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Application of modern biotechnology



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  • 1. Application of Modern Biotechnology
  • 2. Health Products Recombinant DNA technology- widely accepted since the mid 1980’s such as insulin, hepatitis vaccine, growth hormone,and interferon. Recombinant human insulin- first modern biotech drug approved and commercially released in 1982
  • 3. Health Products More than 130 biotech medications are now in the market and are for treatment or prevention of different diseases. More than 300 biotech drugs in late clinical trials concerning treatments for threatening diseases such as heart disease, cancer, hepatitis infection, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, etc
  • 4. DNA FINGERPRINTING use to identify individuals (Parent’s identification) not available as in the cases of badly burned or decomposed bodies Identifying individuals is through the unique and distinct DNA pattern of an individual
  • 5. AGRICULTURAL GM or bioengineered crops were initially grown in 1991 in China (tobacco) Soybean, cotton and corn in US in 1999 These biotech crops were grown by 8.25 million farmers in 17 countries including the Philippines
  • 6. Traits of the Dominant GM Crops herbicide tolerance (66.5 %) insect resistance (18.8) Both herbicide and insect resistance (7%) BT crop like corn and cotton have protection against pests like corn borer and the cotton bollworm
  • 7. GM Products Grown in Different Countries (Asia) Country Product China GM crops on a commercial sale (1.5 M ha of Bt cotton in 2001, 3.7 M ha in 2004) Indonesia Planted 10,000 ha of Bt cotton in 200 Philippines The commercial planting of Bt corn was approved in the Philippines in December 2002 15,000 ha of Bt corn were grown and this more than doubled to 50,000 ha in 2004
  • 8. PRODUCTS IN PIPELINE Future products of modern biotechnology include crops with better post harvest and processing qualiti More than 30% of crops are wasted on post harvest losses (insect pests, pathogens, loss of acceptability as in loss of firmness, color or texture.
  • 9. RESEARCHES Developing papaya with longer shelf life to address the problems of post harvest losses We now have transgenic fruit bearing papaya tress Have identified several transgenic papaya trees representing four different events with good horticultural traits including delayed ripening trait Ongoing physiochemical, biochemical, and molecular characterization of transgenic papaya research Ongoing Resistance to papaya ring spot virus research
  • 10. In Philippine Rice Research Institute, the researchers are field testing transgenic bacterial blight resistant rice plant. Golden rice- produce from crossing transgenic rice containing the genes synthesize Vitamin A in the grain with local elite rice varieties. It will be containing high vitamin A for those who are suffering for Vitamin A deficiency
  • 11. Assuring the Safety of Products of Modern Biotechnology
  • 12. The general public historically has resisted new technologies. The first time the tomato we know now was introduced, it was thought to be toxic and bad for the health, considering that the original tomato was so small! For a while, drinking coffee was banned in France and in England in the 17th century because it was thought to “dry up brain fluids, leading to exhaustion, impotence and paralysis.” Even lately, people were apprehensive about the health concerns of the microwave oven and the cell phone.
  • 13. 1974, a group of experts led by Nobel Laureate James D. Watson voluntarily halted experiments involving transfer of genes of dangerous toxins from one group of microorganisms to another or involving genes of tumor viral genomes. 1975, a group of experts met at Asilomar, California. This led to the establishment of guidelines for use in recombinant DNA research. This guidelines became the model for guidelines adopted by other countries.
  • 14. In the mid 1980’s, several scientists from the University of the Philippines of Los Baños and from the International Rice Research Institute worked on draft guidelines for experiments involving recombinant DNA technology. The resulting draft guidelines recommend the establishment of the National Committee on Biosafety of the Philippines (NCBP). The NCBP was created by Executive Order 430 in October 1990. The draft guidelines were subjected to nationwide consultation and were adopted as the Philippine Biosafety Guidelines in 1991.
  • 15. After 15 years, we can say now that we have a working national biosafety framework in the country. Several departments are involved in regulating the research and development (R & D) and testing of involving genetic modification or GM organisms as well as products derived from GM plants in the country . These are the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Department of Agriculture (DA), Department of Health (DOH), and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).
  • 16. The herbicide tolerance trait will allow treatment with herbicide of such crops to manage weeds without affecting these crops.