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  • 1. ATSC Intro July, 2010
  • 2. DTV World
  • 3. DTV Around the World
    • US
    • – Digital Satellite (DIRECTV/DVB)
    • – Digital Telco (MPEG-2/DVB)
    • – Digital Cable (MPEG-2/SCTE)
    • – Digital Terrestrial (ATSC)
    • Europe
    • – Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB)
    • Japan, Latin & South America
    • – Digital Satellite (DIRECTV/DVB)
    • Other countries evaluating Digital TV Systems
    February 21, 2012
  • 4. DVB
    • Digital Video Broadcasting organisation
    • Formed in September 1993
    • DVB now has more than 300 members
    • – Broadcasters
    • – Manufacturers
    • – Network operators
    • – Regulatory bodies
    • Mission : “The creation of a harmonious digital broadcast market for all service delivery media”
    • Mainly covers Europe but also promoting in U.S. and Japan
    • Competes against ATSC (U.S.) and ISDB (Japan)
    February 21, 2012
  • 5. DVB Standards
    • DVB-S (Satellite) EN 300 421
    • DVB-C (Cable) EN 300 429
    • DVB-T (Terrestrial) EN 300 744
    • DVB-CS (Satellite Master Antenna TV/SMATV) EN 300 473
    • DVB-MS (Multipoint Video Distribution Systems/MVDS) EN 300 748
    • DVB-MC (Microwave Multipoint Distribution Systems/MMDS) EN 300 749
    • DVB-SI (Service Information) EN 300 468
    • DVB-TXT (Teletext) EN 300 472
    • DVB-MHP (Multimedia Home Platform) TS 101 812
    • >75 specifications/guidelines documents FOC from ETSI (including revisions)
    • This presentation focuses on the first three standards only
    • – Specification of framing structure, channel coding and modulation for satellite, cable and terrestrial systems
    February 21, 2012
  • 6. ATSC
    • Advanced Television Systems Committee
    • Formed in September 1982
    • ATSC currently has around 200 members
    • – Broadcasters
    • – Manufacturers
    • – Network operators
    • – Regulatory bodies
    • Co-ordinates television standards among different communications media focusing on digital television, interactive systems, and broadband multimedia communications. Also developing digital television implementation strategies
    • Adopted by U.S., Canada, S. Korea, Taiwan and Argentina
    February 21, 2012
  • 7. ATSC Standards
    • ATSC Digital Television Standard ATSC Document A/53B
    • Digital Audio Compression (AC-3) Standard ATSC Document A/52A
    • Transmission Measurement and Compliance for Digital TV ATSC Document A/64A
    • Conditional Access System for Terrestrial Broadcast ATSC Document A/70
    • Modulation & Coding Requirements for DTV Apps Over Satellite ATSC Document A/80
    • Data Broadcast Standard ATSC Document A/90
    • Delivery of IP Multicast Sessions over Data Broadcast Standard ATSC Document A/92
    • Around 20 specifications/guidelines documents free of charge from ATSC (inc. revisions)
    • This presentation focuses solely on the cable television parts of standard A/53B
    • – ATSC Digital Television Standard
    February 21, 2012
  • 8. ATSC Brief Intro
  • 9. ATSC Standards February 21, 2012
  • 10. ATSC System Layers February 21, 2012
  • 11. ATSC Transmission System February 21, 2012
  • 12. ATSC Decoder February 21, 2012
  • 13. ATSC Video
    • ATSC Video
    • ATSC Video = MPEG-2 Video
    • + ATSC Constraints
    • + ATSC Extensions
    February 21, 2012
  • 14. MPEG-2 Video Decoding Process February 21, 2012
  • 15. MPEG Video Layers February 21, 2012
  • 16. MPEG Video Layers Cont’d February 21, 2012
  • 17. ATSC Video Constrains
    • Sequence Layer
    • – Video Formats as per Table 3 in ATSC Doc. A/53, Annex A
    • – Bit Rate 19.4 Mb/s
    • – VBV Buffer Size 7.99 Mbit
    • – Chroma Format 4:2:0
    • – Component Video Format
    • Picture Layer
    • – VBV Delay 0.5 sec (limits channel change delay)
    February 21, 2012
  • 18. ATSC Video Extensions
    • ATSC Video Extensions
    • Picture Layer User Data
    • – 32-bit ATSC Identifier
    • – 9600 b/s Closed Captioning Channel
    • » See Standard EIA-708, “Advanced Television Closed Captioning”, July 1997, for more information
    • – Emergency Message (8 bits)
    • – Additional User or “Opportunistic” Data
    February 21, 2012
  • 19. ATSC AC3 Audio February 21, 2012
  • 20. ATSC AC3 Receiver Options February 21, 2012
  • 21. ATSC’s advantages vs. DVB
  • 22. Key ATSC Technical Advantages February 21, 2012
  • 23. Key ATSC Technical Advantages
    • VSB transmission system
    • – For equal data rate, COFDM requires more than twice as much power as VSB to achieve equal coverage, causing much more interference into analog service, making DTV channel assignments much more difficult
    • • Relaunch of U.K. DTV service with more robust transmission scheme only delivers13.6 Mbps in a 6 MHz channel, compared to 19.4 Mbps for ATSC/VSB!
