Bill of rights (lecture 4)

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Bill Of Rights - 4, By Prof. John T. Torres

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Bill of rights (lecture 4)

  1. 1. Bill of Rights (1987 Philippine Constitution) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I
  2. 2. Article-III, Section-6 (The Liberty of Abode & the Right to Travel) <ul><ul><li>“ The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. The right to travel shall not impaired except in the interest of national security , public safety , or public health , as may be provided by law ” </li></ul></ul>Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I
  3. 3. Article-III, Section-6 <ul><ul><li>“ Hindi dapat bawalan ang kalayaan sa paninirahan at ang pagbabago ng tirahan sa saklaw ng mga katakdaang itinatadhana ng batas maliban sa legal na utos ng hukuman.  Ni hindi dapat bawalan ang karapatan sa paglalakbay maliban kun para sa kapakanan ng kapanatagan ng bansa, kaligtasang pambayan, o kalusugang pambayan ayon sa maaaring itadhana ng batas.” </li></ul></ul>Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I <ul><li>Filipino Translation: </li></ul>
  4. 4. Article-III, Section-6 <ul><ul><li>“ Hindi dapat bawalan ang kalayaan sa paninirahan at ang pagbabago ng tirahan sa saklaw ng mga katakdaang itinatadhana ng batas maliban sa legal na utos ng hukuman.  Ni hindi dapat bawalan ang karapatan sa paglalakbay maliban kun para sa kapakanan ng kapanatagan ng bansa, kaligtasang pambayan, o kalusugang pambayan ayon sa maaaring itadhana ng batas.” </li></ul></ul>Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I <ul><li>Filipino Translation: </li></ul>
  5. 5. Article-III, Section-7 (Right to Information) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I “ The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to documents, and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development shall be afforded to the citizens, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.”
  6. 6. Article-III, Section-7 Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I <ul><li>Filipino Translation: </li></ul>“ Dapat kilalanin ang karapatan ng taong-bayan na mapagbatiran hinggil sa mga bagay-bagay na may kinalaman sa tanan.  Ang kaalaman sa mga opisyal na rekord, at sa mga dokumento at papeles tungkol sa mga opisyal na gawain, transaksyon, o pasya, gayon din sa mga datos sa pananaliksik ng pamahalaan na pinagbabatayan ng patakaran sa pagpapaunlad ay dapat ibigay sa mamamayan sa ilalim ng mga katakdaang maaaring itadhana ng batas”.
  7. 7. Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I “ Freedom of the Press and freedom of access to information bearing on governmental decision are fundamental elements of Popular Sovereignty ”. <ul><li>People have access to public records such as records of a case in court subject to reasonable rules and regulations, except when it is very clear that the purpose of examination of public record is unlawful, sheer or idle curiosity. It is not the duty of the custodians of the records to concern themselves with the motives, reasons, and objects of the person seeking access to such documents or information. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Article-III, Section-8 (The Right to Form Union) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I “ The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged.”
  9. 9. Article-III, Section-8 (The Right to Form Union) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I <ul><li>Filipino Translation: </li></ul>“ Hindi dapat hadlangan ang karapatan ng mga taong-bayan kabilang ang mga naglilingkod sa publiko at pribadong sektor na magtatag ng mga asosasyon, mga unyon, o mga kapisanan sa mga layuning hindi lalabag sa batas.”
  10. 10. Article-III, Section-8 (The Right to Form Union) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I “ Unionism is a necessity to place employees or labor sectors to the bargaining levels same as that of their employers in relation to negotiations of terms and conditions of employment. However, while employees in the public sector may form a union, they are not entitled to stage strike to press their demands to improve the terms and conditions of their employment.”
  11. 11. Article-III, Section-8 (The Right to Form Union) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I Reason: Under the constitution, no money from the National Treasury shall be spent except in accordance with appropriation by law. Improving the economic conditions of employees in the public sector requires spending of public money. Change in the terms of government employees can only be realized through law.”
  12. 12. Article-III, Section-8 (The Right to Form Union) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I Question: If a public and private company has required every employee to sign an agreement as part of his employment contract – that he will not join any labor unions, societies or associations, does this constitutes violation of Art. III, Sec. 8 of the Philippine Constitution? Answer: Yes. It is a form of unfair labor practice.
  13. 13. Article-III, Section-8 (The Right to Form Union) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I Commentary: If public employees are prohibited to go on strike, the essence of forming unions in government entities show lack of logic. It is also a clear suppression to their right for redress of grievances. Thus, it contradicts to Art. III, Section 4 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution.
