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Reforms in the Church

Reforms in the Church

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  • Monks adeyted stricter rules. One of the first signs of reform in the Church was the founding in 910 of a new French moaastery at Cluny ). Clunv was founded by a nobleman, the Duke of Aqux^ine. Unlike many lords, the duke did not r make Cluny a source of personal wealth an ^ower. Instead, he arranged that the monastery be subject only to the pope not to any nearby lord or bishop. The abbots of Chmy held cdy to the Benedictine rule. Soon Climy's rcpucaticHi for purity inspired the founding of similar monasteries throughout western Europe. By the year 1000, there were 300 houses under Cluny's leadership. Cluny acted as a headquarters for Church reform. For many men and women/ the Benedictine rule no longer seemed strict enough for a holy life. After the year 1000, new groups of monks and nuns chose to live by even stricter rules. For example/ the members of the Cistercian (sihs-TOHR-shuhn) order/ founded in 1098, vowed to build their monasteries only in the wilderness. The Cistercians often took the lead in the great movement to clear new farmlands. Their life of hflrrlfihin wnn manv ffttlnivpr®\n
  • Monks adeyted stricter rules. One of the first signs of reform in the Church was the founding in 910 of a new French moaastery at Cluny ). Clunv was founded by a nobleman, the Duke of Aqux^ine. Unlike many lords, the duke did not r make Cluny a source of personal wealth an ^ower. Instead, he arranged that the monastery be subject only to the pope not to any nearby lord or bishop. The abbots of Chmy held cdy to the Benedictine rule. Soon Climy's rcpucaticHi for purity inspired the founding of similar monasteries throughout western Europe. By the year 1000, there were 300 houses under Cluny's leadership. Cluny acted as a headquarters for Church reform. For many men and women/ the Benedictine rule no longer seemed strict enough for a holy life. After the year 1000, new groups of monks and nuns chose to live by even stricter rules. For example/ the members of the Cistercian (sihs-TOHR-shuhn) order/ founded in 1098, vowed to build their monasteries only in the wilderness. The Cistercians often took the lead in the great movement to clear new farmlands. Their life of hflrrlfihin wnn manv ffttlnivpr®\n
  • Monks adeyted stricter rules. One of the first signs of reform in the Church was the founding in 910 of a new French moaastery at Cluny ). Clunv was founded by a nobleman, the Duke of Aqux^ine. Unlike many lords, the duke did not r make Cluny a source of personal wealth an ^ower. Instead, he arranged that the monastery be subject only to the pope not to any nearby lord or bishop. The abbots of Chmy held cdy to the Benedictine rule. Soon Climy's rcpucaticHi for purity inspired the founding of similar monasteries throughout western Europe. By the year 1000, there were 300 houses under Cluny's leadership. Cluny acted as a headquarters for Church reform. For many men and women/ the Benedictine rule no longer seemed strict enough for a holy life. After the year 1000, new groups of monks and nuns chose to live by even stricter rules. For example/ the members of the Cistercian (sihs-TOHR-shuhn) order/ founded in 1098, vowed to build their monasteries only in the wilderness. The Cistercians often took the lead in the great movement to clear new farmlands. Their life of hflrrlfihin wnn manv ffttlnivpr®\n
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  • Cistercian, byname White Monk, or Bernardine, \n\nmember of a Roman Catholic monastic order that was founded in 1098 and named after the original establishment at Cîteaux (Latin: Cistercium), a locality in Burgundy, near Dijon. The order’s founding fathers, led by St. Robert of Molesme, were a group of Benedictine monks from the abbey of Molesme who were dissatisfied with the relaxed observance of their abbey and desired to live a solitary life under the guidance of the strictest interpretation of the Rule of St. Benedict. Robert was succeeded by St. Alberic and then by St. Stephen Harding, who proved to be the real organizer of the Cistercian rule and order. The new regulations demanded severe asceticism; they rejected all feudal revenues and reintroduced manual labour for monks, making it a principal feature of their life. Communities of nuns adopting the Cistercian customs were founded as early as 1120–30, but they were excluded from the order until about 1200, when the nuns began to be directed, spiritually and materially, by the White Monks.\n\n\n\nCistercian government was based on three features: (1) uniformity—all monasteries were to observe exactly the same rules and customs; (2) general chapter meeting—the abbots of all the houses were to meet in annual general chapter at Cîteaux; (3) visitation—each daughter house was to be visited yearly by the founding abbot, who should ensure the observance of uniform discipline. The individual house preserved its internal autonomy, and the individual monk belonged for life to the house where he made his vows; the system of visitation and chapter provided external means for maintaining standards and enforcing legislation and sanctions.\n
  • Cistercian, byname White Monk, or Bernardine, \n\nmember of a Roman Catholic monastic order that was founded in 1098 and named after the original establishment at Cîteaux (Latin: Cistercium), a locality in Burgundy, near Dijon. The order’s founding fathers, led by St. Robert of Molesme, were a group of Benedictine monks from the abbey of Molesme who were dissatisfied with the relaxed observance of their abbey and desired to live a solitary life under the guidance of the strictest interpretation of the Rule of St. Benedict. Robert was succeeded by St. Alberic and then by St. Stephen Harding, who proved to be the real organizer of the Cistercian rule and order. The new regulations demanded severe asceticism; they rejected all feudal revenues and reintroduced manual labour for monks, making it a principal feature of their life. Communities of nuns adopting the Cistercian customs were founded as early as 1120–30, but they were excluded from the order until about 1200, when the nuns began to be directed, spiritually and materially, by the White Monks.\n\n\n\nCistercian government was based on three features: (1) uniformity—all monasteries were to observe exactly the same rules and customs; (2) general chapter meeting—the abbots of all the houses were to meet in annual general chapter at Cîteaux; (3) visitation—each daughter house was to be visited yearly by the founding abbot, who should ensure the observance of uniform discipline. The individual house preserved its internal autonomy, and the individual monk belonged for life to the house where he made his vows; the system of visitation and chapter provided external means for maintaining standards and enforcing legislation and sanctions.\n
  • Cistercian, byname White Monk, or Bernardine, \n\nmember of a Roman Catholic monastic order that was founded in 1098 and named after the original establishment at Cîteaux (Latin: Cistercium), a locality in Burgundy, near Dijon. The order’s founding fathers, led by St. Robert of Molesme, were a group of Benedictine monks from the abbey of Molesme who were dissatisfied with the relaxed observance of their abbey and desired to live a solitary life under the guidance of the strictest interpretation of the Rule of St. Benedict. Robert was succeeded by St. Alberic and then by St. Stephen Harding, who proved to be the real organizer of the Cistercian rule and order. The new regulations demanded severe asceticism; they rejected all feudal revenues and reintroduced manual labour for monks, making it a principal feature of their life. Communities of nuns adopting the Cistercian customs were founded as early as 1120–30, but they were excluded from the order until about 1200, when the nuns began to be directed, spiritually and materially, by the White Monks.\n\n\n\nCistercian government was based on three features: (1) uniformity—all monasteries were to observe exactly the same rules and customs; (2) general chapter meeting—the abbots of all the houses were to meet in annual general chapter at Cîteaux; (3) visitation—each daughter house was to be visited yearly by the founding abbot, who should ensure the observance of uniform discipline. The individual house preserved its internal autonomy, and the individual monk belonged for life to the house where he made his vows; the system of visitation and chapter provided external means for maintaining standards and enforcing legislation and sanctions.\n
  • cardinal, \n\na member of the Sacred College of Cardinals, whose duties include electing the pope, acting as his principal counselors, and aiding in the government of the Roman Catholic church throughout the world. Cardinals serve as chief officials of the Roman Curia (the papal bureaucracy), as bishops of major dioceses, and often as papal envoys. They wear distinctive red attire, are addressed as “Eminence,” and are known as princes of the church.\n\n\n\n
  • cardinal, \n\na member of the Sacred College of Cardinals, whose duties include electing the pope, acting as his principal counselors, and aiding in the government of the Roman Catholic church throughout the world. Cardinals serve as chief officials of the Roman Curia (the papal bureaucracy), as bishops of major dioceses, and often as papal envoys. They wear distinctive red attire, are addressed as “Eminence,” and are known as princes of the church.\n\n\n\n
