This introduction summarize the lesson plan for the semester
The objectives is for the student to learn how to performance a pain assessment, recognize the different pain scale and comprehend the difference in culture.
It is essential that the student had completed the physical assessment clinical practice to be able to efficiently make a pain assessment. The materials are needed as part of the clinical.
Nursing is a holistic approach to assess the patient has a whole.
Identifying the roots of the pain and identify that there are many components that influence pain will help give manage the pain.
Cultural awareness is the first step to cultural competence and the bridge to learning about other people (Billings & Halstead, 2009). Understanding cultural diversity and how pain is define will help the students performance an accurate pain assessment.
Cultural differences must be considered when planning care for the patient in pain. People from various cultures have different ways of expressing pain.
The role playing process provide the students with a live sample of human behavior that serves as a vehicle for them to explore their feelings, gain an insight into their perception and develop their problem solving skills (Billings & Halstead, 2009). The use of video tape can be used to develop real-life scenarios for students to analyze and discuss ( Oermann & Gaberson, 2009).
Pain scales are tools that will guide the nurse to assess the pain level by given the pain a number for severity for those individuals with literacy deficit.
Pain rating scales charts are visual aids to assist with pain assessment
Pain is whatever the experiencing person says it is and they experiencing different that anyone else.
The use of video to review physical examination as part of the pain assessment lesson.
Scenario will assist students to develop their critical thinking skills in resolving problem
The pain assessment tool is an easy way to obtain information from the patient about their pain history. The diagram of the human body will be projected in the wall for easy visualization and to allow group discussion.
The use of technology in the classroom facilitate the teaching and assessing higher level cognitive skills (Oermann & Gaberson, 2009).
Debate provides the students with the ability to analyze the problem , consider alternative viewpoints and allow the instructor to assess the student’s critical thinking skills ( Oermann & Gaberson, 2009)
Pain Assessment Joanne Fears
Content Introduction Pain Assessment Objectives Prerequisites and Materials for the Lesson Overview of the Lesson The Importance of Pain Management Cultural Awareness Cultural Difference and Pain Exercise: Role Playing What are Pain Scales? Pain Scales and Charts Pain Assessment Tool Exercises Video: Review Physical Assessment Applying the Assessment Tool Games Nurses Feud Debate Discussion
Pain Assessment Introduction• This lesson will provide step by step guide to recognize the importance of early detection of pain in the patient and provide the intervention that will meet their needs.• Accurate assessment of your patient’s pain is the first step in developing an effective treatment plan to deal with pain. Because pain is subjective, no two patients experience pain the same way (Williams & Hopper, 2007).
Course Objectives The learner will be able to develop and implement the pain tools to enhance patient care. The learner will utilize the pain assessment tool in the clinical experience. Pain assessment tool will be evaluate by the instructor for comprehensive pain assessment skills, evaluation of modality of treatment of pain and patient outcome.
ObjectivesThe students will be able to performance a pain assessment in the patient• a) Performance and documents pain assessment• b) Uses appropriate pain scales for age/level of understanding• c) Documented patients pain goals/level of understanding• d) Recognizes cultural differences while assessing pain
Prerequisites and Materials Completion of physical assessment clinical practice Anatomy & Physiology book by Nancy Nurse 3th edition chapter 10, 12, and 14. Pocket notebook and Stethoscope
Overview of the Lesson It is important part of nursing to have developed the knowledge for physical assessment and with that knowledge be able to perform an accurate pain assessment.
The Importance of Pain Management Decision about pain management require careful assessment of the patient condition and attention to the ethical principles that influence their care (Williams & Hopper, 2007) Since pain has physiological, psychological, sociocultural, behavioral, and affective components, assessment must address each component as it relates to the patient.
Cultural Awareness According to Narayan (2012)culture also influences beliefs about how to prevent and treat illness and what constitutes good care. More specifically, it influences how each person experiences and responds to pain, including when and how to ask for treatment.
Cultural Difference and Pain Cultural differences must be considered when planning care for the patient in pain and understanding how they perceive pain (Williams & Hopper, 2007). Educating patients about pain management and giving them choices helps maintain the patient’s autonomy.
Exercise• Role playing There will be 4 groups in this role playing exercises, in each group there will be one nurse, a physician and two students will be patients. None of the patients are English speaking individuals the goals here is to obtain an accurate pain assessment. This exercise will be videotape to be discussed later in class. First group will have Mexican patients Second group will have Vietnamese patients Third group will have Pakistanis patients Fourth group will have from Calcutta The purpose of this exercise is for the students to interact with individuals of different culture and language.
What are Pain scales ? Pain scales are tool developed to assist describe the level of pain the individual is experiencing It is important to assess patient level of understanding regarding pain and use the pain scale that meet his or her needs. Without appropriate assessment, it is not possible to intervene in a way that meets the patient’s needs (Williams & Hopper, 2007).
Pain Rating Scales Charts Are you in Pain? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not Really Some pain Worst pain Exercises: With the use of Pain Rating Scale demonstrate which level of pain is appropriate for a postoperative patient and explain why? The patient is complaining of severe pain but is unable to read or write which pain scale will be appropriate in this case?
Pain Assessment Tool• The importance of using the pain assessment tool is to assess the individual experiencing pain in the way his or her are perceiving it.• Accurate assessment of pain is essential for effective treatment also it is important to use patients own description and words when taking the pain history (Williams & Hooper, 2007).
Exercises:Read the following scenario and with the help of pain assessment tools fill up the blanks.Scenario• 75 years old female wake up this morning with pain to her right quadrant radiated to her back. She describes her pain as stabbing and sharp. From 0 to 10 pain scale she categorizes the pain as a 9. She denies any exercises or physical activity that may cause her pain.
Pain Assessment ToolPatient Assessment1. Location of Pain (indicate on drawing)2. Description of Predominant Pain (in patient’s words)3. Intensity [Scale 0 (no pain) — 10 (most intense)]4. Duration and when occurs5. Precipitating Factors6. Alleviating Factors7. Accompanying SymptomsGI:CNS:Psychosocial: MoodAnxietyRelationships
ExerciseLets play a game of Nurses FeudIn this occasion the students will be divided in two groups. Group A and Group B. The question will be related to pain assessment. The question will be posted in the computer overhead.The question is:Name the top 4 question ask when assessing the patient for pain.Each group will have 15 seconds to answer the questionThe group that score is the highest will have 15 points credit to their next assignment
Debate The class will be divided in two groups to analyze the problem and find a solution The discussion questions: How to recognize to signs and symptoms of an individual experiencing pain? What are the assessment tools appropriate? What are the factors to consider?
DiscussionThe purpose of this Pain Assessment Lesson• Knowledge of how to performance a pain assessment• Be familiar with the different pain scales and the appropriate pain scales for age/level of understanding• The importance of cultural awareness cultural differences while assessing pain provide learners with the necessary tools to accurately assess pain levels in individuals
References Billings, D. & Halstead, J. (2009). Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (3rd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier Narayan, M (2010) Culture’s effects on pain assessment and management. American Journal of Nursing. April 2010 volume 110 number 4 pages 38-47 Oermann, M. & Gaberson, K. (2009). Evaluation and testing in nursing education Springer Publishing Company N.Y.
References Williams, L. S., & Hopper, P. D. (2007). Understanding Medical Surgical Nursing. F.A. Davis Co.