    • – VSB’s additional 2.5 dB advantage in peak-to-avg. ratio means COFDM transmitters would require much higher procurement and operation costs
    • – VSB offers better impulse noise performance than DVB-T, a crucial difference for the ability to use VHF channels
    • – VSB receiver improvements have eliminated multipath performance problems
    • Dolby AC-3 multi-channel audio
    • – Consistently better performance than MPEG Layer-II at equal bit rates
    • – AC-3 is already the de facto worldwide standard, now available as an option with DVB
    February 21, 2012
  • 24. ATSC Technical Advantages
    • Key ATSC Technical Advantages
    • 8-VSB
    February 21, 2012
  • 25. 8-VSB vs. COFDM
    • 8-VSB is susceptible to multipath
    • COFDM is susceptible to noise and impulse noise
    February 21, 2012
  • 26. 8-VSB vs. COFDM
    • Conclusions
    • UK DTT
    • – Quality outdoor antenna
    • – Quality cable
    • – Increase power
    • – Reduce bit rate
    • US HDTV
    • – Quality indoor antenna
    February 21, 2012
  • 27. 8-VSB vs. COFDM
    • WHICH IS EASIER?
    • To combat noise
    • – Professional install
    • – Outdoor antenna
    • – Quality cable
    • – Allow margin for impulse noise
    • To combat multipath
    • – Self install
    • – Indoor antenna
    • Bundle antenna with receiver for plug and play
    February 21, 2012
  • 28. 8-VSB vs. COFDM
    • WHICH IS EASIER?
    • To combat noise
    • – Professional install
    • – Outdoor antenna
    • – Quality cable
    • – Allow margin for impulse noise
    • To combat multipath
    • – Self install
    • – Indoor antenna
    • Bundle antenna with receiver for plug and play
    February 21, 2012
  • 29. 8-VSB vs. COFDM
    • WHICH IS EASIER?
    • 8-VSB
    February 21, 2012
  • 30. ATSC Program and System Information Protocol ( PSIP )
  • 31. Preserves Branding February 21, 2012
  • 32. Program Annoucement February 21, 2012
  • 33. Data Service Announcement February 21, 2012
  • 34. Directed Channel Change February 21, 2012
  • 35. PSIP=A Station’s DTV Identity February 21, 2012
  • 36. Scope of PSIP February 21, 2012
  • 37. ATSC Transmission System February 21, 2012
  • 38. ATSC Decoder February 21, 2012
  • 39. PSIP Tables (A/65) February 21, 2012
  • 40. What’s required for transmission? February 21, 2012
  • 41. Table Hierarchy February 21, 2012
  • 42. Generic PSIP Table Format February 21, 2012
  • 43. Table Header and Trailer Summary February 21, 2012
  • 44. Other Table Parameters February 21, 2012
  • 45. Maximum Cycle Times February 21, 2012
  • 46. STT
    • STT : System Time Table – Provide date and time.
    • STT Format:
    February 21, 2012
  • 47. MGT
    • MGT : Master Guide Table
    • Lists key information about all other PSIP tables (except STT):
    • – version numbers
    • – table sizes
    • – PID’s
    • Allows simpler decoder designs since any change in PSIP status is flagged in this table.
    • Only the base PID (0x1FFB) needs to be monitored to detect change in PSIP status.