  • cardinal, \n\na member of the Sacred College of Cardinals, whose duties include electing the pope, acting as his principal counselors, and aiding in the government of the Roman Catholic church throughout the world. Cardinals serve as chief officials of the Roman Curia (the papal bureaucracy), as bishops of major dioceses, and often as papal envoys. They wear distinctive red attire, are addressed as “Eminence,” and are known as princes of the church.\n\n\n\n
  • simony,  buying or selling of something spiritual or closely connected with the spiritual. More widely, it is any contract of this kind forbidden by divine or ecclesiastical law. The name is taken from Simon Magus (Acts 8:18), who endeavoured to buy from the Apostles the power of conferring the gifts of the Holy Spirit.\n\nSimony, in the form of buying holy orders, or church offices, was virtually unknown in the first three centuries of the Christian church, but it became familiar when the church had positions of wealth and influence to bestow. The first legislation on the point was the second canon of the Council of Chalcedon (451). From that time prohibitions and penalties were reiterated against buying or selling promotions to the episcopate, priesthood, and diaconate. Later, the offense of simony was extended to include all traffic in benefices and all pecuniary transactions on masses (apart from the authorized offering), blessed oils, and other consecrated objects.\n\nFrom an occasional scandal, simony became widespread in Europe in the 9th and 10th centuries. Pope Gregory VII (1073–85) rigorously attacked the problem, and the practice again became occasional rather than normal. After the 16th century, it gradually disappeared in its most flagrant forms with the disendowment and secularization of church property.\n
  • simony,  buying or selling of something spiritual or closely connected with the spiritual. More widely, it is any contract of this kind forbidden by divine or ecclesiastical law. The name is taken from Simon Magus (Acts 8:18), who endeavoured to buy from the Apostles the power of conferring the gifts of the Holy Spirit.\n\nSimony, in the form of buying holy orders, or church offices, was virtually unknown in the first three centuries of the Christian church, but it became familiar when the church had positions of wealth and influence to bestow. The first legislation on the point was the second canon of the Council of Chalcedon (451). From that time prohibitions and penalties were reiterated against buying or selling promotions to the episcopate, priesthood, and diaconate. Later, the offense of simony was extended to include all traffic in benefices and all pecuniary transactions on masses (apart from the authorized offering), blessed oils, and other consecrated objects.\n\nFrom an occasional scandal, simony became widespread in Europe in the 9th and 10th centuries. Pope Gregory VII (1073–85) rigorously attacked the problem, and the practice again became occasional rather than normal. After the 16th century, it gradually disappeared in its most flagrant forms with the disendowment and secularization of church property.\n
  • simony,  buying or selling of something spiritual or closely connected with the spiritual. More widely, it is any contract of this kind forbidden by divine or ecclesiastical law. The name is taken from Simon Magus (Acts 8:18), who endeavoured to buy from the Apostles the power of conferring the gifts of the Holy Spirit.\n\nSimony, in the form of buying holy orders, or church offices, was virtually unknown in the first three centuries of the Christian church, but it became familiar when the church had positions of wealth and influence to bestow. The first legislation on the point was the second canon of the Council of Chalcedon (451). From that time prohibitions and penalties were reiterated against buying or selling promotions to the episcopate, priesthood, and diaconate. Later, the offense of simony was extended to include all traffic in benefices and all pecuniary transactions on masses (apart from the authorized offering), blessed oils, and other consecrated objects.\n\nFrom an occasional scandal, simony became widespread in Europe in the 9th and 10th centuries. Pope Gregory VII (1073–85) rigorously attacked the problem, and the practice again became occasional rather than normal. After the 16th century, it gradually disappeared in its most flagrant forms with the disendowment and secularization of church property.\n
  • simony,  buying or selling of something spiritual or closely connected with the spiritual. More widely, it is any contract of this kind forbidden by divine or ecclesiastical law. The name is taken from Simon Magus (Acts 8:18), who endeavoured to buy from the Apostles the power of conferring the gifts of the Holy Spirit.\n\nSimony, in the form of buying holy orders, or church offices, was virtually unknown in the first three centuries of the Christian church, but it became familiar when the church had positions of wealth and influence to bestow. The first legislation on the point was the second canon of the Council of Chalcedon (451). From that time prohibitions and penalties were reiterated against buying or selling promotions to the episcopate, priesthood, and diaconate. Later, the offense of simony was extended to include all traffic in benefices and all pecuniary transactions on masses (apart from the authorized offering), blessed oils, and other consecrated objects.\n\nFrom an occasional scandal, simony became widespread in Europe in the 9th and 10th centuries. Pope Gregory VII (1073–85) rigorously attacked the problem, and the practice again became occasional rather than normal. After the 16th century, it gradually disappeared in its most flagrant forms with the disendowment and secularization of church property.\n
  • Gregory VII eventually banned completely the investiture of ecclesiastics by all laymen, including kings. The prohibition was first promulgated in September 1077 in France by the papal legate Hugh of Die at the Council of Autun. At a council in Rome in November 1078 Gregory himself announced that clerics were not to accept lay investiture and extended and formalized the prohibition in March 1080. The renunciation of this customary prerogative was problematic for all rulers but especially for Henry IV. He now found himself opposed by an alliance of papal supporters and German princes bent on his removal from office. Civil war resulted, along with the princes’ election of an antiking, Rudolf of Rheinfelden, and Henry’s elevation of the antipope Clement III. Gregory was driven from Rome and\ndied in exile in Salerno under the protection of his Norman vassal Robert Guiscard.\n
  • Gregory VII eventually banned completely the investiture of ecclesiastics by all laymen, including kings. The prohibition was first promulgated in September 1077 in France by the papal legate Hugh of Die at the Council of Autun. At a council in Rome in November 1078 Gregory himself announced that clerics were not to accept lay investiture and extended and formalized the prohibition in March 1080. The renunciation of this customary prerogative was problematic for all rulers but especially for Henry IV. He now found himself opposed by an alliance of papal supporters and German princes bent on his removal from office. Civil war resulted, along with the princes’ election of an antiking, Rudolf of Rheinfelden, and Henry’s elevation of the antipope Clement III. Gregory was driven from Rome and\ndied in exile in Salerno under the protection of his Norman vassal Robert Guiscard.\n
  • Gregory VII eventually banned completely the investiture of ecclesiastics by all laymen, including kings. The prohibition was first promulgated in September 1077 in France by the papal legate Hugh of Die at the Council of Autun. At a council in Rome in November 1078 Gregory himself announced that clerics were not to accept lay investiture and extended and formalized the prohibition in March 1080. The renunciation of this customary prerogative was problematic for all rulers but especially for Henry IV. He now found himself opposed by an alliance of papal supporters and German princes bent on his removal from office. Civil war resulted, along with the princes’ election of an antiking, Rudolf of Rheinfelden, and Henry’s elevation of the antipope Clement III. Gregory was driven from Rome and\ndied in exile in Salerno under the protection of his Norman vassal Robert Guiscard.\n
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  • Concordat of Worms, \n\ncompromise arranged in 1122 between Pope Calixtus II (1119–24) and the Holy Roman emperor Henry V (reigned 1106–25) settling the Investiture Controversy, a struggle between the empire and the papacy over the control of church offices. It had arisen between Emperor Henry IV (1056–1106) and Pope Gregory VII (1073–85). The concordat marked the end of the first phase of the conflict between these two powers. A similar conflict, between the papacy and the king of England, had been composed in 1107; that settlement provided the basis for the Concordat of Worms, which made a clear distinction between the spiritual side of a prelate’s office and his position as a landed magnate and vassal of the crown. Bishops and abbots were to be chosen by the clergy, but the emperor was authorized to decide contested elections. The man chosen was first to be invested with the regalia, or powers, privileges, and lands pertaining to his office as vassal, for which he did homage to the emperor, and then with the spiritualia, or ecclesiastical powers and lands, symbolized by the staff and ring, which he acquired by his consecration and from his ecclesiastical superior, who represented the authority of the church.\n
