnckvIrXcmhp¶ kmlNcy§fpwhncfaÃ. Hcn¡Â apjy IS¯nenv hnt[bamb s]¬Ip«n¡v hnhml PohnXwntj[n¡s¸Sp¶ kmlNcy§fpw kÀÆ km[mcWamWv.
  • 13. apjy IS¯v : {]Xnhn[nIÄ• C§sbpÅhsc Ipä IrXy¯nncIfmbnapjymhImiw ntj[n¡s¸« hyànIfmbn ImWm³cmjv{Sw ISs¸«ncn¡p¶p.• AgnaXn¡mcpw Bhiy¯np ]cnioeanÃm¯hcpambt]meokv tk {]iv ]cnlmc¯nv ]cnlmcamhpIbnÃ.• apjy IS¯ensXnscbpÅ nba§Ä IÀiambnS¸nem¡pI.• hnhn[ Un¸mÀ«psaâpIÄ X½nepÅ GtIm]w;Pm{KXtbmsSbpÅ taÂtm«w• ]pc[nhmkw
  • 14. • cmjv{S¯nsâ km¼¯nI hnIk¯nsâ KpW^e§Ä XmsgInSbnepÅhcpsS ASp¯v CnbpwF¯nbn«nà F¶Xnsâ sXfnhmWv `mcX¯nse hym]Iamb apjy IS¯Â• `cWLSbpsS 23þmw AptOZhpw, C´y³ in£m nba¯nse 20 Hmfw hIp¸pIfpw apjyIS¯ns ntcm[n¡pItbm/ in£IÄ hn[n¡pItbm sN¿p¶ps­¦nepw nba]meIcpsS `mK¯pn¶pw iàamb S]SnIÄ Cnbpw D­mtI­nbncn¡p¶p.• apjy IS¯nsIpdn¨v s]mXp P§fn Aht_m[w krjvSn¡pI. C¡mcy¯n am[ya§Ä¡v^e{]Zamb ]¦p hln¡mmhpw• t]meokv kwhn[mhpw þ k¶² kwLSIfpw X½n GtIm]n¨pÅ {]hÀ¯§Ä IqSpXÂ^e{]ZamIpw• C´ybnse Xs¶ hnhn[ kwØm§Ä Cu taJebnse {]hÀ¯§Ä GtIm]n¸n¡Ww• kwØm¯nI¯v t]meokv, kmaqly tjaw, BtcmKyw, hnXm I½oj³, ssNÂUvsse³, CWC, CRC F¶nh klIcn¨v {]hÀ¯n¡pI.• tamNnXcmb CcIfpsS BtcmKy ]cnc£, hnZym`ymkw, tXmgnehkc§Ä F¶nhbpsS Imcy§ÄkÀ¡mcpw k¶² kwLSIfpw klIcn¨v {]hÀ¯n¡pI
  • 15. Let Us Stop Crime….