  14. 14. Article-III, Section-9 (The Right to Just Compensation) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I “ Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation .” <ul><li>Filipino Translation: </li></ul>“ Ang mga pribadong ariarian ay hindi dapat kunin ukol sa gamit pambayan nang walang wastong kabayaran.”
  15. 15. Article-III, Section-9 (The Right to Just Compensation) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I This is in connection with the inherent rights of the state, specifically, the Right of Eminent Domain . Just compensation - the amount to be paid for the expropriated property shall be determined by the proper court, based on the fair market-value at the time of the taking.
  16. 16. Article-III, Section-10 (Non-Impairment Clause) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I “ No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed.” <ul><li>Filipino Translation: </li></ul>“ Hindi dapat magpatibay ng batas na sisira sa pananagutan ng mga kontrata.”
  17. 17. Article-III, Section-10 (Non-Impairment Clause) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I <ul><li>Discusses the “sanctity” of contracts and obligations; </li></ul><ul><li>Laws affecting contracts cannot be applied retroactively; </li></ul><ul><li>all contracts illegal in nature are non-binding. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Article-III, Section-10 (Non-Impairment Clause) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I Note: A contract is a meeting of minds between parties with respect to rendition of service or performance of obligation to give something, Government is prohibited from interfering with agreement of parties since it is considered as a law between the contracting parties.
  19. 19. Article-III, Section-11 (Free Access to Court) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I “ Free access to courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty.” <ul><li>Filipino Translation: </li></ul>“ Hindi dapat ipagkait sa sinumang tao ang malayang pagdulog sa mga hukuman at sa mga kalupunang mala-panghukuman at sa sapat na tulong pambatas nang dahil sa karalitaan.”
  20. 20. Article-III, Section-11 (Free Access to Court) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I Note: If the accused cannot afford to hire a lawyer to defend his case, the government shall provide one for him. He shall be assisted and represented by a public prosecutor and a counsel from the Public Attorney’s Office, respectively.
  21. 21. Article-III, Section-11 (Free Access to Court) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I <ul><li>The Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP) is giving free legal assistance to underprivileged litigants. </li></ul><ul><li>A person who, due to poverty, cannot pay docket fee in civil case may apply in court to file his case as a pauper litigant . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Article-III, Section-12 (Right of Person under Custodial Investigation) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I (1) “Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel, he must be provided with one. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel.”
  23. 23. Article-III, Section-12 (Right of Person under Custodial Investigation) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I (1) “Ang sinumang tao na na ini-imbistigahan dahil sa paglabag ay dapat magkaroon ng karapatang mapaliwanagan ng kanyang karapatang magsawalang-kibo at magkaroon ng abogadong may sapat na kakayahan at kanyang personal na pinili.  Kung hindi niya makakayanan ang paglilingkod ng abogado, kinakailangang pagkalooban siya ng isa.   Hindi maiuurong ang mga karapatang ito maliban kung nakasulat at sa harap ng abogado.”
  24. 24. Article-III, Section-12 (Right of Person under Custodial Investigation) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I (2) “No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which vitiate the free shall be used against him. Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado or other similar forms of detention are prohibited.”
  25. 25. Article-III, Section-12 (Right of Person under Custodial Investigation) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I (2) “Hindi siya dapat gamitan ng labis na pagpapahirap, pwersa, dahas, pananakot, pagbabanta, o anumang paraaan na lalabag sa kanyang malayang pagpapasya.   Ipinagbabawal ang mga lihim na kulungan, solitaryo, ingkomunikado, o iba pang katulad ng anyo ng detensyon.”
  26. 26. Article-III, Section-12 (Right of Person under Custodial Investigation) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I (3) “Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be inadmissible in evidence against him.” (3) “Hindi dapat tanggaping ebidensya laban sa kanya ang anumang pagtatapat o pag-amin na nakuha nang labag sa seksyong ito o sa seksyong labing-pito.”
  27. 27. Article-III, Section-12 (Right of Person under Custodial Investigation) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I (4) “The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as well as compensation to and rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices, and their families.”
  28. 28. Article-III, Section-12 (Right of Person under Custodial Investigation) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I (4) “Dapat magtadhana ang batas ng mga kaparusahang penal at sibil sa mga paglabag sa seksyong ito at gayundin ng bayad-pinsala at rehabilitasyon sa mga biktima ng labis na mga paghihirap o katulad ng mga nakagawian, at sa kanilang mga pamilya.”