  • Concordat of Worms, \n\ncompromise arranged in 1122 between Pope Calixtus II (1119–24) and the Holy Roman emperor Henry V (reigned 1106–25) settling the Investiture Controversy, a struggle between the empire and the papacy over the control of church offices. It had arisen between Emperor Henry IV (1056–1106) and Pope Gregory VII (1073–85). The concordat marked the end of the first phase of the conflict between these two powers. A similar conflict, between the papacy and the king of England, had been composed in 1107; that settlement provided the basis for the Concordat of Worms, which made a clear distinction between the spiritual side of a prelate’s office and his position as a landed magnate and vassal of the crown. Bishops and abbots were to be chosen by the clergy, but the emperor was authorized to decide contested elections. The man chosen was first to be invested with the regalia, or powers, privileges, and lands pertaining to his office as vassal, for which he did homage to the emperor, and then with the spiritualia, or ecclesiastical powers and lands, symbolized by the staff and ring, which he acquired by his consecration and from his ecclesiastical superior, who represented the authority of the church.\n
  • interdict,  in Roman and civil law, a remedy granted by a magistrate on the sole basis of his authority, against a breach of civil law for which there is no stipulated remedy. Interdicts can be provisionary (opening the way for further action) or final.\n\nAn exhibitory interdict, which usually involves rights over things, is an order requiring that a person or thing be produced. A restorative interdict is an order requiring someone to restore something taken away, undo something that has been done, or end a specific type of interference with a right.\n\nIn medieval canon law, an interdict involves the withholding of certain sacraments and clerical offices from certain persons and even territories, usually to enforce some type of obedience. The power to impose interdict on states or dioceses belongs to the pope and general councils of the church, but individual parishes, groups, or persons may be placed under interdict by local bishops. Interdicts were frequently used, either actually or as a threat, against recalcitrant monarchs throughout the Middle Ages.\n\n\nto acheive his political ends, Innocent used hte pirtiual wapons at his command. His favorite was the interdict. An interdict forbis priests from gibing sacraments of the churhc to a prticular group of people. the goal was to cuase the peopel under interdiction whoe were deprived of the comforts of releigion . to exert pressure agoinst their ruler. with an interdict. Innocent the 3rd forced the king of france, philip Augustuts to take back his wife after phillip had tried to have his marriage annulled. \n
  • interdict,  in Roman and civil law, a remedy granted by a magistrate on the sole basis of his authority, against a breach of civil law for which there is no stipulated remedy. Interdicts can be provisionary (opening the way for further action) or final.\n\nAn exhibitory interdict, which usually involves rights over things, is an order requiring that a person or thing be produced. A restorative interdict is an order requiring someone to restore something taken away, undo something that has been done, or end a specific type of interference with a right.\n\nIn medieval canon law, an interdict involves the withholding of certain sacraments and clerical offices from certain persons and even territories, usually to enforce some type of obedience. The power to impose interdict on states or dioceses belongs to the pope and general councils of the church, but individual parishes, groups, or persons may be placed under interdict by local bishops. Interdicts were frequently used, either actually or as a threat, against recalcitrant monarchs throughout the Middle Ages.\n\n\nto acheive his political ends, Innocent used hte pirtiual wapons at his command. His favorite was the interdict. An interdict forbis priests from gibing sacraments of the churhc to a prticular group of people. the goal was to cuase the peopel under interdiction whoe were deprived of the comforts of releigion . to exert pressure agoinst their ruler. with an interdict. Innocent the 3rd forced the king of france, philip Augustuts to take back his wife after phillip had tried to have his marriage annulled. \n
  • interdict,  in Roman and civil law, a remedy granted by a magistrate on the sole basis of his authority, against a breach of civil law for which there is no stipulated remedy. Interdicts can be provisionary (opening the way for further action) or final.\n\nAn exhibitory interdict, which usually involves rights over things, is an order requiring that a person or thing be produced. A restorative interdict is an order requiring someone to restore something taken away, undo something that has been done, or end a specific type of interference with a right.\n\nIn medieval canon law, an interdict involves the withholding of certain sacraments and clerical offices from certain persons and even territories, usually to enforce some type of obedience. The power to impose interdict on states or dioceses belongs to the pope and general councils of the church, but individual parishes, groups, or persons may be placed under interdict by local bishops. Interdicts were frequently used, either actually or as a threat, against recalcitrant monarchs throughout the Middle Ages.\n\n\nto acheive his political ends, Innocent used hte pirtiual wapons at his command. His favorite was the interdict. An interdict forbis priests from gibing sacraments of the churhc to a prticular group of people. the goal was to cuase the peopel under interdiction whoe were deprived of the comforts of releigion . to exert pressure agoinst their ruler. with an interdict. Innocent the 3rd forced the king of france, philip Augustuts to take back his wife after phillip had tried to have his marriage annulled. \n
  • w, Latin jus canonicum,  body of laws made within certain Christian churches (Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, independent churches of Eastern Christianity, and the Anglican Communion) by lawful ecclesiastical authority for the government of both the whole church and parts thereof and of the behaviour and actions of individuals. In a wider sense the term includes precepts of divine law, natural or positive, incorporated in the canonical collections and codes.\n\n\nAlthough canon law is historically continuous from the early church to the present, it has, as a result of doctrinal and ecclesiastical schisms, developed differing, though often similar, patterns of codification and norms in the various churches that have incorporated it into their ecclesiastical frameworks. The canon law of the Eastern and Western churches was much the same in form until these two groups of churches separated in the Schism of 1054. In Eastern Christianity, however, because of doctrinal and nationalistic disputes during the 5th to 7th centuries, several church groups (especially non-Greek) separated themselves from the nominal head of Eastern Christianity, the patriarch of Constantinople, and developed their own bodies of canon law, often reflecting nationalistic concerns.\nCanon law in the Western churches after 1054 developed without interruption until the Reformation of the 16th century. Though other churches of the Reformation rejected the canon law of the Roman Catholic church, the Church of England retained the concept of canon law and developed its own type, which has acceptance in the churches of the Anglican Communion.\n\n\n\na custom dating back to Old Testament times and adopted by the Christian church whereby lay people contributed a 10th of their income for religious purposes, often under ecclesiastical or legal obligation. The money (or its equivalent in crops, farm stock, etc.) was used to support the clergy, maintain churches, and assist the poor. Tithing was also a prime source of subsidy for the construction of many magnificent cathedrals in Europe.\n\n\nDespite serious resistance, tithing became obligatory as Christianity spread across Europe. It was enjoined by ecclesiastical law from the 6th century and enforced in Europe by secular law from the 8th century. In England in the 10th century, payment was made obligatory under ecclesiastical penalties by Edmund I and under temporal penalties by Edgar. In the 14th century Pope Gregory VII, in an effort to control abuses, outlawed lay ownership of tithes.\n\n