    February 21, 2012
  • 48. MGT example: Time T 0 February 21, 2012
  • 49. MGT example: EIT1 Changes February 21, 2012
  • 50. MGT examples: Just prior to EIT cross-over February 21, 2012
  • 51. MGT examples: Just after EIT cross-over February 21, 2012
  • 52. VCT
    • VCT : Virtual Channel Table - provides attributes for all virtual channels in the Transport Stream.
    • Contains list of channels in the Transport Stream.
    • May also include broadcaster’s analog channel and digital channels in other Transport Streams.
    • TVCT = Terrestrial VCT; CVCT = Cable VCT
    • Key info in VCT:
    • – short name
    • – major and minor channel numbers
    • – modulation mode and carrier frequency
    • – Transport Stream ID (TSID) and program number
    • – source ID, service type, access controlled and hidden flags
    • – Service Location Descriptor : contains list of PID’s for elementary streams
    February 21, 2012
  • 53. Major and Minor Channel Numbers February 21, 2012
  • 54. Major and Minor Channel Example February 21, 2012
  • 55. PAT and PMT February 21, 2012
  • 56. TSID and Program Number February 21, 2012
  • 57. Service Location Descriptor February 21, 2012
  • 58. PID and Tunning February 21, 2012
  • 59. The Program Number Myth February 21, 2012
  • 60. TVCT Example February 21, 2012
  • 61. EIT
    • EIT : Event Information Table - provides information for events on the virtual channels.
    • Each EIT spans 3 hours.
    • Start time for each EIT is constrained to be one of the following UTC times:
    • – 0:00 (midnight), 3:00, 6:00, 9:00
    • – 12:00 (noon), 15:00, 18:00, 21:00
    • EIT-0 represents the current 3 hours of programming
    • For terrestrial PSIP, first 4 EIT’s (EIT-0, -1, -2, -3), representing 12 hours, are required
    • Maximum number of EIT’s = 128 (16 days)
    February 21, 2012
  • 62. EIT examples February 21, 2012
  • 63. Source ID’s and Event ID’s February 21, 2012
  • 64. Events that span EIT Boundaries February 21, 2012
  • 65. ETT
    • ETT : Extended Text Table – provides detailed descriptions of virtual channel and events.
    • Each EIT spans 3 hours.
    February 21, 2012
  • 66. RRT
    • RRT : Rating Region Table - provides rating information for multiple geographic regions .
    • The RRT defines the rating standard for a particular geographic region and/or country :
    • – US (50 states + possessions)
    • – Canada
    • – Taiwan
    • – South Korea
    • The Content Advisory Descriptor indicates, for a given event, the ratings for any or all of the rating dimensions defined in the RRT.
    • Full implementation in the U.S. requires document EIA-766:
    • “ U.S. Region Rating Table (RRT) and Content Advisory Descriptor for Transport of Content Advisory Information Using ATSC A/65 Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP)”
    February 21, 2012
  • 67. RRT February 21, 2012
  • 68. RRT Information for U.S. February 21, 2012
  • 69. RRT Information for U.S. February 21, 2012
  • 70. RRT Information for U.S. February 21, 2012
  • 71. RRT Information for U.S. February 21, 2012
  • 72. RRT Information for U.S. February 21, 2012
  • 73. Directed Channel Change
    • A newly added feature to the ATSC PSIP standard .
    • Documented in Amendment 1 to A/65 Rev. A
    • Defines two tables at base PID (0x1FFB)
    • – Directed Channel Change Table (DCCT)
    • – Directed Channel Change Selection Code table (DCCSCT)
    • An optional capability that offers broadcasters the ability to steer viewers between linked, alternative streams of broadcast program content
    • Switch can happen automatically or interactively.
    February 21, 2012
  • 74. Program Guide Formation February 21, 2012
  • 75. Mapping PSIP Tables to TS Packets February 21, 2012
  • 76. Example PSIP packets February 21, 2012
  • 77. For more informtaion February 21, 2012
  • 78. DTV Application Software Environment (DASE)
  • 79. ATSC DASE Brief
    • DASE : D TV A pplication S oftware E nvironment, which is defined by ATSC Specification a_100_1 ~ a_100_8
    • ATSC A/100_1: DASE-1 Part 1: Introduction, Architecture, and Common Facilities . Introduces the DASE Standard, defines the DASE Architecture, and specifies Common Facilities which must be processed by both the DASE declarative application environment and the DASE procedural application environment.
