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  1. 1. Sarin  Rachel Johnston & Kaitlin Powers
  2. 2. Type of Poison <ul><li>- Man-made chemical similar to  organophosphates (pesticides). </li></ul><ul><li>- It s a nerve agent which means its the most toxic and rapidly acting of the known chemical warfare agents. </li></ul><ul><li>- Used in WWII </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul>
  3. 3. Level of Toxicity <ul><li>The level of poisoning depends on the  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concentration of sarin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how the person absorbed the sarin  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how long the person was exposed for </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An individual's dose = </li></ul><ul><li>(mg of sarin per cubic meter) X (minutes of exposure) </li></ul><ul><li>Dose that would produce symptoms: 1mg-min/cu.m.  </li></ul><ul><li>Incapacitation limit: 75 mg-min/cu.m. </li></ul><ul><li>Lethal limit: 100 mg-min/cu.m. </li></ul><ul><li>    Death occurs after 15 minutes at this level </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chemistry of Sarin <ul><li>-can be a liquid (pure form) or gas </li></ul><ul><li>-[ (CH 3 ) 2 CHO]CH 3 P(O)F </li></ul><ul><li>- compound of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, fluorine </li></ul><ul><li>- In the liquid state it is clear, colorless and does not have an odor.   </li></ul><ul><li>-Can also be in gas form </li></ul>
  5. 5. Other Uses <ul><ul><li>Originally developed in 1938 Nazi Germany as a pesticide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found to be 500 times more toxic than cyanide  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany began to use Sarin as a weapon. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarin and other nerve agents were used in chemical warfare during the Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Symptoms of Exposure  to Sarin <ul><li>- Runny nose </li></ul><ul><li>- Dizziness, headache or confusion </li></ul><ul><li>- Extreme sweating  </li></ul><ul><li>- Increased urination and diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>- Watery eyes, very small pupils, blurred vision/ pain of the eyes </li></ul><ul><li>- Rapid breathing or increased heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>- Muscle twitching </li></ul><ul><li>- Convulsions </li></ul><ul><li>- Loss of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>- Paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>- Respiratory failure which can lead to death </li></ul>
  7. 7. Detection <ul><li>Sarin is detected in air samples </li></ul><ul><li>Animals (i.e. rabbits) can be used to detect sarin </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  8. 8. Possible Treatments and Lasting Effects <ul><li>- People who are only slightly exposed will recover within one to two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>- Exposure to large amounts of Sarin usually leads to death </li></ul><ul><li>What to do if you are exposed to Sarin </li></ul><ul><li>1. Leave the area as soon as possible and try to get fresh air. If you are outside try and get to high ground because Sarin is more dense than air. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Remove any clothing that liquid Sarin has touched. Avoid removing clothes over your head to avoid further exposure </li></ul><ul><li>3. Wash any skin with soap and water as soon as possible </li></ul><ul><li>* Acting fast and seeking medical attention is key to survival </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sarin Attack on Tokyo <ul><li>March 20, 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Sarin was transported into subway system in liquid form, during morning rush hour, where it evaporated into the air and was inhaled by thousands </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhist sect founded by Chizuo Matsumoto, alias Shoko Asahara in 1987.   </li></ul><ul><li>8 deaths and 4,700 treated in hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Offender turns himself in 12-31-11   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Catching the Killer.. <ul><li>-Makoto Hirata, a member of Aum Shinrikyo ( a cult) turned himself in after 17 years.  </li></ul><ul><li>- 13 other cult members on death row but my be needed as witnesses now because Hirata turned himself in </li></ul><ul><li>- Hirata had been suspected for other murders but police couldn't get a good enough case against him. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul>
  11. 11. Forensic Evidence <ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 12. Resources <ul><ul><li>&quot;March 20, 1995: Gas Attack on Tokyo Subway | Video - ABC News.&quot; - Breaking News, Latest News & Top Video News - ABC News . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. <>.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;CDC | Facts About Sarin.&quot;  CDC Emergency Preparedness & Response Site . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. <   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;New York Times.&quot;  New York Times . N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. < >.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Tokyo sarin attack cult member hands himself in - Telegraph.&quot; - Telegraph online, Daily Telegraph, Sunday Telegraph - Telegraph . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. <>.   </li></ul></ul>