  • w, Latin jus canonicum,  body of laws made within certain Christian churches (Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, independent churches of Eastern Christianity, and the Anglican Communion) by lawful ecclesiastical authority for the government of both the whole church and parts thereof and of the behaviour and actions of individuals. In a wider sense the term includes precepts of divine law, natural or positive, incorporated in the canonical collections and codes.\n\n\nAlthough canon law is historically continuous from the early church to the present, it has, as a result of doctrinal and ecclesiastical schisms, developed differing, though often similar, patterns of codification and norms in the various churches that have incorporated it into their ecclesiastical frameworks. The canon law of the Eastern and Western churches was much the same in form until these two groups of churches separated in the Schism of 1054. In Eastern Christianity, however, because of doctrinal and nationalistic disputes during the 5th to 7th centuries, several church groups (especially non-Greek) separated themselves from the nominal head of Eastern Christianity, the patriarch of Constantinople, and developed their own bodies of canon law, often reflecting nationalistic concerns.\nCanon law in the Western churches after 1054 developed without interruption until the Reformation of the 16th century. Though other churches of the Reformation rejected the canon law of the Roman Catholic church, the Church of England retained the concept of canon law and developed its own type, which has acceptance in the churches of the Anglican Communion.\n\n\n\na custom dating back to Old Testament times and adopted by the Christian church whereby lay people contributed a 10th of their income for religious purposes, often under ecclesiastical or legal obligation. The money (or its equivalent in crops, farm stock, etc.) was used to support the clergy, maintain churches, and assist the poor. Tithing was also a prime source of subsidy for the construction of many magnificent cathedrals in Europe.\n\n\nDespite serious resistance, tithing became obligatory as Christianity spread across Europe. It was enjoined by ecclesiastical law from the 6th century and enforced in Europe by secular law from the 8th century. In England in the 10th century, payment was made obligatory under ecclesiastical penalties by Edmund I and under temporal penalties by Edgar. In the 14th century Pope Gregory VII, in an effort to control abuses, outlawed lay ownership of tithes.\n\n
  • w, Latin jus canonicum,  body of laws made within certain Christian churches (Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, independent churches of Eastern Christianity, and the Anglican Communion) by lawful ecclesiastical authority for the government of both the whole church and parts thereof and of the behaviour and actions of individuals. In a wider sense the term includes precepts of divine law, natural or positive, incorporated in the canonical collections and codes.\n\n\nAlthough canon law is historically continuous from the early church to the present, it has, as a result of doctrinal and ecclesiastical schisms, developed differing, though often similar, patterns of codification and norms in the various churches that have incorporated it into their ecclesiastical frameworks. The canon law of the Eastern and Western churches was much the same in form until these two groups of churches separated in the Schism of 1054. In Eastern Christianity, however, because of doctrinal and nationalistic disputes during the 5th to 7th centuries, several church groups (especially non-Greek) separated themselves from the nominal head of Eastern Christianity, the patriarch of Constantinople, and developed their own bodies of canon law, often reflecting nationalistic concerns.\nCanon law in the Western churches after 1054 developed without interruption until the Reformation of the 16th century. Though other churches of the Reformation rejected the canon law of the Roman Catholic church, the Church of England retained the concept of canon law and developed its own type, which has acceptance in the churches of the Anglican Communion.\n\n\n\na custom dating back to Old Testament times and adopted by the Christian church whereby lay people contributed a 10th of their income for religious purposes, often under ecclesiastical or legal obligation. The money (or its equivalent in crops, farm stock, etc.) was used to support the clergy, maintain churches, and assist the poor. Tithing was also a prime source of subsidy for the construction of many magnificent cathedrals in Europe.\n\n\nDespite serious resistance, tithing became obligatory as Christianity spread across Europe. It was enjoined by ecclesiastical law from the 6th century and enforced in Europe by secular law from the 8th century. In England in the 10th century, payment was made obligatory under ecclesiastical penalties by Edmund I and under temporal penalties by Edgar. In the 14th century Pope Gregory VII, in an effort to control abuses, outlawed lay ownership of tithes.\n\n
  • w, Latin jus canonicum,  body of laws made within certain Christian churches (Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, independent churches of Eastern Christianity, and the Anglican Communion) by lawful ecclesiastical authority for the government of both the whole church and parts thereof and of the behaviour and actions of individuals. In a wider sense the term includes precepts of divine law, natural or positive, incorporated in the canonical collections and codes.\n\n\nAlthough canon law is historically continuous from the early church to the present, it has, as a result of doctrinal and ecclesiastical schisms, developed differing, though often similar, patterns of codification and norms in the various churches that have incorporated it into their ecclesiastical frameworks. The canon law of the Eastern and Western churches was much the same in form until these two groups of churches separated in the Schism of 1054. In Eastern Christianity, however, because of doctrinal and nationalistic disputes during the 5th to 7th centuries, several church groups (especially non-Greek) separated themselves from the nominal head of Eastern Christianity, the patriarch of Constantinople, and developed their own bodies of canon law, often reflecting nationalistic concerns.\nCanon law in the Western churches after 1054 developed without interruption until the Reformation of the 16th century. Though other churches of the Reformation rejected the canon law of the Roman Catholic church, the Church of England retained the concept of canon law and developed its own type, which has acceptance in the churches of the Anglican Communion.\n\n\n\na custom dating back to Old Testament times and adopted by the Christian church whereby lay people contributed a 10th of their income for religious purposes, often under ecclesiastical or legal obligation. The money (or its equivalent in crops, farm stock, etc.) was used to support the clergy, maintain churches, and assist the poor. Tithing was also a prime source of subsidy for the construction of many magnificent cathedrals in Europe.\n\n\nDespite serious resistance, tithing became obligatory as Christianity spread across Europe. It was enjoined by ecclesiastical law from the 6th century and enforced in Europe by secular law from the 8th century. In England in the 10th century, payment was made obligatory under ecclesiastical penalties by Edmund I and under temporal penalties by Edgar. In the 14th century Pope Gregory VII, in an effort to control abuses, outlawed lay ownership of tithes.\n\n
  • inquisition, \n\na judicial procedure and later an institution that was established by the papacy and, sometimes, by secular governments to combat heresy. Derived from the Latin verb inquiro (“inquire into”), the name was applied to commissions in the 13th century and subsequently to similar structures in early modern Europe.\n\n\nIn 1184 Pope Lucius III required bishops to make a judicial inquiry, or inquisition, for heresy in their dioceses, a provision renewed by the fourth Lateran Council in 1215. Episcopal inquisitions, however, proved ineffective because of the regional nature of the bishop’s power and because not all bishops introduced inquisitions in their dioceses; the papacy gradually assumed authority over the process, though bishops never lost the right to lead inquisitions. In 1227 Pope Gregory IX appointed the first judges delegate as inquisitors for heretical depravity—many, though not all, of whom were Dominican and Franciscan friars. Papal inquisitors had authority over everyone except bishops and their officials. There was no central authority to coordinate their activities, but after 1248 or 1249, when the first handbook of inquisitorial practice was written, inquisitors adopted common procedures.\n\n\nIn 1252 Pope Innocent IV licensed inquisitors to allow obdurate heretics to be tortured by lay henchmen. It is difficult to determine how common this practice was in the 13th century, but the inquisition certainly acquiesced in the use of torture in the trial of the Knights Templar, a military-religious order, in 1307. Persecution by the inquisition also contributed to the collapse of Catharism, a dualist heresy that had great influence in southern France and northern Italy, by about 1325; although established to defeat that heresy, the inquisition was assisted by the pastoral work of the mendicant orders in its triumph over the Cathars.\n
