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Precipitates
 

Precipitates

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solubility rules and precipitation reactions

solubility rules and precipitation reactions

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    Precipitates Precipitates Presentation Transcript

    • PRECIPITATIONREACTIONS10 Chemistry
    • Salt FamiliesSalts are produced by chemical reactions involving acids.Each acid has its own family of salts• Sulfuric acid produces sulfates• Nitric acid produces nitrates• Hydrochloric acid produces chlorides• Carbonic acid (very weak) produces carbonates.
    • ACID SALTSulfuric acid Copper sulfate Iron sulfate Zinc sulfateNitric acid Zinc nitrate Calcium nitrate Sodium nitrateHydrochloric acid Sodium chloride Iron chloride Potassium chloride
    • Solubility Rules1. All sodium compounds are soluble.2. All nitrates are soluble in water3. All chlorides and iodides are soluble except for silver chloride/iodide and lead chloride/iodide4. All sulfates are soluble except for barium sulfate and lead sulfate.5. All carbonates are insoluble except for sodium and potassium which are soluble.
    • Precipitation isthe reverse ofthe dissolvingprocess….anexample
    • A precipitation reaction
    • Lead nitrate Potassiumsolution iodide solution When the two solutions are mixed, the lead and iodide come Pb2+ I- together as a solid. - K+ NO3 - Pb2+ I The solution K+The solution containscontains NO3- potassiumlead ions and iodideand nitrate ions. Lead iodide is insolubleions. and precipitates from PotassiumLead nitrate solution. iodide is
    • Writing word equations for precipitation reactions Lead nitrate + potassium iodide-->lead iodide + potassium nitrate Swap the names around and if one of the products is insoluble a precipitate will form. The subscript (aq) means aqueous solution, the subscript (s) means a solid precipitate.Lead nitrate(aq) + potassium iodide(aq)-->lead iodide(s) + potassium nitrate(aq)
    • Use the solubility rules to predict whether there will be aprecipitate, or only soluble products.Write the word equation for each reaction: Lead nitrate Barium chloride Sodium Precipitate, Precipitate, carbonate lead carbonate barium carbonate Sodium Precipitate, No precipitate chloride lead chloride Sodium sulfate Precipitate, lead Precipitate, barium sulfate sulfate
    • Word EquationsSodium carbonate(aq) + Lead nitrate(aq)-> sodium nitrate(aq) + lead carbonate(s)Sodium chloride(aq) + Lead nitrate(aq)-> sodium nitrate(aq) + lead chloride(s)Sodium sulfate(aq) + Lead nitrate(aq)-> sodium nitrate(aq) + lead sulfate(s)Sodium carbonate(aq) + Barium chloride(aq)-> sodium chloride(aq) + Bariumcarbonate(s)Sodium chloride(aq) + Barium chloride(aq)-> sodium chloride(aq) + Bariumchloride(aq)Sodium sulfate(aq) + Barium chloride(aq)-> sodium chloride(aq) + Barium sulfate(s
    • PRACTICAL- In a test tube mix small quantities of two solutions and note whether there is a precipitate or not, and if so its colour.. Lead nitrate Barium chlorideSodiumcarbonateSodium chlorideSodium sulfate
    • PRACTICAL- In a test tube mix small quantities of two solutions and note whether there is a precipitate or not, and if so its colour.. Lead nitrate Barium chlorideSodiumcarbonateSodium chlorideSodium sulfate
    • Solubility Rules Remember?1. All sodium compounds are soluble.2. All nitrates are soluble in water3. All chlorides and iodides are soluble except for silver chloride/iodide and lead chloride/iodide (PRECIPITATE)4. All sulfates are soluble except for barium sulfate and lead sulfate (PRECIPITATE)5. All carbonates are insoluble (PRECIPITATE) except for sodium and potassium which are soluble.
    • PRACTICAL- In a test tube mix small quantities of two solutions and note whether there is a precipitate or not .. Lead nitrate Barium chlorideSodium White Whitecarbonate precipitate precipitateSodium chloride White No precipitate precipitateSodium sulfate White White precipitate precipitate
    • TEST REVISIONSTUDY!!!
    • Atoms & Ions• Write electron arrangements 20 Ca40, 20 electrons, 2,8,8,2• Know names and chemical symbols for first 20 elements.• Work out the element given, 2,8,6• Do atoms gain or lose electrons example above would gain 2 electrons• Ion formed, what is its charge,• S2-
    • Atoms and Ions• Why do atoms gain or lose electrons?• …trying to get a full outer shellSome common ions• Oxide O2-• Sulfate ion SO42-• Nitrate ion NO3-• Hydroxide ion OH-
    • Combustion• Fuel and air. You need some heat to make combustion happen. Heat to melt and form vapour, vapour that burns.• Why does the candle keep burning?• How do you put fires out?• Complete and incomplete combustion. Word equations for methane burning
    • Solubility and PrecipitatesYou will be given the solubility rules.• What is meant by a precipitation reaction?• Identify the insoluble material using the rules• Why does the precipitate form? …something insoluble is formed, it has to come out of solution.• Write a word equation.