Km In Context


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  • In contrast to management science KM is not done and dusted by just codifying stuff
  • Km In Context

    1. 1. <ul><li>KM in context </li></ul><ul><li>Sense-making and connectedness </li></ul>John Tropea 2010
    2. 2. The art of actioning information ”… rather than an object it’s a state of being.” “ Knowledge is actioning information in a usable context , which from this experience you get understanding, which in turn becomes knowledge to you .” Andrew Gent “ Once something informs it allows for action. Knowledge, is the context by which action occurs.” Paula Thornton “… the creation of sufficient shared knowledge to enable the use of information” Dave Snowden
    3. 3. Knowledge is not a thing <ul><li>“ Whenever we wish to express what we know, we can only do so by uttering messages of one kind or another - oral, written, graphic, gestural or even through ‘body language’. Such messages do not carry ‘knowledge’, they constitute ‘information’, which a knowing mind may assimilate, understand, comprehend and incorporate into its own knowledge structures.” </li></ul><ul><li>Nancy Dixon </li></ul>“ Knowledge is profoundly social…it happens only in social interactions” Larry Prusak
    4. 4. Internalisation and re-framing <ul><li>&quot;Explicit knowledge is simply information – lacking the human context necessary to qualify it as knowledge.  </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing human knowledge is a misnomer, the most we can do is help others embed inputs as we have done so that they may approach the world as we do based on our experience.  This sharing is done on many levels, in many media, and in contexts as close to the original ones so that the experience can approximate the original.”  </li></ul>John Bordeaux “ the internalisation problem is how the represented knowledge can be re-contextualised so that it makes sense within the recipients own world view” Patrick Lambe
    5. 5. Context is the edge <ul><li>“ The new advantage is </li></ul><ul><li>context — how internal </li></ul><ul><li>and external content is </li></ul><ul><li>interpreted, combined, </li></ul><ul><li>made sense of, and </li></ul><ul><li>converted to end product . </li></ul><ul><li>Creating competitive </li></ul><ul><li>context requires social capital, </li></ul><ul><li>the ability to find, utilize and </li></ul><ul><li>combine the skills, knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>and experience of others.” </li></ul><ul><li>Valdis Krebs </li></ul>
    6. 6. Context and understanding <ul><li>“ We can always know more than we can tell, and we will always tell more than we can write down. The nature of knowledge is such that we always know, or are capable of knowing more than we have the physical time or the conceptual ability to say” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I can speak in five minutes what it will otherwise take me two weeks to get round to spend a couple of hours writing down” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A genuine request for help is not often refused unless there is literally no time or a previous history of distrust. On the other hand ask people to codify all that they know in advance of a contextual enquiry and it will be refused. Linking and connecting people is more important than storing their artefacts ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We only know what we know when we need to know it . Human knowledge is deeply contextual and requires stimulus for recall.” </li></ul><ul><li>Shared context is assumed in artefacts (codified information) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Map assumes that map users knows about muggers </li></ul>Dave Snowden
    7. 7. Say that again… <ul><li>What’s in it for me? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share in context of need, rather than stockpile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation, audience, engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context for recall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We don’t know what we know until we need to know it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need triggers, we cannot brain dump like computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context and content loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From head to mouth to paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The way we know is not the way we report it in hindsight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shared Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is often assumed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg Map maker and Map user assuming shared context that you can get mugged </li></ul></ul>Dave Snowden C ontext and intrinsic motivation
    8. 8. Knowing this… <ul><li>Why do we insist on codifying “knowledge”, when… </li></ul><ul><li>May never be needed (a just-in-case approach may be a waste of time and resources) </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of content and context </li></ul><ul><li>Is quickly outdated </li></ul><ul><li>We need to re-frame information in our context </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks motivation or incentive to share </li></ul><ul><li>Not engaging </li></ul><ul><li>Not how we naturally share and seek information </li></ul><ul><li>Information object doesn’t have intrinsic meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge doesn’t exist independent from a person </li></ul>