  • inquisition, \n\na judicial procedure and later an institution that was established by the papacy and, sometimes, by secular governments to combat heresy. Derived from the Latin verb inquiro (“inquire into”), the name was applied to commissions in the 13th century and subsequently to similar structures in early modern Europe.\n\n\nIn 1184 Pope Lucius III required bishops to make a judicial inquiry, or inquisition, for heresy in their dioceses, a provision renewed by the fourth Lateran Council in 1215. Episcopal inquisitions, however, proved ineffective because of the regional nature of the bishop’s power and because not all bishops introduced inquisitions in their dioceses; the papacy gradually assumed authority over the process, though bishops never lost the right to lead inquisitions. In 1227 Pope Gregory IX appointed the first judges delegate as inquisitors for heretical depravity—many, though not all, of whom were Dominican and Franciscan friars. Papal inquisitors had authority over everyone except bishops and their officials. There was no central authority to coordinate their activities, but after 1248 or 1249, when the first handbook of inquisitorial practice was written, inquisitors adopted common procedures.\n\n\nIn 1252 Pope Innocent IV licensed inquisitors to allow obdurate heretics to be tortured by lay henchmen. It is difficult to determine how common this practice was in the 13th century, but the inquisition certainly acquiesced in the use of torture in the trial of the Knights Templar, a military-religious order, in 1307. Persecution by the inquisition also contributed to the collapse of Catharism, a dualist heresy that had great influence in southern France and northern Italy, by about 1325; although established to defeat that heresy, the inquisition was assisted by the pastoral work of the mendicant orders in its triumph over the Cathars.\n
  • inquisition, \n\na judicial procedure and later an institution that was established by the papacy and, sometimes, by secular governments to combat heresy. Derived from the Latin verb inquiro (“inquire into”), the name was applied to commissions in the 13th century and subsequently to similar structures in early modern Europe.\n\n\nIn 1184 Pope Lucius III required bishops to make a judicial inquiry, or inquisition, for heresy in their dioceses, a provision renewed by the fourth Lateran Council in 1215. Episcopal inquisitions, however, proved ineffective because of the regional nature of the bishop’s power and because not all bishops introduced inquisitions in their dioceses; the papacy gradually assumed authority over the process, though bishops never lost the right to lead inquisitions. In 1227 Pope Gregory IX appointed the first judges delegate as inquisitors for heretical depravity—many, though not all, of whom were Dominican and Franciscan friars. Papal inquisitors had authority over everyone except bishops and their officials. There was no central authority to coordinate their activities, but after 1248 or 1249, when the first handbook of inquisitorial practice was written, inquisitors adopted common procedures.\n\n\nIn 1252 Pope Innocent IV licensed inquisitors to allow obdurate heretics to be tortured by lay henchmen. It is difficult to determine how common this practice was in the 13th century, but the inquisition certainly acquiesced in the use of torture in the trial of the Knights Templar, a military-religious order, in 1307. Persecution by the inquisition also contributed to the collapse of Catharism, a dualist heresy that had great influence in southern France and northern Italy, by about 1325; although established to defeat that heresy, the inquisition was assisted by the pastoral work of the mendicant orders in its triumph over the Cathars.\n
  • friar,  (from Latin frater through French frère, “brother”), one belonging to a Roman Catholic religious order of mendicants. Formerly, friar was the title given to individual members of these orders, as Friar Laurence (in Romeo and Juliet), but this is no longer common. The 10 mendicant orders are the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians (Augustian Hermits), Carmelites, Trinitarians, Mercedarians, Servites, Minims, Hospitallers of St. John of God, and the Teutonic Order (the Austrian branch).\n
  • friar,  (from Latin frater through French frère, “brother”), one belonging to a Roman Catholic religious order of mendicants. Formerly, friar was the title given to individual members of these orders, as Friar Laurence (in Romeo and Juliet), but this is no longer common. The 10 mendicant orders are the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians (Augustian Hermits), Carmelites, Trinitarians, Mercedarians, Servites, Minims, Hospitallers of St. John of God, and the Teutonic Order (the Austrian branch).\n
  • friar,  (from Latin frater through French frère, “brother”), one belonging to a Roman Catholic religious order of mendicants. Formerly, friar was the title given to individual members of these orders, as Friar Laurence (in Romeo and Juliet), but this is no longer common. The 10 mendicant orders are the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians (Augustian Hermits), Carmelites, Trinitarians, Mercedarians, Servites, Minims, Hospitallers of St. John of God, and the Teutonic Order (the Austrian branch).\n
  • In the 1200 two new religious orders emerfed that had a strong impact on the lives of ordinary people. They were the Fanciscans and the Dominicans. \n\nThe fanciscans were founded by francis of Assisi. Francis was born to a wealthy italian merchant family in Assisi. After having been captured and imprisoned during a local war, he had a series of dramatic spritual experiences. Therse experiences led him to abandon all worldly goods and material pursuits and to live and preach in poverty, working and begging for his food. His simplicity, joyful nature, and love for others soon attracted a band of followers all of whom took bows of abosulte poverty, agreeing to reject all property and live by working and begging for food. \n\nthe dominican order was founded by a Spanish priest, Dominic de Guzman. Dominic wanted to defenx church teachings from heresy, the denial of basic chruch doctrines. the spiritual revibial of the hight middle ages had led to the emergence of heriesies within the church. Adherents of these movements were called heretics. the heretical movements became especially wiedspresd in southern france. Dopinic beleived that a new releigious ordre of men who lived in poverty and could preach effectivly would best be able to attack heresy. \n\nSaint Dominic, Spanish in full Santo Domingo De Guzmán    (born c. 1170, Caleruega, Castile—died Aug. 6, 1221, Bologna, Romagna; canonized July 3, 1234; feast day August 8), founder of the Order of Friars Preachers (Dominicans), a religious order of mendicant friars with a universal mission of preaching, a centralized organization and government, and a great emphasis on scholarship.\n\n\n\n
  • In the 1200 two new religious orders emerfed that had a strong impact on the lives of ordinary people. They were the Fanciscans and the Dominicans. \n\nThe fanciscans were founded by francis of Assisi. Francis was born to a wealthy italian merchant family in Assisi. After having been captured and imprisoned during a local war, he had a series of dramatic spritual experiences. Therse experiences led him to abandon all worldly goods and material pursuits and to live and preach in poverty, working and begging for his food. His simplicity, joyful nature, and love for others soon attracted a band of followers all of whom took bows of abosulte poverty, agreeing to reject all property and live by working and begging for food. \n\nthe dominican order was founded by a Spanish priest, Dominic de Guzman. Dominic wanted to defenx church teachings from heresy, the denial of basic chruch doctrines. the spiritual revibial of the hight middle ages had led to the emergence of heriesies within the church. Adherents of these movements were called heretics. the heretical movements became especially wiedspresd in southern france. Dopinic beleived that a new releigious ordre of men who lived in poverty and could preach effectivly would best be able to attack heresy. \n\nSaint Dominic, Spanish in full Santo Domingo De Guzmán    (born c. 1170, Caleruega, Castile—died Aug. 6, 1221, Bologna, Romagna; canonized July 3, 1234; feast day August 8), founder of the Order of Friars Preachers (Dominicans), a religious order of mendicant friars with a universal mission of preaching, a centralized organization and government, and a great emphasis on scholarship.\n\n\n\n
  • In the 1200 two new religious orders emerfed that had a strong impact on the lives of ordinary people. They were the Fanciscans and the Dominicans. \n\nThe fanciscans were founded by francis of Assisi. Francis was born to a wealthy italian merchant family in Assisi. After having been captured and imprisoned during a local war, he had a series of dramatic spritual experiences. Therse experiences led him to abandon all worldly goods and material pursuits and to live and preach in poverty, working and begging for his food. His simplicity, joyful nature, and love for others soon attracted a band of followers all of whom took bows of abosulte poverty, agreeing to reject all property and live by working and begging for food. \n\nthe dominican order was founded by a Spanish priest, Dominic de Guzman. Dominic wanted to defenx church teachings from heresy, the denial of basic chruch doctrines. the spiritual revibial of the hight middle ages had led to the emergence of heriesies within the church. Adherents of these movements were called heretics. the heretical movements became especially wiedspresd in southern france. Dopinic beleived that a new releigious ordre of men who lived in poverty and could preach effectivly would best be able to attack heresy. \n\nSaint Dominic, Spanish in full Santo Domingo De Guzmán    (born c. 1170, Caleruega, Castile—died Aug. 6, 1221, Bologna, Romagna; canonized July 3, 1234; feast day August 8), founder of the Order of Friars Preachers (Dominicans), a religious order of mendicant friars with a universal mission of preaching, a centralized organization and government, and a great emphasis on scholarship.\n\n\n\n
