High middle ages


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High middle ages

  1. 1. Chapter 10: Europein the Middle Ages: A.D. 1000-1500 The Revival of Trade & Cities
  2. 2. The Early Middle Ages Vs. TheHigh Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages was marked by: *The collapse of Roman Civilization *Decline in trade & towns *Constant invasions *Feudalism
  3. 3. Early Vs. High..cont The High Middle Ages was marked by: 1) Rebirth of Trade & Town life 2) Rise in populations 3) Agricultural improvements 4) Creation of new social classes
  4. 4. Improvements in Agriculture 1)Heavy Plow: By the 12th Century peasants began using iron plowshares to plant crops 2) Horse Collar: Harness that fit around the horse’s shoulder 3) Water & Wind Powered Mills: Mainly used to ground flour
  5. 5. Improvements inAgriculture..cont 4) Three Field System: Farmers planted 2/3 of their fields as opposed to 1/2 area This system immediately increased food for the village & gave peasants a healthier diet
  6. 6. Creation of the Middle Class Greater amounts of food meant larger populations Between A.D. 1000 & 1150, the population of western Europe rose from 30 million to 42 million As the population increased, people left the countryside to settle in towns
  7. 7. Creation of a MiddleClass..cont Manorialism: The organized structure of rural economy in the Middle Ages Serfs: Peasants legally bound to the land
  8. 8. Creation of the MiddleClass..cont Burghers: Term for people who lived in towns during the High Middle Ages Burgh: Term for a walled town Bourgeoisie: French term for those who lived in a town
  9. 9. Creation of Middle Class..cont Role of Jews in European Towns: 1) Business Managers 2) Money Lenders/Bankers 3) Long Distance Traders
  10. 10. Growth of Trade Major Trade Routes: 1) Mediterranean: Dominated by various Italian city-states that controlled the routes from Constantinople & the Middle East
  11. 11. Growth of Trade..cont 2)Northwestern Europe: Areas include southern England, northern France, Germany, & Flanders Hanseatic League: Commercial alliance of German merchants & cities
  12. 12. The Establishment of TradeFairs Local Trade Fairs:  *Held Weekly  *Local merchants set up booths to sell & trade goods  *All needs for daily life exchanged, such as cloths, food, leather, & metals
  13. 13. Trade Fairs..cont Great Trade Fairs:  *Typically held quarterly (four times a year)  *Large in size, attracted people from across Europe & other parts  *Mostly exotic goods, such as Russian honey, Byzantine perfumes, & Spanish wine
  14. 14. Creation of New BusinessPractices Guild: Association of people who work in the same occupation Merchant Guilds: First guilds created, members controlled all aspects of trade in a town Craft Guilds: Skilled artisans
  15. 15. Why Join a Guild? 1) Enforces Quality Standards 2) Provided Insurance for its members 3) TrainingApprentice: Lived & worked with masterJourneyman: Worked for wages
  16. 16. Decline of Feudalism As towns became stronger, more and more serfs would leave the countryside to start a new life in the town At first, the feudal lords resented the upstart Burghers Charter: Written agreement between king or lord & a town that guaranteed the town & its citizens certain rights