    • ATSC A/100_2: DASE-1 Part 2: Declarative Applications and Environment , specifies all facilities which are specifically processed by the DASE declarative application environment
    • ATSC A/100_3: DASE-1 Part 3: Procedural Applications and Environment , specifies all facilities which are specifically processed by the DASE procedural application environment.
    • ATSC A/100-4, DASE-1 Part 4: Application Programming Interface , specifies the syntax and semantics of the DASE specific APIs exposed to DASE Procedural Applications.
    • ATSC A/100-5, DASE-1 Part 5: ZIP Archive Resource Format , specifies an archive content type supported by the common facilities.
    • ATSC A/100-6, DASE-1 Part 6: Security , specifies all facilities which relate to the common security aspects of DASE Applications and DASE Systems.
    • ATSC A/100-7, DASE-1 Part 7: Application Delivery System – ARM Binding .Specifies all facilities which relate to the binding of DASE Applications and the DASE System to the ATSC Data Application Reference Model (A/94), which, in turn, specifies an application delivery system which employs the ATSC Data Broadcast Standard (A/90).
    • ATSC A/100-8, DASE-1 Part 8: Conformance , specifies the overall conformance requirements for DASE Applications and DASE Systems.
    February 21, 2012
  • 80. DASE Content
    • DASE Content is generally organized as a collection of one or more DASE Applications, each of each of which takes the form of either a declarative application or a procedural application.
    • Declarative Applications A DASE declarative application (DA) is a DASE Application whose initial entity is the specific markup content type application/xhtml+xml. In addition to markup content, a DASE declarative application may contain stylesheet and script content as well as other content types.
    • Procedural Applications A DASE procedural application (PA) is a DASE Application whose initial entity is the specific active object content type application/javatv-xlet. In addition to active object content, a DASE procedural application may contain archive and application defined content as well as other common content types.
    February 21, 2012
  • 81. DASE System
    • DASE System The DASE System interacts with receiver platform services in order to accept input from the broadcast transport and the end-user and generate graphics and audio output for presentation on the receiver platform’s display and audio rendering systems. The receiver platform provides essential services to the DASE System such as operating system services, input/output services, and memory services.
    February 21, 2012
  • 82. DASE Sysetem con.
    • Declarative Application Environment A DASE declarative application environment (DAE) is a logical subsystem of the DASE System which processes markup, stylesheet, and script content. A key component of the declarative application environment is the declarative content decoding engine (DCDE), which takes the form of an XDML parser and a stylesheet and script interpreter.
    • Procedural Application Environment A DASE procedural application environment (PAE) is a logical subsystem of the DASE System which processes active object content. A key component of the procedural application environment is the procedural content execution engine (PCEE), which, for example, may take the form of a Java Virtual Machine.
    February 21, 2012
  • 83. DASE Architecture February 21, 2012
  • 84. DASE Architecture con.
    • The Declarative Application Environment processes declarative applications.
    • The Procedural Application Environment processes procedural applications. The Java Byte Code Interpreter (a Java Virtual Machine) serves as the Procedural Content Execution Engine and is a part of the Procedural Application Environment. Java Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) provide procedural applications with access to the receiver’s functions.
    • Common content decoders serve both procedural and declarative application needs for the decoding and presentation of common content types such as PNG, JPEG and Portable Font Resource formats.
    February 21, 2012
  • 85. DASE example: KBS February 21, 2012
  • 86. DASE example: KBS
    • Main Menu
    February 21, 2012
  • 87. DASE example: KBS
    • Team Info
    February 21, 2012
  • 88. DASE example: KBS
    • Game
    February 21, 2012
  • 89. DASE example: KBS
    • News Ticker
    February 21, 2012
  • 90. DASE example: iBlast
    • iBlast is a nationwide digital distribution network that uses the powerful transmitters of local TV stations to broadcast rich media content directly to home computers, digital set-top boxes, and other receiving devices. Digital media such as movies, movie trailers, games, music and software are broadcast wirelessly to PCs, DTV, STB etc.
    February 21, 2012
  • 91. Thank you!