  • In the 1200 two new religious orders emerfed that had a strong impact on the lives of ordinary people. They were the Fanciscans and the Dominicans. \n\nThe fanciscans were founded by francis of Assisi. Francis was born to a wealthy italian merchant family in Assisi. After having been captured and imprisoned during a local war, he had a series of dramatic spritual experiences. Therse experiences led him to abandon all worldly goods and material pursuits and to live and preach in poverty, working and begging for his food. His simplicity, joyful nature, and love for others soon attracted a band of followers all of whom took bows of abosulte poverty, agreeing to reject all property and live by working and begging for food. \n\nthe dominican order was founded by a Spanish priest, Dominic de Guzman. Dominic wanted to defenx church teachings from heresy, the denial of basic chruch doctrines. the spiritual revibial of the hight middle ages had led to the emergence of heriesies within the church. Adherents of these movements were called heretics. the heretical movements became especially wiedspresd in southern france. Dopinic beleived that a new releigious ordre of men who lived in poverty and could preach effectivly would best be able to attack heresy. \n\nSaint Dominic, Spanish in full Santo Domingo De Guzmán    (born c. 1170, Caleruega, Castile—died Aug. 6, 1221, Bologna, Romagna; canonized July 3, 1234; feast day August 8), founder of the Order of Friars Preachers (Dominicans), a religious order of mendicant friars with a universal mission of preaching, a centralized organization and government, and a great emphasis on scholarship.\n\n\n\n
  • In the 1200 two new religious orders emerfed that had a strong impact on the lives of ordinary people. They were the Fanciscans and the Dominicans. \n\nThe fanciscans were founded by francis of Assisi. Francis was born to a wealthy italian merchant family in Assisi. After having been captured and imprisoned during a local war, he had a series of dramatic spritual experiences. Therse experiences led him to abandon all worldly goods and material pursuits and to live and preach in poverty, working and begging for his food. His simplicity, joyful nature, and love for others soon attracted a band of followers all of whom took bows of abosulte poverty, agreeing to reject all property and live by working and begging for food. \n\nthe dominican order was founded by a Spanish priest, Dominic de Guzman. Dominic wanted to defenx church teachings from heresy, the denial of basic chruch doctrines. the spiritual revibial of the hight middle ages had led to the emergence of heriesies within the church. Adherents of these movements were called heretics. the heretical movements became especially wiedspresd in southern france. Dopinic beleived that a new releigious ordre of men who lived in poverty and could preach effectivly would best be able to attack heresy. \n\nSaint Dominic, Spanish in full Santo Domingo De Guzmán    (born c. 1170, Caleruega, Castile—died Aug. 6, 1221, Bologna, Romagna; canonized July 3, 1234; feast day August 8), founder of the Order of Friars Preachers (Dominicans), a religious order of mendicant friars with a universal mission of preaching, a centralized organization and government, and a great emphasis on scholarship.\n\n\n\n
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  • Hildegard was born of noble parents and was educated at the Benedictine cloister of Disibodenberg by Jutta, an anchorite and sister of the count of Spanheim. Hildegard was 15 years old when she began wearing the Benedictine habit and pursuing a religious life. She succeeded Jutta as prioress in 1136. Having experienced visions since she was a child, at age 43 she consulted her confessor, who in turn reported the matter to the archbishop of Mainz. A committee of theologians subsequently confirmed the authenticity of Hildegard’s visions, and a monk was appointed to help her record them in writing. The finished work, Scivias (1141–52), consists of 26 visions that are prophetic and apocalyptic in form and in their treatment of such topics as the church, the relationship between God and man, and redemption. About 1147 Hildegard left Disibodenberg with several nuns to found a new convent at Rupertsberg, where she continued to exercise the gift of prophecy and to record her visions in writing.\n\n\nA talented poet and composer, Hildegard collected 77 of her lyric poems, each with a musical setting composed by her, in Symphonia armonie celestium revelationum. Her numerous other writings include lives of saints; two treatises on medicine and natural history, reflecting a quality of scientific observation rare at that period; and extensive correspondence, in which are to be found further prophecies and allegorical treatises. She also for amusement contrived her own language. She traveled widely throughout Germany, evangelizing to large groups of people about her visions and religious insights. Though her earliest biographer proclaimed her a saint and miracles were reported during her life and at her tomb, she was never formally canonized. She is, however, listed as a saint in the Roman Martyrology and is honoured on her feast day in certain German dioceses.\n
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  • Romanesque architecture, \n\narchitecture current in Europe from about the mid-11th century to the advent of Gothic architecture. A fusion of Roman, Carolingian and Ottonian, Byzantine, and local Germanic traditions, it was a product of the great expansion of monasticism in the 10th–11th century. Larger churches were needed to accommodate the numerous monks and priests, as well as the pilgrims who came to view saints’ relics. For the sake of fire resistance, masonry vaulting began to replace timber construction. Romanesque churches characteristically incorporated semicircular arches for windows, doors, and arcades; barrel or groin vaults to support the roof of the nave; massive piers and walls, with few windows, to contain the outward thrust of the vaults; side aisles with galleries above them; a large tower over the crossing of nave and transept; and smaller towers at the church’s western end. French churches commonly expanded on the early Christian basilica plan, incorporating radiating chapels to accommodate more priests, ambulatories around the sanctuary apse for visiting pilgrims, and large transepts between the sanctuary and nave.\n
  • Romanesque architecture, \n\narchitecture current in Europe from about the mid-11th century to the advent of Gothic architecture. A fusion of Roman, Carolingian and Ottonian, Byzantine, and local Germanic traditions, it was a product of the great expansion of monasticism in the 10th–11th century. Larger churches were needed to accommodate the numerous monks and priests, as well as the pilgrims who came to view saints’ relics. For the sake of fire resistance, masonry vaulting began to replace timber construction. Romanesque churches characteristically incorporated semicircular arches for windows, doors, and arcades; barrel or groin vaults to support the roof of the nave; massive piers and walls, with few windows, to contain the outward thrust of the vaults; side aisles with galleries above them; a large tower over the crossing of nave and transept; and smaller towers at the church’s western end. French churches commonly expanded on the early Christian basilica plan, incorporating radiating chapels to accommodate more priests, ambulatories around the sanctuary apse for visiting pilgrims, and large transepts between the sanctuary and nave.\n
  • Romanesque architecture, \n\narchitecture current in Europe from about the mid-11th century to the advent of Gothic architecture. A fusion of Roman, Carolingian and Ottonian, Byzantine, and local Germanic traditions, it was a product of the great expansion of monasticism in the 10th–11th century. Larger churches were needed to accommodate the numerous monks and priests, as well as the pilgrims who came to view saints’ relics. For the sake of fire resistance, masonry vaulting began to replace timber construction. Romanesque churches characteristically incorporated semicircular arches for windows, doors, and arcades; barrel or groin vaults to support the roof of the nave; massive piers and walls, with few windows, to contain the outward thrust of the vaults; side aisles with galleries above them; a large tower over the crossing of nave and transept; and smaller towers at the church’s western end. French churches commonly expanded on the early Christian basilica plan, incorporating radiating chapels to accommodate more priests, ambulatories around the sanctuary apse for visiting pilgrims, and large transepts between the sanctuary and nave.\n