  29. 29. Article-III, Section-12 (Right of Person under Custodial Investigation) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I <ul><li>This section stresses the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Miranda Rights/Rules; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permissible use of Police Power; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admissible confessions; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right to redress in the event of a violation of these rights. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Article-III, Section-12 (Right of Person under Custodial Investigation) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I <ul><li>Miranda Rights/Rules - provides that before a person under a custodial investigation is questioned, he must be informed of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The right to remain silent; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything he says can and will be used against him in the court; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right of a counsel and that if he cannot afford one, the government will provide for him. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Article-III, Section-13 (The Right to Bail & Against Excessive Bail) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I “ All persons, except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient securities, or be released on recognizance as may be provided by law. The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. Excessive bail shall not be required.”
  32. 32. Article-III, Section-13 (The Right to Bail & Against Excessive Bail) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I <ul><li>Filipino Translation: </li></ul>“ Ang lahat ng mga tao, maliban sa mga nahahabla sa mga paglabag na pinarurusahan ng reclusion perpetua kapag matibay ang ebidensya ng pagkakasala, bago mahatulan, ay dapat mapiyansahan ng sapat ng pyador, o maaaring palayain sa bisa ng panagot ayon sa maaaring itadhana ng batas.  Hindi dapat bawalan ang karapatan sa piyansa kahit na suspendido ang pribilehiyo ng  writ of habeas corpus .  Hindi dapat kailanganin ang malabis na piyansa.”
  33. 33. Article-III, Section-13 (The Right to Bail & Against Excessive Bail) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I Bail – is the security (usually a deposit of money) required by a court for the temporary release of a person who is in the custody of the law provided that his appearance in trials may be ensured. Excessive Bail – is prohibited because that is the same as denying the right to post bail.
  34. 34. Article-III, Section-13 (The Right to Bail & Against Excessive Bail) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I Writ of Habeas Corpus – is an order issued by a court of competent jurisdiction, directed to the person detaining another, commanding him to produce the body of the prisoner at a designated time and place and to show sufficient cause for holding in custody the individual so detained.
  35. 35. Article-III, Section-13 (The Right to Bail & Against Excessive Bail) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I <ul><li>Non-Bailable Crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Kidnapping; </li></ul><ul><li>Murder; </li></ul><ul><li>Rape; </li></ul><ul><li>Drug-Pushing; </li></ul><ul><li>Carnapping; </li></ul><ul><li>Or Crimes Under the Heinous Crime Law, Plunder Law and Dangerous Drugs Law. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Article-III, Section-14 (Rights of the Accused) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I (1) “No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved.” (1) “Hindi dapat papanagutin sa pagkakasalang kriminal ang sinumang tao nang hindi kaparaanan ng batas. Ang mga akusado ay itinuturing na inosente hangga’t hindi napapatunayan.”
  37. 37. Article-III, Section-14 (Rights of the Accused) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I ( 2) “In all criminal prosecutions, shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. However, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused provided that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is justifiable.”
  38. 38. Article-III, Section-14 (Right of the Accused) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I <ul><li>Filipino Translation: </li></ul>(2) “Ang nasasakdal ay dapat magtamasa ng karapatang magmatwid sa pamamagitan ng sarili at ng abogado, mapaliwanagan ng uri at dahilan ng sakdal laban sa kanya, magkaroon ng mabilis, walang kinikilingan, at hayagan paglitis, makaharap ang mga testigo, magkaroon ng sapilitang kaparaanan upang matiyak ang pagharap ng mga testigo sa paglilitaw ng ebidensyang para sa kanyang kapakanan.  Gayunman, matapos mabasa ang sakdal, maaring ituloy ang paglilitis kahit wala ang nasasakdal sa pasubaling marapat na naipaalam sa kanya ang paglilitis sat di-makatwiran ang kanyang kabiguang humarap.”
  39. 39. Article-III, Section-14 (Right of the Accused) Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I <ul><li>This Section Observes the Following: </li></ul><ul><li>Right to Due Process of Law in Criminal Cases; </li></ul><ul><li>Innocent Until Proven Guilty; </li></ul><ul><li>The Right to Confront One’s Accuser; and </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for Trials in Absentia. </li></ul>
  40. 40. References: Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I <ul><li>Discourses on the 1987 Philippine Constitution by Reynaldo S. Naguit; </li></ul><ul><li>Politics, Governance and Government with Philippine Constitution, Second Edition by Roman R. Dannug and Marlo B. Campanilla; </li></ul><ul><li>Revised Penal Code of the Philippines; </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court Decided Cases; </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine Criminal Law Reviewer; </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Code of the Philippines </li></ul>
  41. 41. Lecture of Mr. John Torres – Philippine Government and Constitution Social Science-I -end-

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