In its broadest sense, a curriculum may refer to all courses offered at a school.It may also refer to a defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must fulfill in order to pass a certain level of education.
The act, practice, or profession of instructing.
Is teaching in minoritylanguage really anydifferent form teaching inEnglish mainstreamclassroom?
When there is aninconsistency between thelanguage of instruction andthe availability of the of theinstructionalmaterials, educators are leftto fill the gaps.
When no guidance isprovided on how to adaptinstructional materials meantfor monolingual context tobilingual context, educatorsare left to fill the gap as well.
Teaching method is an organized, orderly, systematic and well planned procedure of providing learning materials, situations, activities and experiences to enable learners to acquire knowledge, attitudes, values and habits in skills in critical thinking, decision- making, self-direction, mechanical manipulation and bodily movement.Teaching strategy is a plan of action resulting from strategy or intended to accomplish a specific goal.
Beth, a Russian bilingual teacher, makes it abundantly clear that teaching methods are not universal.
1. Scarcity of curricular materials2. Adapting teaching methodologies to student’s need
Providing a quality education to language minority students demand moving away from a traditional transmission model of education and moving toward a
An educational philosophy is a personal statement of a teachers guiding principles about "big picture" education-related issues, such as how student learning and potential are most effectively maximized, as well as the role of educators in the classroom, school, community, and society.
Transmission Model of Education, an approach in which teachers and text serves as suppliers of knowledge while students acts as empty receptacles waiting to be filled. Formalized test are then used to measure the success of this knowledge transmission process.
Using textbooks as the main curricular source for classroom content would be acceptable within a transmission approach but unacceptable within a constructivist approach.
Constructivist or Critical approach, the curriculum cannot be so narrowly defined rather it is viewed as the entire organized environment for teaching and learning within a classroom or classroom community.
Schubert discusses curriculum more broadly in terms of that which is worthwhile to know and experience. Hidden Curriculum (what is taught implicitly rather than explicitly). Null Curriculum (what is taught by not being taught) Both hold equal weight with that
Methods are used by teachers to create learning environments and to specify the nature of the activity in which the teacher and learner will be involved during the lesson (Saskatchewan Education , 1991)
Brainstorming Writing in journals Taking field notes Conducting experiment Small and large group discussion Answering questions Modeling Demonstrations Problem solving Partner reading; and jigsawing
For systematic change to occur in manner that maximizes benefits for ELLs, it is essential to first examine the educational philosophy underlying the school or school system. As philosophy drives program model, which in turn drives curriculum and instruction, which in turn drives instructional practice(through methodologies and strategies), what is happening in a given classroom may not necessarily up to the teacher.
Educational philosophy determines program models in contexts that serve emergent bilingual students. It is important to have a program model that can support ELLs academically, linguistically, and socially. Such as model must be based on a philosophy that values the native language and the culture of the students in addition to the process of acquiring the L2 language and culture.
As we can see, bilingual educators are informed by more than linguistic and cultural concerns. We must go to the heart of the curriculum and instruction to make certain that our approach, methodologies and strategies will support our students. We suggest that both a constructivist and critical philosophy will drive the appropriate curriculum for ELLs.