  • Romanesque architecture, \n\narchitecture current in Europe from about the mid-11th century to the advent of Gothic architecture. A fusion of Roman, Carolingian and Ottonian, Byzantine, and local Germanic traditions, it was a product of the great expansion of monasticism in the 10th–11th century. Larger churches were needed to accommodate the numerous monks and priests, as well as the pilgrims who came to view saints’ relics. For the sake of fire resistance, masonry vaulting began to replace timber construction. Romanesque churches characteristically incorporated semicircular arches for windows, doors, and arcades; barrel or groin vaults to support the roof of the nave; massive piers and walls, with few windows, to contain the outward thrust of the vaults; side aisles with galleries above them; a large tower over the crossing of nave and transept; and smaller towers at the church’s western end. French churches commonly expanded on the early Christian basilica plan, incorporating radiating chapels to accommodate more priests, ambulatories around the sanctuary apse for visiting pilgrims, and large transepts between the sanctuary and nave.\n
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  • The earliest manifestations of an interest in the medieval era were in the private domain, but by the 1820s public buildings in England were also being designed in the Gothic mode. Perhaps no example is more familiar than the new Houses of Parliament (1840), designed by Sir Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin. In that large cluster of buildings, the haphazard picturesque quality of the early revival was replaced by a more conscientious adaptation of the medieval English style. Other structures built around mid-century were within this basic pattern. Later, the desire for more elegant and sumptuous landmarks created the last flowering of the style.\n
  • The earliest manifestations of an interest in the medieval era were in the private domain, but by the 1820s public buildings in England were also being designed in the Gothic mode. Perhaps no example is more familiar than the new Houses of Parliament (1840), designed by Sir Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin. In that large cluster of buildings, the haphazard picturesque quality of the early revival was replaced by a more conscientious adaptation of the medieval English style. Other structures built around mid-century were within this basic pattern. Later, the desire for more elegant and sumptuous landmarks created the last flowering of the style.\n
  • The earliest manifestations of an interest in the medieval era were in the private domain, but by the 1820s public buildings in England were also being designed in the Gothic mode. Perhaps no example is more familiar than the new Houses of Parliament (1840), designed by Sir Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin. In that large cluster of buildings, the haphazard picturesque quality of the early revival was replaced by a more conscientious adaptation of the medieval English style. Other structures built around mid-century were within this basic pattern. Later, the desire for more elegant and sumptuous landmarks created the last flowering of the style.\n
  • The earliest manifestations of an interest in the medieval era were in the private domain, but by the 1820s public buildings in England were also being designed in the Gothic mode. Perhaps no example is more familiar than the new Houses of Parliament (1840), designed by Sir Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin. In that large cluster of buildings, the haphazard picturesque quality of the early revival was replaced by a more conscientious adaptation of the medieval English style. Other structures built around mid-century were within this basic pattern. Later, the desire for more elegant and sumptuous landmarks created the last flowering of the style.\n
  • First, to build a groin vault, a form must be made to pour or lay the entire vault, and this requires complex scaffolding from the ground up; second, the groin vault must be more or less square, and a single vault cannot span extended rectangular areas. The rib vault provided a skeleton of arches or ribs along the sides of the area and crossing it diagonally; on these the masonry of the vault could be laid; a simple centring sufficed for the ribs. To cover the rectangular areas, the medieval mason used pointed arches, which, unlike round arches, can be raised as high over a short span as over a long one. Thus, the vault could be composed of the intersection of two vaults of different widths but the same height.\n
  • First, to build a groin vault, a form must be made to pour or lay the entire vault, and this requires complex scaffolding from the ground up; second, the groin vault must be more or less square, and a single vault cannot span extended rectangular areas. The rib vault provided a skeleton of arches or ribs along the sides of the area and crossing it diagonally; on these the masonry of the vault could be laid; a simple centring sufficed for the ribs. To cover the rectangular areas, the medieval mason used pointed arches, which, unlike round arches, can be raised as high over a short span as over a long one. Thus, the vault could be composed of the intersection of two vaults of different widths but the same height.\n
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  • flying buttress, \n\nMasonry structure typically consisting of an inclined bar carried on a half arch that extends (“flies”) from the upper part of a wall to a pier some distance away and carries the thrust of a roof or vault. A pinnacle (vertical ornament of pyramidal or conical shape) often crowns the pier, adding weight and enhancing stability. The flying buttress evolved in the Gothic era from earlier simpler, hidden supports. The design increased the supporting power of the buttress and allowed for the creation of the high-ceilinged churches typical of Gothic architecture.\n
  • flying buttress, \n\nMasonry structure typically consisting of an inclined bar carried on a half arch that extends (“flies”) from the upper part of a wall to a pier some distance away and carries the thrust of a roof or vault. A pinnacle (vertical ornament of pyramidal or conical shape) often crowns the pier, adding weight and enhancing stability. The flying buttress evolved in the Gothic era from earlier simpler, hidden supports. The design increased the supporting power of the buttress and allowed for the creation of the high-ceilinged churches typical of Gothic architecture.\n
  • flying buttress, \n\nMasonry structure typically consisting of an inclined bar carried on a half arch that extends (“flies”) from the upper part of a wall to a pier some distance away and carries the thrust of a roof or vault. A pinnacle (vertical ornament of pyramidal or conical shape) often crowns the pier, adding weight and enhancing stability. The flying buttress evolved in the Gothic era from earlier simpler, hidden supports. The design increased the supporting power of the buttress and allowed for the creation of the high-ceilinged churches typical of Gothic architecture.\n
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Age of faith Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 10: Europe in theMiddle Ages: A.D. 1000-1500 Reforms in the Age of Faith
  • 2. Religious Reforms
  • 3. Religious Reforms!During the Early Middle Ages, the Church had acted as the preserver of civilization in western Europe
  • 4. Religious Reforms!During the Early Middle Ages, the Church had acted as the preserver of civilization in western Europe!However, the Viking raids had plundered many monasteries, thus a decline in education
  • 5. Religious Reforms!During the Early Middle Ages, the Church had acted as the preserver of civilization in western Europe!However, the Viking raids had plundered many monasteries, thus a decline in education!The Church also became a part of the feudal system & many officials became wealthy land owners
  • 6. Religious Reforms..cont
  • 7. Religious Reforms..cont! One of the first aspects of the Christian Church that underwent change was in the monasteries
  • 8. Religious Reforms..cont! One of the first aspects of the Christian Church that underwent change was in the monasteries!Cluny: Monastery founded in France by the Duke of Aquitane
  • 9. Religious Reforms..cont! One of the first aspects of the Christian Church that underwent change was in the monasteries!Cluny: Monastery founded in France by the Duke of Aquitane!Cluny, unlike many monasteries established by Cluny nobles, was subject only to the pope. acted as the headquarters
  • 10. Religious Reform..cont
  • 11. Religious Reform..cont! For some monks & nuns, the Benedictine rule no longer seemed strict enough for monastic life
  • 12. Religious Reform..cont! For some monks & nuns, the Benedictine rule no longer seemed strict enough for monastic life! By 1000 A.D., new monastic orders formed that lived by even stricter rules
  • 13. Religious Reform..cont! For some monks & nuns, the Benedictine rule no longer seemed strict enough for monastic life! By 1000 A.D., new monastic orders formed that lived by even stricter rules!Cistercians: Monastic order founded in 1098, vowed to only build their monasteries in the wilderness
  • 14. Religious Reform..cont
  • 15. Religious Reform..cont! Eventually, religious reformers hoped to purify the Church by freeing it from the control of nobles.
