Mini-Project #1 EdTech 513 John Uriarte Spring 2009 Multimedia and Contiguity Principles
Multimedia and Contiguity Principles Objective The objective is to instruct the viewer about multimedia and contiguity principles as they apply to multimedia. After instruction, the viewer will be able to describe and give examples of multimedia and contiguity principles.
The Multimedia Principle : Use words and graphics rather than words alone. The use of words and graphics together helps the viewer to understand the information being taught. If this image didn’t have words, then it wouldn’t be very meaningful to learner. If the learner read the words alone without the visual, then the meaning would not be as easy for the learner to understand. Image taken from Wikimedia Commons
Another Example of The Multimedia Principle A treasure map without words is useless. Words describe to the viewer what is going on. They are telling them where the treasure is located and how to find it. They sometimes only give you clues on how to find it. If you have one without the other, a treasure map wouldn’t make any sense. Image taken from http://washmethroughly.wordpress.com
Another Example of The Multimedia Principle This series of images just wouldn’t work with the images alone. They need the words to make any sense out of them, just like the words need the images. The words and the images combined improve learning. Image taken from Wikimedia Commons
An Image without the Multimedia Principle and an Image with the Multimedia Principle This image is called a decorative image which is an image that doesn’t improve learning. The image is used to decorate the page and is not used to improve learning. Soccer Ball This image has the words soccer ball under it and could be used to teach someone what a soccer ball looks like. This would be an example of the Multimedia Principle.
Contiguity Principle When you apply this definition to e-learning, it means words that correspond to a graphic should be placed next to the graphic.
Examples These two images have text directly below them that refer to the image. If this text was not next to the image, it would be harder for the viewer to learn from it. It would take the viewer longer to find the text in the paragraph, then find the image on the screen, and then relate the two together.
More About Contiguity Principle - Place printed words next to corresponding graphics/images . - If the text isn’t next to the image it is referring to, then when the e-learner scrolls down the screen, the image might not be in view. - Don’t add to the cognitive load by placing the answer to a question on a separate page. Put the answer to the question on the same page so the viewer can quickly look at both. This also holds true with links. Don’t have a link to another page that has information from the previous page so you don’t have to keep looking at two different pages. Have the information on the same page. - Place directions for an activity next to the activity itself. Example: a test or a quiz.
More examples - This flowchart has text next to the images. The flowchart would not make sense if the text was located somewhere else. - The image of the flowchart also has text located below the image describing it.
More examples Questions and answers located on two separate pages increases the cognitive load of the e-learner. Put the answer next to the question. Link to a separate page.
Assessment 1 Does this image use the multimedia principle? Why or why not? Image taken from Wikimedia Commons
Answer Yes. The image has letters corresponding to the words down below. The viewer can study this image with the words and learn form it.
Assessment 2 Does this image use the multimedia principle? Why or why not? Image taken from Wikimedia Commons
Answer No. This image has no words that go with it. This image would be considered a decorative image.
Assessment 3 Which one of these statements in not true of Contiguity Principle ? A. Place printed words next to corresponding graphics/images. B. Place directions for an activity on a separate page or link. Example: a test or a quiz. C. Don’t add to the cognitive load by placing the answer to a question on a separate page. Put the answer to the question on the same page so the viewer can quickly look at both. This also holds true with links. Don’t have a link to another page that has information from the previous page so you don’t have to keep looking at two different pages. Have the information on the same page.
Answer B. Place directions for an activity on a separate page or link. Example: a test or a quiz. (Directions should be placed on the same page . )
Assessment 4 Does this image use the multimedia principle and/or the contiguity principle? Why or why not?
Answer No. This image is decorative only. There are no words relating to the graphic, and there are no printed words next to the corresponding image. The viewer would get the same information from the paragraph without the image.
Resources - Wikipedia Commons - Microsoft Word Clip Art - http://washmethroughly.wordpress.com - http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/uriartej/default.html - Clark , R.C. and Mayer, R.E. (2003) e -Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning . Chapters 3 and 4