    9. 9. Get over it… <ul><li>&quot;Believing that knowledge is only transferred once it has been made explicit leads to mechanistic, engineering approaches to knowledge management that have not proven their worth.  Crank it out of people’s heads, churn it into a shared taxonomy or tag it somehow, and then – and only then – is it useful to others.  I would like to know the exact date that the apprentice learning model was made obsolete by advanced information technology.“ </li></ul><ul><li>John Bordeaux </li></ul>The KM branding issue
    10. 10. Context is everything <ul><li>” We learn through fragmented input and internal cognitive patterns, embedding extensive context from our environment at the time of learning.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The context within which something is learned cannot be reduced to information metadata – it is an integral part of what is learned.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The grandfather above will not conduct after-action reviews regarding his fishing experiences, write a pamphlet about fishing, and upload it to the family intranet.  Rather, he will take the boy fishing – where he will show him to tie lures, cast effectively, breathe in the experience, and hopefully learn to love what he loves“ </li></ul>John Bordeaux
    11. 11. Bigger Context & Connect <ul><li>True sharing happens when we cultivate conditions for connections and conversations . A community/network space allows people to get to “know each other” over a series of interactions. It enables people to more easily probe and clarify information they find and re-frame information into their context . These are conditions for optimal communication. </li></ul>It's important not to let gems roll into the archives. Facilitators must garden content by feeding it back into procedures, or complementary pages/lists that consist of contextual workarounds, tips, etc… Smaller Content & Collect
    12. 12. Sense-making KM… Will I search a database? Will I ask people (CoPs)? PEOPLE (Community of Practice - CoP) Quick, Referrals, Re-frame to your context, Peripheral information MACHINE (database) Not quick, Assumes shared context, May not exist, May be outdated Into procedures, as common practice, or complementary wiki pages (workarounds, informal practices) Formal answer in database Answer is new information Subscribers learn as it happens Facilitator to feedback integral new information Answer exists in CoP First ask people in the Community of Practice (CoP) Person may point: to an existing answer or a useful bit in the database, or within the CoP itself where the raw contextual information lives An answer to the question may create new information If worth capturing as a new common practice, then put that information into the database (with links back to the raw CoP content eg forum post, and vice versa) If it’s new insight into existing information, forum thread is resurrected, and then update common practice New information can even be fed back into procedures Perhaps procedures need a complementary wiki to list workarounds for different contexts Just-in-case vs Just-in-time * Also applies to social networks
    13. 13. Sense-making KM… Member to share information, lessons, experience, tips Will I share it in the CoP, as it happens? Eg Blog, wiki Asked to codify what I know into a database! MACHINE (database) Conscripted (resisted) What’s in it for me, Hoarding knowledge is power, Will it be seen or used, Time intensive, Expensive exercise, Lose context/content, Need triggers for context, Outdates quickly PEOPLE (CoP) On my own terms (engaged), Recognised, Intrinsic motivation, Sharing is power, Comment feedback (may generate new information), Subscribers learn as it happens, Have impact, Feel ownership and connected, As it happens agility, Adapt to uncertainty, Get to know people, Easy-to-use tools, Audience Capturing knowledge that matters (and creating new knowledge) as it happens; rather than stock piling knowledge just in case Facilitator to feedback integral new information Into procedures, as common practice, or complementary wiki pages (workarounds, informal practices) Promotes collaborative (engaged), rather than competitive workforce Just-in-case vs Just-in-time * Also applies to social networks
    14. 14. From management… <ul><li>Creating a knowledge sharing culture </li></ul><ul><li>A centralised approach of ideal behaviours in conscripting people to share information in databases by setting targets and rewards </li></ul>REQUIREMENT (batteries context not included) Creating conditions for relationships User-designed tools, audience, intrinsic motivation, recognition, peer network, innate desire to connect, sense-make, emergence, trust, impact, ownership (context, clarification, conversation, re-framing, understanding included) ENGAGEMENT To facilitation…
    15. 15. To be cont… <ul><li>Library clips </li></ul><ul><li>LinkedIn </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Email [email_address] </li></ul>