  • 16. Religious Reform..cont! Eventually, religious reformers hoped to purify the Church by freeing it from the control of nobles.!Cardinals: Leadingbishops who would beresponsible for choosingthe new pope
  • 17. Religious Reform..cont! Eventually, religious reformers hoped to purify the Church by freeing it from the control of nobles.!Cardinals: Leadingbishops who would beresponsible for choosingthe new pope!This took some power away from nobles and even kings & emperors
  • 18. Religious reforms..cont
  • 19. Religious reforms..cont! Reformers were also concerned with abolishing three conditions that were widespread in the Church in the Early Middle Ages
  • 20. Religious reforms..cont! Reformers were also concerned with abolishing three conditions that were widespread in the Church in the Early Middle Ages!1. The Marriage of Priests
  • 21. Religious reforms..cont! Reformers were also concerned with abolishing three conditions that were widespread in the Church in the Early Middle Ages!1. The Marriage of Priests!2. Simony: The buying & selling of Church offices
  • 22. Religious reforms..cont! Reformers were also concerned with abolishing three conditions that were widespread in the Church in the Early Middle Ages!1. The Marriage of Priests!2. Simony: The buying & selling of Church offices!3. Lay Investiture: Receiving land from a noble whose not a church official
  • 23. Religious Reform..cont
  • 24. Religious Reform..cont!Gregory VII: Became Pope in 1073
  • 25. Religious Reform..cont!Gregory VII: Became Pope in 1073!As Pope, Gregory ordered all married priests to abandon their wives & children
  • 26. Religious Reform..cont!Gregory VII: Became Pope in 1073!As Pope, Gregory ordered all married priests to abandon their wives & children!In 1075, he banned lay investiture
  • 27. Religious Reform..cont
  • 28. Religious Reform..cont!Henry IV: German king who challenged Gregory VII
  • 29. Religious Reform..cont!Henry IV: German king who challenged Gregory VII! Because of his actions, Pope Gregory VII had Henry IV excommunicated
  • 30. Religious Reform..cont!Henry IV: German king who challenged Gregory VII! Because of his actions, Pope Gregory VII had Henry IV excommunicated!Canossa: Italian town where Henry IV went to seek the Pope’s forgiveness
  • 31. Religious Reform..cont!Henry IV: German king who challenged Gregory VII! Because of his actions, Pope Gregory VII had Henry IV excommunicated!Canossa: Italian town where Henry IV went to seek the Pope’s forgiveness!This gave the Pope the upper-hand
  • 32. Religious Reform..cont
  • 33. Religious Reform..cont!Concordat of Worms: An agreement between the Church & the Holy Roman Empire that stated the Church alone would grant a bishop his office
  • 34. Religious Reform..cont!Concordat of Worms: An agreement between the Church & the Holy Roman Empire that stated the Church alone would grant a bishop his office!However, the emperor kept the power to grant the bishop lands that went with his office
  • 35. Religious Reform..cont
  • 36. Religious Reform..cont!Interdict: Stated no church ceremonies could be performed in an offending ruler’s lands
  • 37. Religious Reform..cont!Interdict: Stated no church ceremonies could be performed in an offending ruler’s lands!Curia: The Pope’s advisory staff
  • 38. Religious Reform..cont!Interdict: Stated no church ceremonies could be performed in an offending ruler’s lands!Curia: The Pope’s advisory staff!Legates: Papal diplomats who dealt with Bishops & Kings
  • 39. Religious Reform..cont
  • 40. Religious Reform..cont!Canon Law: The law of the Church
  • 41. Religious Reform..cont!Canon Law: The law of the Church!Tithe: A yearly tax the church collected from individuals. One-tenth of a person’s yearly income
  • 42. Religious Reform..cont!Canon Law: The law of the Church!Tithe: A yearly tax the church collected from individuals. One-tenth of a person’s yearly income! According to canon law, Bishops were to use at least one fourth of all tithes to care for the sick & poor
  • 43. Religious Reform..cont!Canon Law: The law of the Church!Tithe: A yearly tax the church collected from individuals. One-tenth of a person’s yearly income! According to canon law, Bishops were to use at least one fourth of all tithes to care for the sick & poor! Most hospitals & orphanages were ran by the Church
  • 44. Religious Reform..cont
  • 45. Religious Reform..cont!The Inquisition: Church organization of experts whose job was to find & judge heretics
  • 46. Religious Reform..cont!The Inquisition: Church organization of experts whose job was to find & judge heretics!A person who was suspected of heresy might be held & questioned for weeks
  • 47. Religious Reform..cont!The Inquisition: Church organization of experts whose job was to find & judge heretics!A person who was suspected of heresy might be held & questioned for weeks!Torture was a common tool in extracting a confession
  • 48. Religious Reform..cont
  • 49. Religious Reform..cont!Friars: Wandering preachers who traveled place to place to carry the Church’s ideas more widely
  • 50. Religious Reform..cont!Friars: Wandering preachers who traveled place to place to carry the Church’s ideas more widely!A major goal of the friars was to win back heretics to the Church
  • 51. Religious Reform..cont!Friars: Wandering preachers who traveled place to place to carry the Church’s ideas more widely!A major goal of the friars was to win back heretics to the Church!Like monks, friars took vows of chastity, poverty, & obedience. Unlike monks they lived among the poor in towns
  • 52. Religious Reform..cont
  • 53. Religious Reform..cont!Dominicans: The first order of friars
  • 54. Religious Reform..cont!Dominicans: The first order of friars!Named after Dominic, a Spanish-priest
  • 55. Religious Reform..cont!Dominicans: The first order of friars!Named after Dominic, a Spanish-priest!The Dominicans emphasized learning
  • 56. Religious Reform..cont!Dominicans: The first order of friars!Named after Dominic, a Spanish-priest!The Dominicans emphasized learning!Franciscans: Second largest friar order
  • 57. Religious Reform..cont!Dominicans: The first order of friars!Named after Dominic, a Spanish-priest!The Dominicans emphasized learning!Franciscans: Second largest friar order!Francis of Assisi: Founded the order
  • 58. Religious Reforms..cont!Hildegard of Bingin:German Abbess who isconsidered one of theimportant scholars ofthe Catholic Church
  • 59. Religious Reform
  • 60. Religious Reform!While the friars lived in poverty, evidence of the Church’s wealth could be seen everywhere during the High Middle Ages
  • 61. Religious Reform!While the friars lived in poverty, evidence of the Church’s wealth could be seen everywhere during the High Middle Ages!Massive churches were being built to showcase the wealth & stature of the Church in Europe
  • 62. Religious Reform!While the friars lived in poverty, evidence of the Church’s wealth could be seen everywhere during the High Middle Ages!Massive churches were being built to showcase the wealth & stature of the Church in Europe!Two main style of architecture began to emerge
  • 63. Religious Reform..cont
  • 64. Religious Reform..cont!Romanesque: The first major architecture style in which churches & cathedrals were being built in
  • 65. Religious Reform..cont!Romanesque: The first major architecture style in which churches & cathedrals were being built in! There was an emphasis placed on arches
  • 66. Religious Reform..cont!Romanesque: The first major architecture style in which churches & cathedrals were being built in! There was an emphasis placed on arches! A heavy roof would press down on thick walls & two rows of thick pillars within the church
  • 67. Religious Reform..cont!Romanesque: The first major architecture style in which churches & cathedrals were being built in! There was an emphasis placed on arches! A heavy roof would press down on thick walls & two rows of thick pillars within the church! Walls were painted in brilliant colors
  • 68. Religious Reforms..cont
  • 69. Religious Reforms..cont!Gothic: Style ofarchitecture developedby Suger
  • 70. Religious Reforms..cont!Gothic: Style ofarchitecture developedby Suger!Suger wanted the design of the church to extend upward
  • 71. Religious Reforms..cont!Gothic: Style ofarchitecture developedby Suger!Suger wanted the design of the church to extend upward!He wanted light to stream in from all sides
  • 72. Religious Reforms..cont!Gothic: Style ofarchitecture developedby Suger!Suger wanted the design of the church to extend upward!He wanted light to stream in from all sides!This style was much more difficult to build
  • 73. 3 Main Features of a Gothic Church
  • 74. 3 Main Features of a Gothic Church1. Pointed, ribbed vaults: Narrow bands of stone that ran from the roof to the columns below & helped support the roof’s weight
  • 75. 3 Main Features of a Gothic Church1. Pointed, ribbed vaults: Narrow bands of stone that ran from the roof to the columns below & helped support the roof’s weight! The sections of walls between the pillars carried no weight & became frames for huge stained-glass windows
  • 76. Religious Reform…cont
  • 77. Religious Reform…cont!2. Flying Buttresses:Stone roofs pushed outward & downwardfrom the building
  • 78. Religious Reform…cont!2. Flying Buttresses: Stone roofs pushed outward & downward from the building!These braces were beautifully carved
  • 79. Religious Reform…cont!2. Flying Buttresses: Stone roofs pushed outward & downward from the building!These braces were beautifully carved!These braces slanted up against the outside walls of the church or cathedral
  • 80. Religious Reform..cont!3. Pointed Arches: To emphasize the height of a Gothic church, all arches rose to points!The highest arch was the vaulted ceiling where all lines joined as pointing to heaven